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Full text of "Massorah Massoreth Massoretic RabbinicHebrewBible.C.D.Ginsburg.1865.1905.4vols.plus3vols"

THE 



MASSORAH 

TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH 
WITH A CRITICAL AND EXEGETICAL COMMENTARY 



CHRISTIAN D. GINSBURa LL. D. 



BEING 



VOL. IV 



OF THE ENTIRE WORK. 



^ 






TO 

EMILIE 

WHOSE SELF-DENIAL AND SYMPATHY 
AND NEVER-FAILING HELP 
IN MY BIBLICAL LABOIJIIS 
HAVE 
FOR MORE THAN THIRTY-SIX YEARS 
BEEN OF UNSPEAKABLE COMFORT 
I DEDICATE THIS BOOK 
WITH 
A HUSBAND'S DEEPEST AFFECTION. 



PREFACE. 



The labour involved in the oritical tnd exegetioal commen- 
tary of about 12,000 Rubrics which are oompriaed in my edition 
of the Masaorah has proved far more difficult and tedious than 
I anticipated. The different MSS. of the Bible with the Massorah 
give different Lists of the same Rubric. As these Rubrics not 
infrequently are in conflict with regard to the readings of the 
passages which they respectively 8afeguaK4, it involved both a 
careful comparison of the several registers which record the same 
Rubrics and a re-coUation in each case of the sundry passages 
in the text itself in the Standard HSS. of the Bible. The re- 
collation disclosed thai the Massqrah is not homogeneous, that 
the conflicting Lists are based upon rival recensions of the text 
which obtained in the different Massoretic Schools, and that the 
vicious attempts to harmonise these differences so as to reduce 
them to one uniform standard is not only against the contents 
of the Massorah but against its testimony that many of its com- 
ponent parts have preserved genuine various readings. 

For this purpose it was necessary (1) to collate the several 
Massoretic Lists in the MS. Bibles which exhibit the earliest 
forms of this corpus with Orient. 4446 and Add. 21,161 which are 
the oldest undated Codices; the fac-simile of the St Petersburg 
Codex dated A. D. 916 edited by the erudite Professor Strack; 
Harley 5710—11; Arund. Orient 16; Add. 16,250; Add. 16,461 &c. 
as these belong to different Schools and countries far apart ^ 
(2) to compare with these MSS. the editio princep$ of Jacob b. 
Chayim's Massorah and with the small portion preserved in the 
Paris Ochlah Ve-Ochlah so ably and conscientiously edited by 
Frensdorff, as well as with the larger recension of this indepen- 
dent Treatise still in MS. in the Halle Library. 

In my endeavour to record under each Rubric whether and 
how often it occurs in the printed Massorahs of Jacob b. Chayim 
and Frensdorff, and at the same time to specify the correspon- 
ding Rubric in the principal MSS. I was obliged to restrict the 
number to seven. When, therefore, I give this number it is to 
be understood that this is my limit and that the Rubric occurs 
more times, and when I give less than this number it is because 
I have found no more. The first List is always the one which 
I have printed. I have invariably given not only the passages of 
the Bib^e on which the respective Rubrics occur, but the folios 
of the MSS. so that the student may easily compare the relation- 
ship of the different Massorahs. 

As each Rubric is independent and complete in itself, and 
as the alphabetical order of this corpus is my arrang^ement and 
is designed to facilitate reference, I was obliged not infrequently 
to repeat similar statements to avoid inconvenient cross-refereneee. 
The referencM to the numerous passages I have given in full, 
because there is not as yet a Concordance which can absolutoly 
be jrelied upon, especially in the case of combinations of particles 
and with proper names. I do not presume to imply, that the 

> Thetfl MSS. I haT« minntelj d««aibed in my Introduction to the Matto- 
rrHeo-Crilieal edilim of the Hebrenl BihU, London 1g97. 



numbers which I give are always correct but they do not affect 
my argument I have endeavoured in my explanations to avoid 
technicalities, and to be as elementary as possible, so that the 
inexperienced may understand the mystery of the Massorah. The 
expert will readily forgive this treatment for the sake of the 
uninitiated. Having translated and explained the mnemonic sign 
in letter tt, § 16 c. (p. 7), and with a view to saving space, I have 
not deemed it necessary to repeat the process in other instances 
where such a sign occurs. The typical example thus given will 
enable the student to work it out for himself. 

I cannot too emphatically repeat that the Massorah is not 
a Concordance, that the unique forms of words, the exceptional 
phrases, the peculiar combinations, &c. which it ranges together 
under the separate and independent Rubrics are designed to 
safeguard these and other readings against the variations which 
obtained in rival recensions, and some of which have survived 
in the ancient versions. The Massorah is a controversial Corpus. 
As the Massorites themselves have only very rarely indicated the 
militant design of the respective Rubrics I have tried to trace 
it in this critical explanation. Far be it from me to think that 
I have always succeeded in the thousands of Rubrics, inxh -hs ¥h 
ro»6on. 

It is due to the student to state that working at the MSS., 
many of which are partially defaced, for more than forty-five 
years and having reached the age of seventy-three years, my sight 
has been greatly impaired. When I add to this that my Wife is 
the only one who has helped me in reading the proofs, he will 
generously forgive the mistakes which have escaped our obser- 
vation. 

To my old and valued friend, William Aldis Wright of 
Trinity College, Cambridge I am practically indebted for being able 
to bring my life-work to completion. The original subscription 
for the work has not sufficed to cover the expense of printing 
the three volumes of the Hebrew originaL Nothing therefore 
remained for the English fourth volume, the printing of which 
is far more costly than its predecessors, and very few and in 
sufficient donations have been made. Under these circumstances 
I did not feel justified in proceeding vrith the work to which I 
have not only devoted the labour of my life gratuitously but 
for which I have incurred great expense. When Mr. Aldis Wright 
was made aware of this, he nobly promised to make good any 
deficiency in the cost of printing the English volume. Moreover, 
he acquired the whole of my collections of (1) the Hebrew MSS. 
both of Bibles and general literature (2) the Venice printed books 
and (8) all the MS. concordances which I have compiled, as well 
as all the Massoretic materials and apparatus from which my 
editions both of the Massorah and the Hebrew Bible have been 
elaborated. These collections, the use of which he has generously 
put at my disposal, as well as his own valuable collection of. 
Bibles, he will ultimately bequeath to Trinity College Library, 
where the Biblical student will be able to verify and test my 
work. 



May 1908. 



Christian D. Ginsburg 

dakthorpe 
Palmers' Green, Middlesex. 



Letter Aleph. 



The words: The order or aiiangement of Utter Aleph, which 
stand at the head of this letter, are my own. The Massorites 
themselves never arranged the accumulated Massoretic corpus 
alphabetically. Even the sundry Massoretic materials, which In 
some MSS. of the Bible are appended to each book or to one 
of the three great divisions of the Hebrew Scriptures, viz. to 
the Pentateuch, the Prophets, or the Hagiographa — a plan 
followed in Bomberg's first edition of the Rabbinic Bible edited 
by Felix Pratensis (Venice 151f; 17) — are not alphabetically 
arranged, but are grouped together according to subjects. This 
is also the case in the two independent Massoretic works called 
Ochlfth VeOchhh, viz. the Paris recension edited by Frensdorff, 
Hanover isiu, and the Halle recension, which is still in MS. It 
was Jacob b. Chayim Ibn Adonijah, the first editor of Bomberg's 
Rabbinic Bible with the Massorah (Venice l r>-24 — 2r»), who arranged 
the Massorah alphabetically so far as he was able to collect it. 
This he distinctly declares in the prefatory note with which the 
so-called Massorah Finalis begins and which is as follows: 

iMiaipna mr'B' no -nv'v int mn j'nay ^-v in'in» j' pn»» j2 o^n ja apjji ion 
•poyaa hMn riiaiyai b'Pw^ xn'a *eh*n -no .o by -n^nj ^rhim nSnj moan lan^-i p^nyn^ 
lar nina .aiats-n /Warn ^^^n ao^a ^y ^iohk k^ n^»namScKi .manana 'm^yn^ .msan o' 
r'npjB iPK nsnan b nr nini .'nn^e- n'jiia pii ,»nr,Bn n'^ya mm ,«rnnD nr« »a .n'oa? 

Tlius saith Jacob b. Chayim b. Isaac Ibn Adonijah „he entered into 
peace, thejr shall rest in their beds, each one walking in liis upriglitness" 
[Isa. 57 2], behold, the following is tlie arrangement, which we have designed 
as stated in the Introduction. We liave copied, compiled and arranged 
alphabetically the Massorahs Magna and Parva according to the roots and order. 
Having dived into the deep sea of the Massorah to bring it up as clear as the 
Bun, I tremble with fear since I have not spared the signs and the marks 
which lie hid in tlie holes of tlie earth and in the rocks, for I have removed 
the redundant letters and blown away from it the superfluous letters, and 
eliminated from it the erroneous Makephs, and behold, the following is the 
army which I have encountered. 

It was he, therefore, who prefixed the heading and appended 
the last line to each letter, and I have, followed his example. 



Pentateuch, I reproduced the first page of the MS. containing 
Gen. I 1—1(5 with the table belonging to it in my Introduction 
to the Masaoretico- critical edition of the Hebrew Bible.^ 
' Comp. Part I, chap. VII, pp. HO, 111, London 1897. 



X» — The two instances in which the letter AUph has one 
Tag or TiUle and which constitute the contents of this Rubric, 
are from Harley 5710— 11, British Museum. The Massorah Parva 
repeats the Aleph with the Tag in the margin against -w>k 
Exod. 13 5 and dtk verse 15. The heading to this Rubric, viz! 
AU])h with one tittle, there are two instances in the Pentateuch, I have 
supplied in harmony with the heading of the following Rubric, 
which the MS. gives. The Treatises on the Tagin do not give 
this Rubric. 



S. — The first part of this Rubric, which registers the 
number of times AUph occurs in the Bible, is taken from the 
Poem ascribed to Saadia Gaon. The Poem in question is given 
below, letter k, § 224. Whatever may be the dispute about the 
authorship of this Poem, there can be no doubt that the letters 
were counted at a very early date, as is evident from the 
statement in the Talmud, where we are positively assured that 
the Vav in jim (Levit. 11 42) is the middle letter of the Pentateuch 
(v«fe infra § 224). The second part of this Rubric, which registers 
the number of times that AUph occurs in the Pentateuch, is 
from a MS. in my own possession. In this MS. every two pages 
are followed by a page containing two tables, which register 
line for line the number of times each letter of the Alphabet 
occurs in the two pages in question. At the end of every 
thirty-two pages another table is given, stating the number of 
times each letter occurs in those pages, and at the end of each 
book again a general table is given summing up the contents 
of both the special tables for each page and the general tables 
for every thirty-two pages, and exhibiting the sum total of 
times that each letter occurs in the book in question. Accordingly 
there can be no mistake here in the statement that the letter 
AUph occurs 27,055 times in the Pentateuch, though it is difficult 
to test the first part of this Rubric, where it is stated that 
AUph occurs 42,377 times in the whole Bible. 

To convey a proper idea of the minuteness and accuracy 
with which this plan is worked out throughout the entire 



j^ ^ — This Rubric, which states that there are seven AUphs 
in the Pentateuch, which respectively have seven Tagin, is taken from 
the Sepher Tagin, p. 2, ed. Barges, Paris 186G. Misled by Dr. Baer, 
who positively declares that the List in question is corrupt and 
that this phenomenon occurs in the word ^jnte? Israel, in all the 
seven instances (Tikun Ha-S<q)her, p. 19, Rodelheim 1875), I have 
so printed the text as to indicate it to the reader. But since 
the publication of this Rubric I have found the Treatise on the 
Tagin in the so-called Vitry Machsm- (Add. 27,021, Vol. II, 
fols. 209 a— 215 a), which I printed in letter Tav, § 25, Vol. II,' 
pp. 680—701. Prom §§ 8, 12, 16, .3:3 and 41 of this Treatise it will be 
seen that according to this recension the tittled AUph occurs only 
three times in the word hrvr_ Israel and four times in the word 
'obK pnnces of, and that the Rubric is as I have given it in the 
Additions, Vol. Ill, p. l, § 3*. According to a second recension, 
however, which is exhibited in the text of the Yemen Scrolls of the 
Pentateuch (Oriental 1463 and Oriental 1465), the seven instances 
are as follows. The tittled AUph occurs five times in the word 
SK-jtr Israel (Gen. 32 29, 47 31; Exod. 13 19; Numb. 10 4, 36) and 
twice in the word 'b>|j princes of (Numb. 10 4, 36). It is remarkable 
that in these Scrolls the AUph in 's^k has in both instances seven 
Tagin as depicted under letter Tav, 25, Vol. II, p. 685, § 8, 
whilst the AUph in ^jntr has in these two instances only five 
Ta^in, the two Tagin at the bottom on the left of the AUph 
being absent. According to a third recension exhibited in the 
text of the splendid MS. of the Bible (Add. 15,451, fols. 98 6, 99 o), 
there are only four instances which have this tittled AUph, two 
in V»nttr (Numb. 10 4, 36) and two in 'th^ (Numb. 10 4, 36). 
According to a fourth recension exhibited in Harley 5710—11 
which not only has the Ta^in on the letters in the text, but 
repeats them in the margin as part of the Massorah Parva, it follows 
that the tittled AUph occurs six times in b»^, Israel ((Jen. 47 81; 
Exod. 13 8; Numb. 1 16; 10 14; 31 5; 34" lb) and once in the 
word jnin the earth (Gen. 7 23). When it is borne in mind that 
this collation is from the respective texts of the Pentateuch 
itself where the AUphs are thus tittled, no doubt will be 
entertained that these MSS. exhibit different traditions about the 
words which were to be thus distinguished by these tittles, and that 
these different traditions were preserved by different Massoretic 
Schools. The existence of such variations in Massoretic Rubrics, 
arising from the fact that different Massoretic Schools possessed 
various recensions of the text, will be evident to anyone who 
carefully examines the Massorahs of the MSS. written by scribes 
of countries far apart as exhibited in numerous Rubrics of our 
edition of the Massorah. Ignorance of this fact has led Dr. Baer 
to pronounce every such variation as corrupt, and accordingly 



Ml 



— 2 



§6. K 



alter it, when it differed from a Massorah in a MS. which he 
happened to have collated. It was before I discovered Dr. Baer's 
mode of manipulating MSS. that I printed the Rubric before 
Qi according to his alteration. 

^ - § 4. 
K« — The four Yemen Codices of the Pentateuch, viz. the 
tnree in the British Museum, Oriental 1379 (foL 108«), Oriental 2349 
(fol. 62&), Oriental 2860 (fol. 98 a) and the one in the Cambridge 
University Library, Add. 1174, remark in the Massorah Parva 
against Hh Gen. 42 12 apt n - thi, Aleph in thU negative particle 
i, curved helaw. As there is no other Aleph in the Pentateuch 
thus distinguished, I have added itnniio n to the heading m 
harmony with the heading of the preceding Rubric. 

•n - § 5. 

K* — Three times the letter AUph hoe a Dageeh in worde of 
the same root (viz. derived from xia to come) and once it hat 
a Dageeh in a word of another root, i. e. mn to eee. This Rubric 
is from Harley 1628, on Levit 28 17 (fol. 70a). It will be seen 
that of the three instances from the root ira two are w^p 
(Gen. 48 26; Ezra 8 18) and one is vr^in (Levit. 28 17). This 
accounts for the different forms of this Rubric, which obtained 
in the different Massoretic Schools, and which are to be found 
in the different MSS. Thus (I) Add. 16,260, fol. 286, on Gen. 43 26, 
has in the Massorah Magna -vurfja "rn 'a w?p simply registering 
the two instances of urap, where the AJ^h has DageeK (U) The 
same MS. which gives this Rubric a second time, fol. 69<i, heads 
it on Levit 28 17 as follows nps -^n '3 nr?^ which might imply 
that in this form', viz. fuiure second person plural maseuUne, the 
Aleph has three times a Dagesh, whereas the word -vhs in the 
same root, is simply omitted after the numeral -a - 8, which is 
often the case. In this recension, therefore, all the three instances 
belonging to the same root are registered. (Ill) Harley 6710—11, 
Vol. II, fol. 291a, on Ezra 8 18, has it as follows: 



Deut. 12 n 
Job 8S 21 

Ezra 8 18 
aen. 43 26 



Oen. 4S 26 
Esra 8 18 

0«n. 41 19; Jerem. 27 12; Mai. 8 10 
„ 4X 34; Exod. St 2; Amoa 4 4; 

Neh. 8lfi; 1 Chron. SI 2; 

2 Chron. 89 HI 
Levit 28 17 



nnpa v^n 'a iirw 
iS 

wan Sai 



r»«n orh w;9 vn 



It will thus be seen that this Massorah groups together in a 
separate Massoretic Rubric no less than twelve instances of the 
different forms of the root ku alone, which have a Dageshed 
AUph. There can, therefore, be no doubt that the Dageshed Alephs 
of other roots, not comprised in this Rubric, were also catalogued 
separately according to the respective forms of the verbs, thus 
showing that some Massoretic Schools recognised only four 
Dageshed Alephs in the Hebrew Bible, whilst other Schools, from 
which this Rubric proceeds, had Dageshed the Aleph in numerous 
instances. To this School belongs the Karlsruhe Hebrew MS. of 
the Former and Latter Prophets (Orossh, Hof- und Landesb^l. 
Durlach Hs. 5ti), which is dated A. D. 1106—6. The single page 
of this MS. which is published by the Palaeographical Society 
(Plate LXXVII, Oriental Series), and which has only six verses 
of the Hebrew text, viz. Malachi 3 19—24, exhibits no less 
than eleven Alephs with Dagesh, though the total number of 
Alephs in these six verses is only thirty. Thus t^, which occurs 
twice in these six verses (vv. 19, 21), has both times Dagesh in 
the Aleph, n^, which occurs three times (vv. 19, 21, 22), has it 
only in the first and second instances, and nl»9at, which occurs 
twice (vv. 19, 21), has it in both instances. It is remarkable that 
ihfi Aleph of nl*»^ has also Dagesh in the Targwm, which follows 
every Hebrew verse in this MS. The fact that different Massoretic 
Schools had different Lists of Dageshed Alepha explains the 
apparent discrepancies in the instances of this phenomenon 
adduced by the old grammarians. Thus Ibn Ezra, who speaks of 
this phenomenon {Zachuth 24a, ed. Filrth 1827), gives it as follows: 

»in n^K w run '3 



differed from those in the MSS. to which I have hitherto had 
access. The same is the case with the recension of this Rubric, 
given by De Balmes, which is as follows: 

niDipo nyaiita ncnn nmraj «|^i«n o 
a"' jo»D onann n^w iBoa wan rvsv 

isS iK'3'i 'n p'D H-itvai 
nnaon rm i^ wa'! 

^^ , MiJcne Ahrahan. fol. 9 a, Hebrew ed„ and fol. 19 a, Hebrew 
and Latin, Venice 1623.) He, therefore, gives iran Deut. 13 11 
instead of Levit. 38 17. 

(IV) The printed Massorah Magna, which has this Rubric 
four times, has it only in two recensions. The first recension, 
which is given on Gen. 43 26, consists of the two instances in 
which w?:5 has the Dagesh. Here Mb ¥h not unto us (Ps. 116 1), 
which in ' sound resembles the two catchwords of the two 
passages where the phenomenon occurs, is given as a mnemonic 
sign. The second recension which is given on Levit 23 17; 
Job 83 21 ; Ezra 8 18, heads it '"-^-ja j'wn r»*'»« '"> t» ■^' *^"^ grouping 
all the four instances under one Rubric. The form, therefore, of 
this Rubric exhibited under No. II, which registers the three 
instances of the same root 'wherein the Aleph has Dagesh, is not 
given in the printed Massorah. The theory of Ewald {Lehrlnich 
§ 21, 2) and of Gesenius (Gi'ammar § 14) about the import of 
these Dageshed Alephs is based upon the existence of the only 
four instances given in the printed Massorah, and must now be 
set aside in the face of the Rubric here adduced. (See also 
below § 17.) It is also to be remarked that though the AUph 
has the Dagesh in the upper part of its body in the printed 
editions («), the Dagesh is in the lower part («) in the MSS. 

"I - § 6. 
K* — This List of words beginning with AUph, which 
respectively occur only once, is from Arundel Oriental 16, on 
Ezek. 82 4 (fol. 187), where the word i|^|f occurs. It will be 
seen that these unique forms are here grouped together without 
any regard to alphabetical order or to the sequence of the 
books in the Bible. It is the first attempt to register the hapaa: 
Ugomena. When they had thus been collected by eariier Massorites, 
later critics arranged them alphabetically and furnished them 
with headings. The number of words which are thus brought 
together frequently depends on the space which has to be filled. 
Thus in the MS. in question (Arundel Oriental 16, fol. I94a) on 
Ezek. 41 8, where the unique form n^'«« occurs, the Massorah 
gives the following four words: 

•h 



Deut 17 14 
Job 1 4 



on'n'nK 



Ezek. 41 8 
2 Sam. 20 14 



n^*?*? 
"^5? 



Levit 23 17 
Job S3 21 



nwan on^ wan 






It will be seen that Ibn Ezra not only gives three instances, 
but that one of them (Gen. 42 1) is not contained in the 
MaMoretio Lists, whilst he omits two instances (Gen. 48 26; 



It will be seen that, with the exception of the last word, 
none of these are contained in the first List 

The earliest Massorah known at present which is exhibited 
in Oriental 4446, fol. 885, on the unique form \%y^^ Gen. 48 9, 
tabulates the following seventeen words beginning with AUp9i 
which respectively occur once: none of these are contained in 
the other Lista 

«'?'W 
nuM 

nwpi 

The List moreover illustrates some of the difficulties in 
the deciphering of the Massorah. No fewer than five of the 
expressions here recorded may severally be read differently 
since they are without the vowel-points. Thus naoK which I have 
pointed nf^ may also be pointed n^ Numb. 11 16, n^ 
Deut 82 28, n^en Isa, 24 22 or tx^. Micah 4 6: -pwt may either 
be -^^ Cant 8 2 or -^1^ Cant 8 1. nann may either be npiiH 
Numb. 22 88 or n^ Exod, 29 86. nten may be i^ Oen. « 17, 
-^hM Exod. 88 8 or -^^ Levit 26 87, and n&M may be rv^ 
Exod. 21 82 or n^ Dan. 8 ^9, as all these forms are unique. 
ronu too which is here given as unique occurs twice in the 



Kumb 


22 88 


6 


% 


Gen. 48 9 




Oen. 


J 17 


*> 


Job 31 86 


lat. 


88 14 


•h 


num 


HoaealS 8 


Pa. 


132 14 


■h 


njfi'w 


1 Sam. 27 1 


Cant 


S 9 


•h 


P'TI'? 


Gen. 37 7 


Josh. 


IS 8 


•S 


"TV! 


Pa. 56 7 


Cant 


7 8 


*f 


m 


Cant 8 2 


Exod. 


2182 


■h 


m 


Prov. SO 81 










Cant 8 2 



I textus reeeptus, viz. Isa. 88 14 and Ps. 68 7. 

I A further development of this Massorah is the Rubric, 

ii^i^S "iV which . re girm to .U the neenrton. w. h«e I .!«> cnUto^ to thta ""?"» Jl^ J'"?^?*''*'" '^' 
.ddoced. Ibn Eire, therefore, h.d . reeendon before him. wbieh | foUowtog; WW. t^inv «« ^Jq* «-<l <« i-fr"- 



K — K § 7—10. 



- 3 



§ 11- 



« - H 



1 Sam. 18 29 


'on'S 3'k 




2 Sam. 14 19 


'Dn-h Wh 


Exod. 56 21 'on 'h r>hH 


1 Kings 4 19 


'on 'h nit 


Gen. 24 39 'on 'h '^k 


Ps. 18 30 


'cn 'S pK 


2 Sam. 19 38 'on 6 nOK 


1 Kings S2 26 


'on 'h jbM 


I Chron. 5 6 'on '^ iffK 


Job 18 4 


'on 'S ^^n 


3 17 'on ''» nDM 



Comp. Orient. 4445 Exod. 36 21, fol. 976. 



'r = § 7. 



K« — The following words beginning with Aleph He respectively 
occur only once. This Rubric is from Orient. 1471, fol. 118 a. It 
occurs in the Massorah on innanK i Sam. 18 28. On referring to 
§ 12 riK, Vol. I, p. 3, it will be seen that there are no less than 
thirty-six words beginning with Aleph He, which respectively 
occur only once. Though twenty-three of these are of the root 
ant alone, and though the Rubric before us has only eight of 
them, the most cursory inspection of it will show that it is 
designed simply to register the unique forms of this root. The 
fuller references, which follow the '■? = n""? unique, show beyond 
doubt that they have been added by a later Massorite, who 
wished to facilitate the identification of the passages. The same 
writer also added the heading, which is rather misleading, for, 
though all the words begin with Aleph He, they are manifestly 
designed to give the unique forms of anK. The proper heading 
is 'nnia n-bi nmn •sr«?a pbK. No other MS. known to me at present 
has this Rubric. 

From this Massorah and §§ 8, 9 and lo it is evident that 
the Massorites began to arrange alphabetically the 1137 unique 
words in the Hebrew Bible which severally begin with Aleph. 
Though I have as yet only been able to find incipient lasts of 
Aleph He (hk), Aleph Cheth (hk), Aleph Shin (mi) and Aleph Tav (hk) 
there can hardly be any doubt that the remaining portions of 
this Alphabet are still dispersed in MSS. to which I have not 
had access. 



K» — This list without any heading, but registering the 
words beginning with Aleph Cheth, which respectively occur 
only once, is from the same MS., viz. Orient. 1471. It is given 
in the Massorah on 1 Kings 6 6, fol. 178^, where ihK occurs, 
which heads the Rubric. Though it only registers nine words, 
a reference to hk § 12, Vol. I, p. 4, will show that there are no 
fewer than eighty-seven unique forms beginning with Aleph 
Cheth. The fact, however, that the Massorites neither prefixed 
a heading nor specified any number, but simply remarked 
•h = unique, shows that thf Xist exhibits the first attempt at 
collecting the words in question, and that they meant other 
Massorites to complete the List I have not found the Rubric 
in any other MS. to which I have had access. 



K» — This Rubric, which registers the unique forms be- 
ginning with Al^.ph Shin, is also to be found in Orient. 1471. It 
is given in the Massorah on the word ntH i Sam. 26 8 (fol. 128 a). 
In copying this List, I omitted by an oversight the following 
three instances, which occur in the upper margin — 
Ei«k. V 15 T^ai PT '32 -h x^iifH i Sam. S6 8 'B^'aH lOHi <*> nsfn 
1 Cliron. 4 11 nmc »n« aiSai 'h ims'tt 

It will be geen that this Rubric registers altogether twenty- 
eight forms, whereas a reference to vh § 12, Vol. I, pp. 8—9, 
will show that there are one hundred and forty words beginning 
with Aleph Shin. Like the other Rubrics, therefore, it simply 
contains the beginning of a collection of these words, and hence 
its incompleteness. The passages added after the '*? = tcnique -are, 
as usual in such cases, by later Massorites. The List is not to 
be found in other MSS. The six instances which constitute 
§ 9b, are given in Harley 6710—11, Vol. I, fol. 231 a, on the 
word M^ 1 Kings 16 9, at the end of the Alphabetical List, 
numbered § 11, Vol. I, p. 2, as if they were a continuation of 
this Rubric. 

'' = § 10. 

K« — This Rubric as well as letter b of the former Rubric 
(viz. § 96), though registering words beginning with Aleph Shin 
and Aleph Tav, only give the forms with Segol under the Aleph. 
In th« Vienna Codex No. 36, on Dan. 7 1*5, where the same 



7 8 


■h nnsfiK 


Dan. 7 15 


3 19 


'^ oaincK 


4 16 


128 3 


'h layriK 


6 8 


20 35 


■■' nhsvH 


Deut. 32 32 


2 17 


'S n-'n^riK 


Gen. 5J3 14 



peculiarity is noticed, with the same letters beginning the 
respective words, Aleph Shin and Aleph Tav are mixed up, as 
will be seen from the following, which is given in the Massorah 
Magna without any heading: 
•h npjTiK Dan. 

•h intfK Ps. 

■h lannK 2 Chron 

•h imoK Lament. 

Though this List only ffives four words beginning with 
?^ and five with nx, a reference to riK and wx § 12, Vol. I, pp. s — <♦, 
will show that there are forty-one of the former and nineteen of 
the latter. As in the other Rubrics, therefore, these instances 
are simply the beginning of a collection, which was intended to 
be gradually completed. 

W - § 11. 
K» — An alphabet of unique wm^ds which respectively begin 
with Aleph. This List is so arranged that the second letter of 
each word exhibits the alphabetical order. It is one of the most 
ancient constituent parts of the Massorah, as is evident from 
the fact that it is given in the St. Petersburg Codex of A. D. 916, 
fol. I79i on Hos. 2 14. On referring to § 12, Vol. I, pp. 2— 9, 
it will be seen that there are no less than 1137 words beginning 
with Aleph, which only occur once. Innumerable alphabets might, 
therefore,- be compiled by taking different combinations. Hence 
it is 'difficult to divine why the Massorites simply selected one 
of the many instances from every letter and arranged them in 
this manner. Of this Massorah I collated eight different Lists, 
six in MSS. and two printed, viz. (I) Harley, 5710 — 11, on 
Gen. 12 3; (II) the same MS., on 1 Kings 6 19; (III) Add. 15,250, 
on Job 16 4; (IV) Add. 15,451 on Ps. 61 5; (V) the Halle Ochhh 
Ve-Oehlah I § 36; (VI) the Paris Ochlah Ve Ochlah § 35; (VII) the 
St Petersburg Codex of A. D. 916 on Hos. 2 14, and (VIII) the printed 
Massorah k, § 3. From an analysis of them it will be seen that they 
are different recensions, and proceed from different Massoretic 
Schools. As here given, the List is printed from the Harley 
MS. 5710—11, Vol. I, fol. 7a, on n»« Gen. 12 3. In the same 
MS. (fol. 231a) this Rubric i« given again on the word ki~;« 
I Kings 16 9. Here not -only is the heading different, viz. 
'tt"i 'bi nm nn |0 'n*n Hthn = an alphabet of single words which have no 
parallel, but ep», which may either be itjaK Micah 6 6, or cjaK 
Prov. 16 26, is given for a instead of n^an, which is the word 
both in the other recension of this List in this very MS. and 
in the other MSS. and editions. These two recensions, however, 
exhibit the oldest form of this Rubric. For, though their 
respective headings differ from the one in the St Petersburg Codex 
which is as follows X xniaTi ipn nn nn n-ae^K = an alphabet of single 
words the beginning of which is Aleph, they are exactly as brief 
and as simple as the List in this ancient MS. A remarkable 
feature occurs in this Rubric as given in the second instance, 
which must be noticed here, inasmuch as it will explain con- 
stant difficulties connected with these Massoretic Lists. At the 
end of this List, viz. No. II in Harley 5710-11, the Massorah 
on 1 Kings 6 19 adds six instances beginning with Aleph Shin 
which constitute Rubric 9&. Though they are manifestly a 
different Massorah, yet they continue the Rubric without any 
break. Far more developed are the other five recensions. Thus 
the one in Add. MS. 15,451 (fol. 412Z>) has, after the simple 
>b == unique of the earlier Lists, the later addition of catchwords. 
In this recension, where the heading is exactly the same as in 
the one printed in our text, we moreover, meet with a circum- 
stance which explains some of the greatest difficulties to be 
encountered in deciphering the Massorah. In enumerating the 
words, the scribe omitted the word which represents letter r. 
This omission he discovered when he finished the Rubric. He 
then not only supplied it, but repeated with the catchwords the 
word which represents the letter n, so that this List ends as 
follows : 

1 Kings 16 9 nay I'V/ wpm 'S wr\n 

Hos. 3 14 T\T\i*m naej 'norm 'h nante 
Ezek. 33 44 nt7M ^K tnaa Tvhvt man "h nVvji 
Hog. S 14 nnsKni nJBJ 'norm 'h narm 

If the same catchwords had not accompanied the repeated 
roHK, we might have thought that two examples of riK were in- 
tended, since there are three written with exactly the same 
letters, viz. njnn Exod. 36 26; n:r*t Ezek. 13 20; and rnnK Hos. 2 14, 
which is here adduced. Indeed it may be that the earlier writer 



lb 



« - K § 



§ 12- 



K K 



of this Rubric intended to give another example of riK, to 
complete the sequence, after he discovered that he had omitted 
the Shin or placed the Tav before the Shin, and that the later 
Massorites (who thought it inconsistent with the heading and 
with the import of this Massorah, which only enumerates single 
words, to represent each letter of the Alphabet), attached to it 
the same catchwords, in order that the two lines might yield 
the same word. It will also be seen that the later Massorite, 
who added the catchwords after •?, in this recension made a 
mistake in his reference to l Kings 16 9, giving nt^iini instead 
of -iib|5^. These blunders on the part of later scribes are of 
frequent occurrence. We shall see that the mistake is not 
always confined to one word, but sometimes extends to the 
whole part of the verse which constitutes the catchwords. To a 
different School and a later recension also belongs the List 
given in Add. MS. 15,250, fol. 351a. Not only is the heading 
here different, viz. ik ax kk nn p Kn'SB^K an alphabet of single wm-ds 
beginning with Aleph Aleph, Aleph Beth, Aleph Gimel, but it gives 
rn'anw Job 16 4 for the letter n, instead of ^bm i Kings 5 3, 
which the other MSS. and the editions have, and breaks off with 
IinBK Cant. 3 9, so that n-x are not represented. Such unfinished 
Lists, however, are of common occurrence. When the scribe 
found himself at the end of a line and had no more space, ho 
would not exceed either the two or the three lines of the 
Massorah which are the rule of the special Codex. This is the 
reason why ho left off in the middle, just as he not unfrequently 
added a few words from a different Rubric, when the line had 
to be filled out. Still later and more developed are the Lists in 
the Ochlah Ve-Ochlah and in the printed text of Jacob b. Chayim, 
Though the headings in the two recensions of the Ochlah 
Ve-Ochlah and in Jacob b. Chayim's edition differ - in the 
Halle MS. I, § 3fi, it is KniaT wna XK in in jo a-x, in the Paris MS. 
(§ 35) pnjO'Di ""n 'la'n wia 'K im in p a"K, and in Jacob b. Chayims 
text "jo'Di K'K nn nn lo a"K - they have all alike dropped the 
simple 'b = unique, which in the original Lists follows each word, 
and have substituted in its stead the lengthy and far more easy 
catchwords. In the Paris Ochlah Ve-Ochlah the later redactor, 
who mistook the import of this Massorah, added another example, 
viz. Dn'KBK (Deut. 32 2(5), to represent letter c. The remark in ! 
Jacob b. Chayim's edition on Cant. 3 9, viz. -[banpsfs 'b p-neK j 
niK ro-ipaa 'nan 'lona -1063 "di 'la'n eria k'k -in nn jo a"K j» in Kin: "isro na'rr 
TDS f\bixr[ =• it does not occur again and it is one of an alphabetical 
List of unique words beginning with Aleph, and, the List is given in 
the Gi'eat Massorah under letter Aleph with the help of Heaven, is 
not a part of the Massorah, where such language never occurs, 
but is Jacob b. Chayim's own statement. More unwarrantable 
is the heading, which the editors of the second and third editions 
of Jacob b. Chayim's Rabbinic Bible (Venice 1548 and 1568) 
and Buxford have attached to this Rubric, viz. ^^ in p 3"S I 
»nian n-^ in bvi 'lai n'tn I'n J*K 3"K K'K since this is an arbitrary ■ 
alteration of the language of the Massorah. Frensdorff (Ochlah 
Ve-Ochlah, § 35, N'achweise etc., p. 13), who did not know that 
this alteration occurs already in the second and third editions ! 
of Jacob b. Chayim's Rabbinic Bible (Venice 1548, 1568), \ 
wrongly ascribes it to Buxtorf, whose edition appeared in i 
1618—19. I 

The statement that the concise Lists tabulating in alpha- 
betical order a certain number of unique forms of words which 
begin with Aleph are of the most ancient constituent parts of 
the Massorah, is now strikingly confirmed by the two Lists in 
the important Codex Orient. 4445 which has come to light since 
I printed the text of the Massorah. The first List is on Exod. 6 18 
and is as follows: 

Jerem. SI 13 '^ nsM 2 Kings S 3 '^ 
Cant 8 2 'S tjJinSK Prov. 7 16 '^ 
Pi. 13» 8 ''> P?» Gen. 8 9'^ 
Exod. t 18 'h nnw „ SS 17 "h 

ProT. 80 81 ^ b^pSk 

It will be seen that this alphabet is incomplete since five 
letters are not represented, viz. Aleph (m), Coph (p), Reth (n), 
Shin (») and Tav (n) and that six only of the fourteen correspond 
to those in the List which I have printed in the Massorah. 

The second List which is given on Exod. 21 18, fol. 627>, 
represents all the alphabet with the exception of one letter and 
is as follows: 



IS 8 



Job 31 8C 013 'S n-a^v Deut. 28 14 'n« '^ ;|Jt»e 

'n)3 'h na'ipM Josh. S 18 'no 'h ■^^ni* 

'h . ;|W» Prov. 7 IC 'ni3 'h ]m* 

•h nt;)» 1 Kings 20 20 'nw 'h lt8''K 

"^ ^» Prov. 16 26 'ni3'^ «i3K 

'h ft^H Gen, 87 7 'no -^ o'a^>« 

'h mnn Exod. 21 l.s 'nis 'h not 



Hos. 
1 Kings 11 38 
Exod. 7 38 
Gen. 5 29 

Deut. 32 42 
Hos. 2 14 



1 Sam. 27 1 'ni3 "h ntSH 



'•?!:»• 


Gen 41 43 


-^ 


TI1?»? 


ptSM 


Cant. 7 3 


'h 


m 


n?t^ 


1 Kings 11 17 


■h 


il!J 


^'J?? 


Pb. 142 1 


'h 


njn'w 


0,pSK 


Josh. 19 84 


'h 


nUTK 



It will be seen that Mem (o) is the only letter not re- 
presented unless D'abH is taken to represent both Lamed and Mem., 
and that four only of the twenty-one letters in this alphabet 
correspond to those in the alphabetical List which I have printed 

in the Massorah. 

2"' = § 12. 
K» — In Rubrics 6, 7, 8 and 9 Lists are given of words 
beginning with Aleph. Besides these we frequently find up and 
down in the Massorahs of the different MSS, groups of words 
beginning with Aleph Beth, Aleph Gimel, etc. without any fixed 
heading or number. The Massorah Parva too, constantly remarks 
on these words ,b = that they only occur once. 1 have, therefore, 
collected all the words in the Hebrew Scriptures, which 
respectively occur only once, and have arranged them alpha- 
betically. In the List before us I have arranged those beginning 
with Aleph of which there are no less than 1137 unique forms. 
The List is essential, inasmuch as it enables us to test the 
different Rubrics in the Massorah. I have always given the 
form of the Kethiv or the textual reading, though I am well 
aware that the Massorah registers the Keri or the official 
marginal reading. Those w]po have ever attempted similar work 
will understand the enormous labour connected with the finding 
collecting, and arranging upwards of forty thousand forms, 
which respectively occur only once, and how absolutely im- 
possible it is to be always C(MTect. To these students I need 
not apologise for mistakes which have crept into the List. The 
following are those which I have been able to detect since this 
Rubric has been printed: 



IM. 14 14 'nw *> nijiii 
2 Bam. 1 26 "no >h ^njrjM 
IM. ft 10 'ma 'S nhiK 



Job 9 16 'ni3 'h i'a»»e» 
Deut. 12 2 'n«'^ lan 
Pi. 61 6 'FfO 'h n^}3» 





Omissions : 


Zech. 3 2 


n« 


Deut. Ill 'en DinfSH 


Jerem. 15 8 a'na in»o^f( 


Dan. 5 13 'no '?»« 


Dan. 3 29 


n»^ 


2 Chron. 11 18 'no ^?n»3K 


Josh. 12 18 


P.?? 


1 Chron. 2 29 'ap i??n'a>« 
Ezra 4 8 k-JIK 


3 following 16 


words 


occur more than once: 


3'n3 1'3T« 


Ps. 


77 12; Exod. 20 21 


n;K 


Job 


28 7; 2 Sam. 3 7 etc. 


D'^'»< 


„ 


41 17; Numb. 23 1 etc. 


'n'K 


1 Chron. 


n 31; Dan. 2 10 etc. 


"^? 


1 Sam. 


1 9; „ 7 7 etc. 


nS3« 


Deut. 


12 20; 4 24 etc. 


'^? 


1 Kings 


13 23; Exod. 12 4 etc. 


n^K 


Ezek. 


6 13; Gen. 36 41 etc. 


o'^»* 


Job 


42 8; Ps. 29 1 etc. 


vmiih* 


Ezek. 


19 7; Isa. 9 16 


m 


Prov. 


8 30; 2 Kings 21 18 etc. 


hhOH 


Ps. 


6 8; Joel 1 10 etc. 


ipph 


1 Sam. 


15 6; 2 Kings 22 20 


"?^^ 


Ps. 


119 67; Isa. 65 24 etc. 


"5?P« 


Isa. 


42 14; 80 6 etc. 


3'n3 K^-1« 


Dan. 


2 39, 35 etc. 



The following are typographical errors: 



TI?n»« is a'ns i|m»i Ezra 7 18 

D'B^K „ a»n3 d'dSk Dan. 7 lo 

nmy „ nmij iga. 27 8 

nin« „ mnn Ezek. IS 20 



n-isK is nn?!* Deut. 2 

DS'nhK „ 03ni3» „ 

B'^aHH „ 1 Kings 1 

l'"'!!!** „ I'lf??* occurs many t 



y^ - § 18. 

K* — The follmoing are w%ntten with Aleph, hut are read 
wiihovi it. This Rubric, is taken from Harley 6710—11. The List 
occurs In the Massorah Magna (Vol. II, fol. 206 a) on d'h^j; 
Ps. 104 12. What this Massorah means is, that wherever one 
of these four words occurs and is written in the text with 
Aleph, it must be read without Aleph. That is (I) B'ifisr is to be 
read orfip, (II) o'KnB is to be read d^jj^ (III) d'»b» is to be read 
D'lj^, and (IV) o'Kax is to be read s??^. Now on referring to "*'?, 
the first of these four words, it will be seen that the plural of 



K ^ K § 14ri-146- 



— 6 



§ 14ft- 



K - K 



it, which occurs eight times, is written in the present text five 
times D-^f (Jerem. 3 2; 4 II ; 7 29; 12 12; 14 6) and three times 
D«^|> with two Yods (Isa. 41 18; 49 9; Jerem. 3 21), and that 
there is, therefore, not a single instance of a<»tv to be found 
in the present text to which this is applicable. This difficulty, 
however, is solved by the St Petersburg Codex of A. D. 916 and 
Harl. MS. 5720. Thus, on all the thi'ee passages in which it is with 
two Yods, the St Petersburg- Codex has in 'the margin -p ffKUW. 
Isa. 41 18; tTKB ibid. 49 9, and -p d'k Jerem. 3 21, whilst Harley 5720 
has actually in the text avtv in Jerem. 4 11 and in the margin 
against it 'p a^bv, thus showing that the preponderance of 
ancient recensions was in favour of ontBtP, and that its displace- 
ment from the present recensions is due to this Massorah. Equally 
important is the light which this Massorah throws upon the 
second word. The plural of 'ne occurs eleven times, and is 
written in the present text seven times d^ktib witli Aleph 
(Ps. 116 6; Prov. 1 4; 7 7; 8 5; 9 6; 14 18; 27 12) and four 
times without it, twice with one Yod b^hb (Prov. 1 22, 32) and 
twice with two Yods D"nB (Ps. 119 130; Prov. 22 3). According 
to this Massorah, therefore, the Codices of the School from 
which it proceeds, uniformly read it D^ne, and according to the 
directions here given the Keri on all the seven passages in 
question must be D'nB. Indeed on the third word in this List, 
viz. ontBr, which only occurs once (Ps. 104 12), where this 
Massorah is given, and on which there is no Keri in the present 
text, the Massorah Parva of this MS. remarks in the margin 
'K Tn' 'X np K^ t?ie Aleph is not to be read, the Aleph is redundant; 
whilst Add. 15,251 remarks against it '•-ipK^'i 'K 'na '3 three [words] are 
written with Aleph, but not read, where p'?& ivords, is to be supplied, 
since o-Ksr only occurs once. The plural of "sx with Mem occurs 
twice, once it is o^ast 2 Sam. 2 18 and once d^ksx 1 Chron. 12 9. 
According to this Massorah, therefore, it must be read in the 
second passage Q^ast without Aleph, just as in the former passage. 
Hence the recensions of this School of Massorites must have 
had on it 'p traat. It will thus be sfeen that the Massorah before 
us and the one in the St Petersburg Codex proceeded from two 
different Schools of textual critics. The former wrote these 
words without Aleph and expressly put a Keri in the margin to 
this effect, whilst the latter on the contrary, wrote them with 
Aleph, and hence put a Keri in the margin directing that they 
should be read without Aleph. The writing of o'HtVf ,D'KnB -D^KBr 
and b:»«aat with Chirek under the Yod leaving the Aleph without 
any vowel-point, which is to be found in some MSS. and editions 
is, therefore, derived from the School of textual critics who in the 
Ken cancelled the Aleph. 

y = § 14a. 

K« — The following words want Aleph in the Pentateuch, This 
Rubric is given in the printed Massorah on Levit 11 43. On 
comparing it with the other three recensions of this Massorah 
(viz. § 146— d), which catalogue the words throughout the 
Hebrew Scriptures exhibiting the same phenomena, it will 
be seen that the Massorites began first of all to collect the 
anomalies in the Pentateuch alone, and that it was only in 
process of time, as the work developed itself, that these labours 
were gradually exteAded to the other books, and at last to the 
whole Bible. We shall find numerous illustrations of this fact in 
the course of the work. The Massorah Parva in the MSS. of 
the Bible and in the editions has against each of these words 
'» "on 'h = it does not occur again with Aleph defective. This exhibits 
the Massoretic work in its still more incipient form, since it is 
from these separate remarks that the Lists were ultimately made 
up for the Massorah Magna. As a further development of the 
Massoretic work must be regarded the remark in the Massorah 
Parva of the Yemen Codices against several of the seven instances 
in this Rubric, viz. k 'dH Wi = fifty-one such instances with Aleph 
defective, as this already premises the. existence of the Massorah 
Magna. This List, containing the instances of the Pentateuch 
alone, I have at present not been able to find in any MS. 

T» - § 14ft— c. 

K* — The three Lists marked respectively § lib, c and d, 
register words in the whole Bible which exhibit the same 
phenomenon as is recorded in the preceding Rubric with regard 
to the Pentateuch alone. Though Jacob b. Chayim remarks in 
the printed Massorah on mnb Numb. 16 24 that this form without 
Aleph is unique and that it is one of fifty -eight words in the 
Bible which are defective of Akph and refers to the Massorah 



Magna at the end of Vol. IV for the List,^ this Rubric is neither 
to be found there nor in any other part of the printed Massorah. 
(I) The first List marked B, which is headed The following 
are defective of Aleph, is from the Vienna Codex No. 85, fol. 836, 
on 'nxto Numb. 11 11. (II) The second List marked C, whidh is 
headed Fiffy-one words are defective of Aleph and are as follows, is 
from Orient 1379 British Museum, fol. 371a. Precisely the same 
List is in Orient 2349, fol. 1426, and Add. 1147, Cambridge 
University Library. These three MSS. are Pentateuchs from 
Yemen and as is often the case in South Arabian Codices the 
Lists are identical. I have, therefore, treated them as one Rubric. 
(Ill) The third List marked D, which is headed Fiftyfour words 
are defective of Aleph and are as follows, is from Add. 1524 in the 
Cambridge University Library on the third leaf from the end. 
To these three Lists I have now to add a fourth which 1 
found in the ancient Codex Orient 4445, British Museum, on 
mnh Numb. 16 24, fol. 134 a, and which is represented in the 
Table by the letter E. The relationship which these Lists sustain 
to each other and the instances which they severally register 
will best be seen from the following Table: 





E 


D 


C 


B 


A 








E 


D 


C 


B 


A 














28 






o'nbi 


Ezek. 


11 6 


34 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


ittqo 


Gen. 


20 6 


1 






27 


29 


29 




to 




41 8 


36 


2 


3 


2 


4 


2 


. Dfiaeiii 'Levit 


1143 


2 




16 


28 


30 


30 




ibi» 


■„ 


ii 6 


36 


3 


12 


3 


2 


3 


'nyo ^Numb. 


nil 


3 






53 


33 


22 




'?? 


Micah 


116 


37 






4 


,. 




'^\ „ 


1314 


4 




10 


36 




31 




n^lpni 


Zech. 


5 9 


38 


4 


2 


6 


8 


4 


"90^1 „ 


16 24 


6 




18 


29 


34 


32 




^=» 


Mai. 


114 


39 


6 


4 


6 


6 


6 


n'S'lD Deut. 


1112 


6 




14 


30 


37 


17 




1"?' 


Ps. 


139 20 


40 


6 


6 


7 


6 


6 


n?''!? „ 


38 67 


7 




16 






33| . 


k 


„ 


141 6 


41 


7 






^ 




B'Sni „ 


» 69 


8 




16 


42 


38 


43 




''^?I 


Job 


121 


42 


8 


6 


8 


63 




^i^i „ 


33 32. 


9 




17 


44 


89 


44 


." 


JIB'n 


„ 


8 8 


43 


9 


7 


9 


7 


,7 


'1? i ., 


34 6 


10 




20 


47 


43 




. 


If? 




1.131 


44 


15 


8 


10 


8 




cnarui joah. 


216 


11 






48 


44 


47 




1B« 


„ 


1716 


46 




9 


11 


9 




'!!?] 


„ 


811 


12 




19 


46 


41 


46 




U'SOS 


„ 


18 3 


46 




10 


12 


10 




W^?' 


I Sam. 


' 117 


18 






49 


45 


48 




IBM 


„ 


19 6 


47 






13 


12 




n'MTini 


„ 


10 6 


14 






60 


46 


49 




m 


„ 


„ 28 


48 




11 


14 


11 




niajnnD 


^1 


„ 13 


15 






61 


47 


60 




1BK 


„ 


3425 


49 




16 








'«! 


^, 


35 8 


16 






66 


48 


62 




■ in'^»*i 


„ 


3S 4 


50 




16 


16 






. mah 


„ 


38 24 


17 






43 


40 


43 




'rS 


„ 


„ 19 


61 




13 


16 


13 






^^ 


SO 6 


18 






64 


49 


61 




fn'Si* 


„ 


35 1 


52 




14 




14 




n'^?!!!?? 


2 Sam 


3 2 


19 






46 


42 


46 




init'p 


„ 


4117 


53 




17 


17 


16 




'=»ni 


„ 


5 2 


20 






34 








T.?1«o 


Cant. 


4 9 


64 


12 


18 


18 


16 




noh 


^^ 


1914 


21 




22 


86 




39 




n^l-^l 


Ruth 


114 


55 


17 


19 


19 


18 




tnhi 


^^ 


20 9 


22 








36 






nasi 


„ 


2 9 


56 






22 


23 




i3;i 


1 Kings 12 12 


23 








36 






^=? 


„ 


315 


57 




21 


23 


20 




»3B 


„ 


2121 


24 






37 




38 




vm 


Dan. 


4 24 


58 




52 


21 


21 




'?? 


^, 


,.29 


25 






39 








II-IK 


Ezra 


4 9 


59 




20 


20 


19 




'»nn 


2 Kings 13 6 


26 






40 




40 




"¥?? 


,, 


,, 9 


60 






31 






•'iT^n? 


Isa. 


3712 


27 






41 




41 




m« 


Neh. 


3 6 


61 




26 


82 


28 




»ry.^ 


,j 


4122 


28 






38 




39 




nD< 


1 Chron. 9 40 


62 




26 


24 


24 


. 


njlpni 


Jerem. 


917 


29 






32 


60 


36 




''"''^?! 


,j 


26 7 


63 




22 


27 


25 




"?? 


^^ 


1915 


80 






33 


61 


36 




'n4» 


„ 


27 18 


64 




24 


26 


27 




»?'?? 


„ 


36„9 


31 






31 




34 




«Syate'»n 


„ 


,.30 


65 






26 






»t?nn 


„ 


333/^183 
























23 




20 




'?? 


» 


3916 


M 



On comparing these Lists as represented by the respective 
columns, it will be seen (1) that there are altogether sixty-five 
such anomalies; (2) that B which tabulates fifty-three only omits 
the following twelve Nos. 4, 8, 16, 17, 27, 32, 34, 44, 54, 56, 57 
and 59; (3) that C which records fifty-one omits fourteen, viz. 
Nos. 8, 16, 19, 33, 38, 41, 54, 55, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62 and 65; (4) that 
which registers fifty-five omits the following ten Nos. 4, 8, 14, 
23, 27, 32, 34, 41, 56 and 57; (5) that f records only twenty -two 
instances altogether and thus omits no fewer than forty-three 
of these anomalies, and (6) that no two Lists follow the same 
order in the enumeration of these phenomena, as is shown by the 
numerals in the respective columns which indicate the sequence 
in the several Lists as compared with the order of the books, 
chapter and verse in the Bible. There can, therefore, be no 
doubt that these Massorahs proceed from different Schools of 
textual critics and that they are based upon different recensions 
of the Hebrew text which were Model Codices of the respective 
Schools of Massorites. This is, moreover, confirmed by the fact 
that Lists M, B and £^ do not specify the number of these 

J On nanS Numb. 15 24 in the printed Massorah Jacob b. Chayim re- 
marks tKnaT Mioaa '>o^ t^'htt non yho n'a }0 nn Kim c|^n ion 'h 

2 The heading of List E in Orient 4446 is as follows «1^K ^vom pVa }0«D 
piOD I'Sana A #»</n; Words which are dr/eclive of AUp/t in Iho vtiddle of the verte. 
This is very remarkable, since five of the twenty-two instances registered in 
this List are not in the middle of the verso, viz. Levit 11 43; Deut 38 67; 
2 Sam. 19 14; Mai. 1 14; Ps. 1.^9 20; in one instance the word begins t)io vei-se, 
viz. Ruth 1 14 and in two it actually ends the verse, viz. Numb. 16 24; Deut. .12 32. 
This shows beyond doubt that the heading was originally absent altogether and 
that it was added by a later Nakdan who misunderstood the import of this 
Massorah. 



K - K § 15. 



— 6 — 



15. K - K 



anomalies, thus showing that the collection of them had not as 
yet been completed in the several Schools and that the Lists 
were still open for additions. 

But these by no means exhaust all the instances in the Bible. 
For, apart from these Lists, which give the anomalies in question 
more or less according to the order of the books in the Bible, j 
the Massorah registers those which belong to the same root in | 
separate Rubrics, and- also catalogues those separately which j 
respectively occur twice, • once without Aleph and once with it, as ; 
will be seen from the following Lists. The materials, therefore, for j 
a complete List must be gathered from the differentMassoretic | 
Rubrics, Thus for instance | 

'an letter n § 19 'n'^« letter « § 712 

nan letter n g i24 lO"* letter « § 79G j 

"'^yiT? letter ' § 276 ibk letter » § 1033 | 

'^ynsf^ letter ' § 708 •«i2 letter a § CC \ 

Kaa letter 3 § 30 &c. &c. 'J letter J § 125 | 

These orthographical features, which are not considered 
anomalies in the Massoretic text, unquestionably exhibit the 
residue of a mode of spelling which was normal in olden times. 
This is attested by the Septuagint, which shows that the Ahph 
was frequently absent from the text from which this version was 
made, as will be seen from the following examples: 

SEPTUAGINT. 
inl yijg upon the earth fa = lf'\*Z 

i%<PQVceyp.ttToguin(ov through DlkJO 

tlieir intolence 
dttpavutd'aai thall be h-ought ISC' 

to nouglU 
xul id'sro aTul enlahlMed Df;} 
Sixa^ovrat they qnaneV Wi'^ 



MASSORETIC TEXT. 
Hoi. 4 2 r» f>reak out 
„ 4 18 n'SJO her rulers 

„ 5 16 '0?''*^ *haU aeknotcledge 

their guilt 
„ 13 1 °i*^. and he offended 
Micah 7 2 ta^M) ihey lie m vait 

We must now advert to the manner in which these words 

are treated, in the St Petersburg Codex of A. D. 916. The List 

itself does not occur, nor indeed is its existence referred to in 

this MS. The same is the case with Harley MS. 5710—11, the 

Massorah of which is in many respects more like that in the 

St. Petersburg MS. than any other Massorah. It will be seen that 

no less than twelve words, registered in this Rubric as wanting 

Aleph, occur in the Latter Prophets of which this MS. consists. 

On two of the twelve, viz. n^^ns Isa. 37 12 and SrU Mai. 1 14, 

there is no Massoretic remark whatever in the Massorah Parva 

of this Codex, two of them, viz. nsK^rn. Zech. 6 9 and D-nK^ei 

Ezek. 11 6, are here written with Al^iph, whilst the remaining nine 

are variously treated, as will be seen from the following List: 

Jerem. 32 36 p »«'B '»"" Isa. 41 22 'na 'Dn b|^k ninpn 

„ 39 16 'P »' '=» Jerem. 9 17 'on natrni 

Ezek. 42 6 'p '^3»' '^2T „ 19 15 '^ •«' '33 

Micah 1 15 'p »»' '3K „ 20 9 'p ri»aj n'aj 

yny' Ps. 139 20, which is given in all the three Lists, con- 
stitutes one of the differences between the Easterns and Westerns. 
The former have ■hi-iok' with Aleph in the text. - The Quinta, which 
follows the Western recension, reads it xagsnixgavdv 6e have 
provoked thee = i|nD:, thus showing that the difference originally 
was not simply orthographical but radical, nfrn too (Ruth 1 14) 
constitutes one of the differences between the Easterns and 
Westerns. 3 It is remarkable that, though this anomaly also 
occurs Jerem. 9 17, the latter does not constitute a difference 
between these two Schools of textual critics. The treatment of 
this anomaly in the Massorah Parva is very various. Sometimes 
it is simply remarked in the margin against the word exhibiting 
this exception % 'on '*? it does not occur again tcithout Aleph; some- 
times 'K TOn n '1 '3 twice, thrice, or four times toithout Aleph, if the 
word in question exhibiting this anomaly occurs more than once; 
sometimes 'ipa k .'"lern .n'3 ,T3 ,k"3 ja in one of the fifty-one, ffty-fmir, 
or fifty-eight words in ike Scriptures, which want Aleph; and some- 
times there is a Kej-i on it substituting in the margin the word 
in question with the Aleph, as will be seen from a reference to 
the List of the Keihiv and Keri under letter 3, § 480 &c., The 
Massorah, Vol. II, pp. 55—93. 

* Comp. VoUers, Zeiltehrifl fiir die alttettamerUUche Wwemehaft III, 226, 
Giessen 1883. 

I Comp. The MatMorah, letter H, § 6.W, Vo). I, p. 697. 
3 Comp. The Ma»»orah, letter H, § 634, Vol. I, p. 697. 



TO = § 15. 

K* — Seventeen words have no audible Aleph and are as follows. 
This List is from Arund. Orient 16, fol. 2466, on l Cbron. 12 38. 
Of this Rubric I collated fourteen Lists, twelve in MSS. and 
two printed, as follows: six in Arund. Orient 10; (I) on ifhx^ 



; 1 Sam. 1 17, fol, 35 rt; (II) on Sw Ezek, 39 26, fol, 1926; (III) on 
! »^K3 Amos 4 10, fol. 2o6o, where it is given as a contrast to 
j the Rubric tabulating the opposite phenomena; (IV) on rryi 
1 Chron. 12 39, fol. 24 g6; (V) on ni3>t^a 1 Chron. 28 19, fol. 2560, 
where it is again given as a contrast to the List registering 
the phenomena of an opposite nature; (VI) on niern Neh, 3 13, 
fol. :<80fe; (VII) Add. l.'),45i, fol. 180a, on -r^rht 1 Sam. 1 17; 
(VIII) Vienna MS. No. 35 on nieirn Neh. 3 13;' (IX) Cambridge 
Add. 465 on •![rbt 1 Sam. 1 17; (X) the same MS. on n~itf 
1 Chron. 12 39; (XI) Orient 2371, fol. 202a, on -npl?? 2 Kings 16 7; 
(XII) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, § 153, fol. ilGa; (XIII) the 
printed Massorah on -ipbe 2 Kings 16 7, and (XIV) Paris 
Ochlah Ve-Ochlah § 199. Though differently headed in the 
language of the Massorah, yet this Rubric is closely connected 
with the preceding one, inasmuch as the words herein registered 
want Aleph. The reason why these instances are grouped together 
separately is that the words in question only occur once in 
this anomalous form, and that in all other passages they have 
respectively an audible Aleph, as will be seen from the follow- 
ing Table: 

1 "1^?' is written "fiW Esther 5 C; 7 2; 9 12 

2 '31W1 „ „ '3-1TKFI1 Ps. 18 40; SO 12 
8 nis'n^ „ „ niKSfn^ isa. .37 TZ6 

4 'l>"5'l „ „ 'XB-j'1 Ezek. 47 9, 11 

5 lO^B „ „ lOK^B 2 Kings W 29; 16 10 

6 ipaSs „ „ -idksSb 1 Chron. 5 0; 2 Chron. 28 20 

7 «^a „ „ whri 19 times 

8 vffi] „ „ w'vi) 10 times 

9 inba „ „ inKi-a Ps. 62 5; Job 31 23 

10 D'lWn „ „ D'-iiDKn Gen. 39 22; Judg. 16 26 

11 niBB'ri „ „ niss'Kn Neh. 2 13; 3 14; 12 31 

12 nntf „ „ n''iH8' 46 times 

13 'IPS „ „ Wfe-J 10 times. 

Two things are evident from the above analysis of these 
thirteen instances, viz. (l) that each of the words in question is 
unique in this abnormal form. Hence the heading of this Rubric 
in the Vienna MS. No. 35 'k pp'oo tub pnira v =^ sixteen icords are 
unique in not having an audible Aleph, and in Orient 2371 ybov 
'iv yiTh ivb^ 'k "poa Hbf 'ip3 = sixteen words in the Scriptures have no 
audible Aleph and are without parallel. And (2) that in its normal 
form each of these words occurs again more than once. Bearing 
in mind these facts, it will be seen that the other four words, 
which are given in this Rubric to make up the seventeen, do 
not belong to this Massorah and have been added by later 
Massorites, who ignored its proper import o'KBh (1 Sam. 14 83) 
the first of these four is indeed written a'ah without Aleph in 
List I (Arund. Orient 16, fol. 35 a, 1 Sam. 1 17) and in List IX 
(Cambridge Add. 405 on 1 Chron. 12 38). In that case it 
might be loosely contrasted with 'Kchr; Prov. 8 36, which is 
also the Kal participle and has audible Aleph. But as all the 
other thirteen instances are exactly alike in prefixes and suffixes 
both in the abnormal and normal forms, it can hardly be con- 
ceded that the original compiler of this Rubric would here make 
a solitary exception and contrast the plural form o'cn with the 
singular 'Kfihi, which besides has also Vav conjunctive. Moreover, 
if this were its contrast, it would not belong to this List, but 
to the one which registers pairs (see below § 16). This is prob- 
ably the reason why o'eh is omitted altogether in the List 
here marked No. VI. Still more objectionable is una"" (Psi 139 20), 
which is the second of the four words. This abnormal form has 
no normal parallel at all, and though it is given in Lists 
Nos. IV, V and IX, it is rightly excluded from the other eleven 
recensions of this Rubric. It has evidently been inserted in those 
three Lists to make up the number i" = 17, which some of the 
headings have. As to the third of the four words, viz. wr^ 
Esther 5 12, it is difficult to conceive that the original Massorites, 
who have collated and registered such minute and exact contrasts 
in all the other thirteen instances should here contrast this Kal 
participle passive with ik"1|5 preterite, third person plural, unless 
they found the former written without Aleph in their MSS. The 
fourth word, viz. wvrp (Ps. 99 6), even if it had been written 
without Aleph, does not belong to this Massorah, since this form 
does not occur again with an audible Aleph, and hence is outside 
the scope of this Rubric. Accordingly there are really only 
thirteen words which properly belong to this Massorah, the other 
four words, as is often the case, having beeiK.added by later 
Massorites, who did not comprehend the real import of it This 
will also explain the altered heading of this Rubric in the List 
No. IX which is 'iro 3'n3i 'im nin 'iro "ro k^"i "ins nir 'K ipeo 16 pba v 



K — K § 16a-166. 



_ 7 „. 



§ 16c. X 



- ifxUm ioorda do not sound the Aleph, some of them are loritten 
without, it and tome are written with it. It, moreover, supplies the 
reason why we find the following addition at the end of this 
recension of the List pnnK i''?oa '3i'?b n-ir s)DBDKm w and one is 
fWBOim (Numb. 11 4), but there is a difference of opinion about some 
of the words in the List. Several of the Lists omit either noba 
2 Kings 16 7 or -ibj'?» 1 Chron. 6 26. This is frequently the case 
in the Massorah when two examples follow each other, which 
are either alike or resemble one another. In the Massorah 
Magna »» § 5 this Rubric is mentioned as exhibiting the opposite 
phenomena to the Lists in which the wrords with audible Af^ph 
are registered, in the following words pr6 •b^ x ppoa nb v prvei'r'm 
,., p^ ,2 "a'?03 -C»3 prr-sa'Di lUU on the contrary sixteen words have no 
audible Aleph, and are unique, the passofjes are Hnumeroted in 2 kings 
chap. 16. The latter part of this sentence is Jacob b. Chayim Ibn 
Adonijah's own invention, and it hardly needs to be added that 
the Massorah neither divides Kings into two separate books 
nor recognizes the divisions into chapters. 

re = § 16 a. 

K^ — Eight words respectively occur twice, tht first being withmd 
Aleph and the second icith Aleph. This List is from Harley 5710—11, 
Vol. I, fol. 2Ga,on D'aiitn Gen. 38 27. Hitherto the Massoretic 
Lists have registered the abnormal forms with Aleph defective 
without any direct mention of the normal forms, though their 
occurrence is distinctly implied in the preceding Rubric. Now 
in the List before us the Massorah restricts itself to words which 
not only exhibit the same phenomenon of being without Ahph. 
but which respectively are unique in this abnormal form and 
have severally a unique companion in the normal form. It will, 
therefore, be seen that rmrh 2 Kings 19 2.o, which is given both 
in the former List and in this List, is wrongly put in the former 
one, since the Massorah registers words which, though unique 
in their abnormal form, are not unique in their normal form, 
whereas rm^ with Aleph is as much an ha^xtx legomenon as 
rtttrh, and hence can properly only belong to this Massorah, the 
design of which is to register pairs. It is important to note that 
'Dip - rwanp and 'na = mnro in the heading denote the first of the 
pair and the second of the pair here adduced. This is evident 
from the import of this Massorah as well as from the order in 
which these pairs are ranged. In this recension this Massorah 
occurs nowhere else. In looking at the Rubric it will be seen 
that the first seven lines only have ••? = unique. The reason for 
this is that in tljftJilS., where they form the first line of the 
Massorah in the lower margin, the ••? in question, as is frequently 
the case, is placed above each word exhibiting this phenomenon. 
The close proximity of the remaining lines does not admit of 
the 'b with its long herfd being placed above the words of this 
Rubric, which extend to the second and part of the third lines. 
Hence the peculiar appearance of a part of this Massorah with 
the Lamed and a part without it. I call attention to this peculiarity 
here because it is of frequent occurrence, and because the 
presence of this letter in one part of a Rubric and its absence 
in the other part of the same Rubric might be interpreted to 
imply some emphasis. 

rt3 = § 16&. , 

)j^^ — Four groups of two words each respectively occur twice, 
the first time without audible Aleph awl the second, time with audible 
Al^. Of this Massorah I collated eleven Lists, eight in MSS. 
and three printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, foL 253fc, on r^trh 
2 Kings 19 25, which is the one I printed; (II) Arund. Orient. 16, 
foL 242a, on rwnBi i Chron. 7 1, where it is given as a contrast to 
the following Rubric; (III) Orient. 2365, fol. 23ft, on aair Gen. 25 24 ; 
(IV) Orient 2875 on b^n 1 Chron. 6 59, where it is likewise 
given as a contrast to the following Rubric; (V) Add. 15,451, 
fol 286, on C'BlKn Gen. 38 27; (VI) the same MS., fol. 261 ft, on 
mtnb 2 Kings 19 25; (VII) the same MS., fol. 470a, on nxici 
1 Chron. 7 i; (VIII) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah 11, § 155; (IX) 
Paris Ochlah Ve-Ochlah, § 201; (X) the printed Massorah 
on CMsin Gen. 25 24; and (XI) the printed Massorah on njjiBi 
1 Chron. 7 1. In List III the heading is 'nnai r^bvi B)*po vh -anp 'jit n 
•l^»l'pB. That Kj'pa is a clerical error for p-ea is evident from 
the fact that on o-alun Gen. 38 27 the Massorah Parva in the 
same MS. remarks »]^k p'ca '^j-m *\byt p^na vh 'anp '3it -i. On comparing 
this and the following Rubrics marked I'espectively § I6ft and c 
with the former one marked § 16 a, it will be seen that they 
are simply different recensions of the same Massorah. It so 
happens that of the eight pairs which exhibit the phenomenon 



under discussion, the word without Aleph occurs first, according 
to sequence of the chapters and the order of the Biblical books, 
in four of the pairs, whilst in the other four pairs the one with 
Aleph occurs first Now it is this principle which guided the 
Massorites in the division of the List into two Rubrics. As each 
one of the two members of the respective pairs is spelt diffei'ently 
from its fellow member, the heading of this Massorah in many 
of the MSS. is four pairs varj/ in thu'r xpelting. Thus for instance 
in Orient 236.S, Orient. 2350, fol. 60a; Orient 2365, fol. 236; 
Orient 2348, fol. 52a; Orient 2349, fol. 42a; on the word aain 
Gen. 35 24, the Massorah Parva heads it 'fiirna ^:^^ n, whilst 
Orient 2365, fol. 46ft, on rnei Gen. 46 13, heads it 'snwa 'nt •",. 
Though the List exhibited in § 16a is the more simple and 
hence the older form of this Massorah, yet it is by no means 
the oldest From the fact that the Massorah Parva in MS. 
Orient 2364, fol. 506, on o'BlKn Gen. 38 27, remarks Kb 'atp "jh a 
si'tk p'ca 'J'jn f\b» p'ea two jmirs the first nwmbei' of which has no 
audibly Aleph and the second his audible Aleph, it is evident that 
originally each pair was respectively made the subject of the 
Massorah, and that they were afterwards collected and formed 
into one Rubric. 



^, _ Four groups of two j^om-ds each respectively occur t^oice, 
i' I' first time with audible Aleph and the second without audible Aleph. 
As has already been remarked, this Massorah gives the four 
pairs in which the word with Aleph occui's according to the 
sequence of the chapters and the order of the books in 
the Hebrew Scriptures. Of this Rubric I collated twenty-three 
Lists, twenty in MSS. and three printed — (I) Harley 5710—11, 
Vol. I, fol. 152o, on bKta Josh. 21 80; (II) Vienna Codex No. 35 on 
,^^^ Gen. 42 38; (III) Orient 1379, fol. 1046, on n»np^ Gen. 42 38; 
(iVy Orient 2349, fol. 53a, also on Gen. 42 38; (V) Orient 2348, 
fol. 63a, on the same passage; (VI) Orient 2363 on the same 
word; (VII) Orient 2365, fol. 43a, on the same word; (VIII) 
Orient 2350, fol. 946, on the same word; (IX) Orient 2212, 
fol. 166ft; (X) Orient 2375, fol. 274a, where the preceding Rubric, 
viz. § 16ft, is given as a contrast to this one; (XI) Orient 2376, 
fol. 117a, all on the word bta 1 Chron. 6 59; (XII) Arund. 
Orient 16, fol. 15 a, on «?sfK»8 Josh. 21 30; (XIII) the same MS., 
fol. 1526, on 1BT1 Jerem. 8 11; (XIV) the same MS., fol, 442ft, on 
btn 1 Chron. 6 59, where the preceding Rubric, viz. § 166, is 
given as the contrast to this Rubric; (XV) Orient 1471, fol. 1676, 
on 'nnxan 2 Sam. 23 37; (XVI) Add. 15,451, fol. 1596, on bixpp 
Josh, ii 30; (XVII) Add. 15,451, fol. 470a, on nwBi 1 Chron. 7 1, 
where it is given as a contrast to the former Rubric, viz. § 166; 
(XVIII) Add. 15,251, fol. 136a, on bHta Josh. 21 30; (XIX) Add. 
15,251, fol. 443a; (XX) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, § 154; (XXI) 
Paris Ochlah Ve-Ochlah, § 200; (XXII) the printed Massorah on 
,-^,, Gen. 42 38, and (XXIII) the printed Massorah on 1 Chron. 7 1 
on rm^Bi, where it is given as a contrast to the preceding 
Massorah. The headings in the different MSS. of this Massorah 
greatly differ. Thus for instance: (1) as the phraseology of this 
Rubric is the same. List XVII heads it p'an pyr 'n four pairs are 
alike. (2) But though alike in phraseology yet as the members 
of these pairs differ in spelling, the heading in the same MS. 
here marked List XVI and List X, has •t'?nna "jii n /w'»' 
pairs vai-y. (3) Moreover, as the variety in spelling of one and 
the same phrase is a source of misleading to the scribes, who 
would naturally make them uniform, the Massorah Parva in 
Orient 1379, fol. 1046, Orient 2348, fol. 63 a, and Orient 2349, 
fol. 53a, on innnpi Gen. 42 38, remarks 'TBa "3it "i four pairs are 
mislecuiing. It is to be remarked that this Massorah has a 
mnemonic sign. I have found it in the following three different 
forms: 

K'BK nro"? npi bw I. 
Enquire after and call Nahari the physicinn. 

The four Chaldee words which constitute this sign are a 
rendering of the four words which exhibit this phenomenon, as 
will be seen from the following: 

I 'nlKan •> Sam. 2» .'JT , i ^««a'P Josh. 21 .W 

!{ nn3f> = \ :_::: , „ „„ i ^^ = i 



■H 



Vi'ian 1 Chron. 11 .S9 
\wy\ Jerem. 6 14 

«T? „ 8 11 



SB'S 1 Chron. 6 69 
wififJi Gen. 42 »8 

«rrip^i „ 44 29 






To give point to the sentence, the Ma"ssorites did not 
reproduce the third instance of this anomaly, but took the 
proper name nn; Nahari, which occurs in 1 Chron. 11 39, where 
the instance 'nn$.n without Aleph occurs. This form of the sign. 



K § 17a. 



8 — 



§ 176— 18a. K — K 



which I have inserted in the text, is the most common. I have 
found it in ten MSS. and no less than eleven times, (I) and 
(II) Arund. Orient. 10, fol. ir>rt, on hK^a Josh. 21 30, and fol. l.'iSfe 
on 1BT1 Jerem. 8 11; (III) Orient. ".349, fol. 33a; (IV) Orient. 1379, 
fol. I04fc; (V) Orient. 2348, fol. 63«; (VI) Orient 2650, fol. 946; 
(VII) Vienna MS. No. 25, all on inK-j|5^ Gen. 42 38; (VIII) Add. 
15,451, fol. 1596, on b«ta Josh. 21 3o!'(IX) Orient. 2212, fol. 1666; 
(X) Orient. er.Tf., fol.' 271 a; and (XI) Orient. 2376, fol. 117a, all 
on "n-ian 1 Chron. 11 39. 

WOH annj*? x-ip- bMKV IL 
Saul will call in the physician to the sneezers. 

This sentence is obtained in the same way as the former, 
only that the Massoretic School from which it proceeds have 
translated the proper name in accordance with the meaning of 
the root. When it is borne in mind that the Hebrews exclaim 
ttni'DK when one sneezes in their presence, the play upon the 
import of the proper name "-in? will be appreciated. Indeed we 
should have assigned the same sense to the former recension of 
this mnemonic sign, but for tlie fact that ^'\nb is expressly 
pointed with Jhthach in some of the MSS., thus showing that 
those who made the sign did not intend it as the plural, but as 
a proper name. Two MSS. have this recension, (I) Orient. 2363, 
fol. 43 rt, and (II) Orient. 2365, fol. 43o, botli on inK^pi Gen. 42 38. And 

K'CK "-ins*? b«z-'n «-\p III. 
Mishael cn.ll.ed KaJuiri the ■physicina. 

This recension I have only found in the printed Massorah, 
wliere it occurs twice, once in the Massorah Parva on inxnpi 
Gen. 42 38 and once in the Massorah Magna on hkibi 1 Chron. 7 l. 



X» — ^lle following icords are unique with nndihfe Aleph. To 
understand the import of this Massorah it is necessary to ex- 
hibit in parallel columns the abnormal words which constitute 
it, with the same words in their normal state: 

1 D3«3jf is C35t*« Exod. 10 24; Deut. 12 C etc. with : and K transposed 

2 tio»*aN „ !\0>ivi 1 Chron. (5 8, 2t-. «.M0 

.3 wan „ wan Gen. 42 20; Numb. 20 12 etc. without U'lffi-iih in ». 

4 Vl"i!«' „ V'^t?' Peut, 4 34; 5 15 etc. 
o '»1^3 „ '63 Joreni. 38 11, 11 

G B'Ka „ 's-Ka Isa. 34 H; Joel 2 20 

7 noKSaa „ noSoa Dan. 11 9; Ezra 7 1; 8 1. 

5 '?''«„ >f\ 1 Chron. 2 12; 2 Chron. 11 18 etc. 
9 niaK7io has no proper parallel 

10 D'K'2-ivn is D'aii:n Neh. 4 1; 2 Chron. 21 16 etc. 

11 T\)Hi „ niM3 Ps. 33 1; 147 1 etc. 

12 'yiTK „ 'i'liT Isa. 51 6; «3 5; Ps. SO 22 

13 niKse „ ni'JS Neh. 12 47; 13 10 

14 nKSia „ n^e3^b 2 Sam. 18 22 

15 D^ss**! „ DSB'n Jerem. 25 4; 29 19 etc. 

To this we must add the two additional instances from the 
second recension of this List marked § 176, viz. 

16 nn» is Tin 1 Kings 11 14, 19, 21 etc. 

17 nlKa-i „ nla-i Ezra 2 69; Neh. 7 71. 

Now on comparing the abnormal forms with the normal 
ones, it will be seen that the contrast is not between an audible 
and silent Aleph, since the words in question exhibit in their 
normal form no less than seven different features. Thus eight 
of the words, here marked Nos. 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12 and 17, are 
regularly written without Aleph altogether; two marked Nos. 15 
and 16 are regularly written with He, one marked No. 13 is 
normally written with Yod, one marked No. 1 has the Aleph and 
Nun transposed, and one (viz. No. 3) has in its normal form no 
Dagesh in the Aleph, one (Viz. No. 9) has no proper parallel. 
Hence there are only three words out of the whole List, viz. 
those marked Nos. 6, 11 and 14, which have an inaudible Aleph 
in their regular forms, and of which it can be said that the 
contrast is between an audible and inaudible Aleph. The meaning 
of the Massorah, therefore, is that fifteen words according to 
the one recension, or seventeen according to the other, are 
severally written in one instance with audible Aleph, while in 
all other instances they have no Aleph at all, or are written 
with He or Yod instead of Aleph, or, in the few cases where 
they have the Aleph, it -is inaudible. Hence the different 
Massoretic remarks in the Massorah Parva on the respective 
words. Thus the Massorah Parva in Orient 2365, fol. 117a, on 



wan Levit 23 17, remarks 'vrb^ 'Vii n it is four times with Dageah; 
Orient 2365, fol. 161 rtj on Witjic'?, remarks v^vh D'lp p3 Nun and 
Aleph are transposed; Orient 2210, fol. 140a; Orient. 2369, fol. 141a, 
on n-TK 1 Kings 11 17, remark tibi 'b unique and with Patiiach. 
This recension, which is manifestly old, since it does not as yet 
fix the number of these instances, is to be found in the MSS. 
from Yemen. As here printed, it is taken from Orient 1379, 
fol. 306 fl, on toKsat^ Numb. 32 24. Exactly the same List is to be 
found in Orient 2348, fol. I8O6, and Orient 2349, fol. 1206, on the 
same word. The absence of catchwords and the remark •)■?« p'BO 'b 
unique with audible Aleph after each word show that the Rubric 
is compiled from the Massorah Parva on the respective passages. 

r> = § 176. 
K* — Seventeen words have atidible Ateph. The difference 
between this recension and the former consists not only in the 
fact that it gives two more instances, viz. ttk 1 Kings 11 17 and 
nlK3-i Dan. 11 12, but in definitely fixing the number of these 
anomalies at seventeen. Of this recension I collated seventeen 
Lists, fourtee'i inKSS. and three printed — (I) Harley 5710—11, 
Vol. II, fol. 1106, on B>KS Amos 4 10 which I have printed; 
(II) Orient 44.4.'i, fol. 476, on ffiD»ra»n Exod. 6 24; (III) Arund. 
Orient, fol. 206rt[, on B>«a Amos 4 10; (IV) the same MS., fol. 256a, 
on nla»f^tt l Chron. 28 19; ,(V) the same MS., fol. 308 a, on mKj 
Ps. 93 5; (VI) the same MS,, fol. 3806, on niBtrn Neh. 3 13, where 
it is given as a concrast to § 15; (VII) Vienna Codex No. 35 
on BiDf2Ki Exod. 6 24; (VIII) Add. 21,160, fol. 144, on the same 
word; (IX) Aud. 21,161, fol. 606, on -hk 1 Kings 11 17; (X) Add. 
15,451, fol. 416, on e^D^'Si?! Exod. VI 24; (XI) the same MS., 
fol. 116a, on EO>t.3j{^ Numb. 32 24; (XII) the same MS., fol. 469a, 
on '^"Ki 1 Chron. 2 13; (XIII) Orient 2376, fol. 1136, on the same 
word; (XIV) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, § 152; (XV) Paris Ochlah 
Ve-Ochlah, § 198 ; (XVI) St Petersburg Codex of A. D. 91 6, fol. 210a, 
on niSK^aa Hag. 1 13, and (XVII) the printed Massorah Finalis 
letter k § 4. But though this Rubric is ^ne of the most ancient 
constituent parts of the Massorah, as is seen from the fact that 
it is to be found both in Orient 4445 and in the St Petersburg 
Codex, it simply represents a certain class of textual critics 
who founded it upon the Model Codices of thefe respective School. 
This is evident from the fact that certain MSS., which have this 
Massoretic Rubric, not only write the very words in question 
differently from the Rule, but have different Massoretic canons, 
thus showing the traces of two or more different recensions of 
the text Thus Add. 21,161, one of the most ancient and most 
valuable MSS. in the British Museum, which gives this Rubric 
(see No. IX), nevertheless reads in Jerem. 25 3 a|tt>n and though 
the scribe who annotated this Codex put a Yod over the word 
between the Caph and Mem,, viz. natfn, the Massorah Parva simply 
remarks against it " n-n- the Yod is redundant and no attempt 
was made to correct the He into an Aleph in harmony with this 
Massoretic Rule. In Jerem. 32 21 the original reading here ex- 
hibited is ?1-iai, but a later scribe who followed the Rubric 
before us put the Aleph above the word and made it rnrai. In 
Jerem. 38 12 the reading is -ibai as in verse 11, and the Massorah 
Parva remarks against both passages 'p ■'-I'^ai, read "iijai with two 
Yod^ at the end, which is quite at variance with our Massoretic 
Rubric. The St Petersburg Codex too has "I'sa in the text, and the 
Massorah Parva remarks against it 'na -Ki'ja 'b unique it is written 
'Ki'?a. It is also to be remarked that the Massorah Parva of the 
St Petersburg Codex onnoK^o? Hag. 1 13 has it p^e r fa tj^K 'BO 'b 
ma B^^K unique with audible Aleph, it is of the seventeen wo'i'ds which 
have Dagesh in the Aleph, and not only has the Aleph actually 
Dagesh in the text, viz. niaK^ea, but in the Massorah Magna, 
where the Rubric is given, every one of the seventeen words 
which constitute it has Dagesh in the Aleph, thus affording 
another proof that the different Massoretic Schools had different 
rules for Dageshing this letter (see above § 5). I must add that 
mK3 Ps. 93 5 is pointed njw with Pathach under the Nun in 
Arund. Orient 16, Add. 21,161, Add. 15,451, Orient 2201, Orient 
2374, Orient 2875, Orient 2376; whilst Harley 5710—11, Add. 
15,250 and Orient 1475 have it mw, and no Chateph Pathach under 
the Aleph. The addition of wn Job. 33 21 to this Massorah, which 
is to be found in the Paris Ochlah Ve-Ochlah introduced with 
the remark Kmioao ia!?i and apart from this Massorah, proceeds 
from a later editor who mistook the import of this Rubric. 



K* — EigM words in the hook of Samuel are written in tiie 
text with Aleph in the middle, hut are read toiihoui it. Though these 
eight words are thus included under the same heading as having 



« — K s iHfc. 



§ iHh, K - « 



Rovcrally a BuporfUioiiB Af^-ph, it musk not bo understrf>od that 
tho Massorah Parvn in tlio difforont MP5S. lias ilie f>nme romark 
n^ainRt oacli <»f tlioui. h\ Honio MSS. it is remarked against tlieso 
words 'K ■vn' thf, AU-ph in mtpcrJluniM, in some 'K 'p ifh fhv, Aleph in 
not in hf rffnd, and in some ilio w(n'd is repeated in the spelling 
as it should be road. Thus for instance on i]c^*] 1 Sam. IH 29, 
Add. 40& Cambridge University Library; Add. ir>,2.'>0 British 
Museum, have p "ro 'h unupui in thin upclUvfj; Arund. Orient. HJ, 
Harley 6710—11, Hnrley 5720 and Add. iri,2.'>l have 'p »)oin rmd 
*W^., t^»oy tl>"8 ""1^ only CftH^ol *l»o ^%>/*, but substitute Vav for j 
it, whilst the printed Ma8s«)rah Parva makes no remark whatever j 
on this word. The same is the case with "thso. Here there is not j 
only a Kt»-i. against all the three passages where it occurs, but i 
the Km-i substitutes Vav for the AUiph, viz. 'p •ilso. Those throe } 
instances are also the subject of a special Massorah.' Add. 2l,i6i, j 
which is one of the oldest and most valuable MSS. in the British 
Museum reads o-^lptp.? in 2 Sam. 11 l. Tlio' scribe, however, who 
supplied it with the Massorah, put an Al^h on the top of the 
word O'p^i^n, and remarked against it '"? '»t Tn« the Aleph is evfm^- 
flrunu, nniqm. That this Rubric exhibits the earliest attempt to 
catalogue these anomalies, is evident from the fact that the 
Massorites have here restricted themselves to one book. In this 
original form I have only been able to find this List in the 
Yemen MSS. I collated five Lists of it: (I) Orient. 1471, foL 1176, 
which is here printed; (II) Orient 2210, fol. 776; (III) Orient 2869, 
fol. 7»a; (IV) Orient 2870, fol. 86a, and (V) Orient 287J, fol. 90&, 
all on »)9tHi I Sam. 18 29. It is very remarkable that they all 
give iH»9 as the reading in 2 Sam. 28 20, whereas tho text is 
here 'ion. The five MSS., however, really amount only to one, 
since these Yemen MSS. are exact copies of e^ch other. 

> Comp. The Matam-ah, lottor 3, § 81, Vol, I, p. Iflfi. 

n'» - § 18&. 

^^ — Fotiy-eight toordt have AXepit. in the muJdlii, hut ar» reatl 
feithota it. This List is an expansion of the former Rubric. It 
registers the same anomalies throughout^ the whole Hebrew 
Bible. Though I have hitherto only been able to find a separate 
List for the books of Samuel, there can hardly be any doubt 
that the Massorites at first sought out and catalogued these 
abnormal forms in each book separately, and that the fusion of 
all the separate Lists into one Rubric is a later development 
We have already noticed this plan, upon which the Massorites 
originally worked, in § 14. The conversion, however, of the 
different Lists into one general Eubric must have been effected 
at an early period, since it is already given both in Orient 4446, 
fols. 455— 46a and in the St Petersburg Codex of A. D. 916, foL 2l8a, 
and is mentioned in Add. 21,16 J, foL I77a, on iriKyi Ps. 89 11. 

Of this Massorah I collated fourteen Lists, eight in MSS. 
and five printed as follows: (I) Harley 6710— 11, Vol. I, foL 87o, 
on iiBptin Exod. 6 7, which I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient 16, 
foL I28ff, on -rjKj Isa. 10 13; (III) the same MS., fol. 213 a, on 
yrt^ Nah. 2 11; (IV> Add- 15,461, foL 210a, on n^n 2 Sam. 10 17; 
(V) the same MS., foL 886&, on 'inkyii Ezek. 48 27^ (VI) the same 
MS., foL 478 a, on Ttton 1 Chron. U 22; (VH) Add. 1 5,261, foL 441 6, 
at the end ; (VIH) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah I, § 86 ; (IX) Paris Ochlah 
Ve-bchlah, § 103; (X) St Petersburg Codex, foL 218a, on -n^ 
Zech. 11 5; (XI) Orient 4446, fols. 465— 46a, on Exod. 5 7; 
(XH) the printed Massorah in the square enclosing the word vri 
Ezek. 1 1; (XHI) the same in the square surrounding the word 
ni Job. 1 1, and (XIV) the printed Massorah Finalis, letter it, § 7. 

To show how the words constituting this Rubric are treated 
in the MSS., I cannot do better than exhibit in parallel columns 
the Massorah Parva of the two oldest Codices against each of 
them. As no less than twenty out of the forty-eight anomalies 
occur in the Latter Prophets, I give the text of the St Petersburg 
Codex which embraces this portion of the Hebrew Scriptures. 
The blank against the words in this Codex indicates that it has 
no Massoretic remark against them, whilst the dots in Add. 2],161 
show* that the text here is wanting. 



1 




H,M.AI)l).8l,ir.l 


HT. I'Kl 


VAtHHVRa 


1 








— . 








- — 


--rr-.- 


=--;.:v. --:..v 


P 


Joretn 


.10 V, 


'K 'p tih ^'pi:;' 








'p TPIB' 


TDKy 


7 


i „ 


&1 


'K 'p tth «»»B*1 








'k 


una-! 


8' 


: Ezek. 


» H 


K TH' 'h ■iKS'r 




'P 


iKB'r 'ns iB'KJi 


IS'KM 


(1 


„ 


n 67 

35 r, 
2H 24 
30 3 
43 27 










'p '"7 


nioMfn 

1BKS' 

D'pitB'ri 
tl'riKS's'i 


10 

11 
15 
l.t 
14 


„ 


47 R 










P'TH 


WB-131 


Ifi' 


IfoR. 


4 a 


M 'p kS TiSKOKI 


KD^n M 


'pHh^ 


'na "la tikdhow 


IICKDKJ 


1.! 


1- " 


10 14 


K nn' 








pV« 


onp^i 


17 




„ 


» 14 


Kin' 








P9h , 


^f 


18 




Joel 


2 6 


•h 








p'rn: 


niiKB 


19 




Zecli. 


11 5 


'h K in* i^tfyu) 








pV« 


is'yKi 


20 





U.M.ADD.St,l«l 


ST. PETBKSBURO CODEX 






lUL 10 13 . . . . 


Tp kSi '3'n ysD'a IJ 'on n"D p pVw 


vMt* 




» >i =«8 


. ♦ . 


-prrMD 


rnw 




SO 6 




'ptf.?ln 


^^ 


3 1 


» 41 26 


, . , . . 


?^ 


ni^i 


4 ! 


Jerem. S IS 


nlKSj 


X>ytt '3 i^ '•? p 'h 


niTjib miKa 


5 , 


n » W 


niKh 




miKss 


c! 



It will be seen from tho above Table ( i ) that all the twenty 
words have Aleph in the text of tho oldest dated Codex; (2) that 
fourteen out of these twenty anomalies are treated as Ketkiv and 
Keri, which are here indicated in two ways, one by giving tho 
variant in the margin -with the remark >p - re/ul bo, which is the 
usual way, and the other by simply giving the questionable 
letter ^ith the remark 'p '^ - not read. That these two modes of 
expression mean identically tho same thing, both indicating a 
K«ri, is evident from Nos. 7 and 9, where, as will be seen from 
the Table, they are interchangeably used in the two Codices; 
and (8) that five words with this anomaly have not the redundant 
letter marked, but are simply described as unique (>b), whilst 
one word (No. 11) is not noticed by the Massorites at all. In 
Codex 21,161, however, tho whole treatment is different Out of 
the ten instances, which this important fragment contains, three 
are written in the text without the redundant letter (Nos. 7, 
9, 16), which, however, the Massorites placed in each case, above 
the word- with the remark in the margin that it is not to be 
read. No. 7 again, which is simply marked as nniquie ('^) in the 
St. Petersburg Codex, has here against it a Keri {% p >h), whilst 
exactly the reverse is the case in No. 19. There can, therefore, 
be no doubt that these two recensions proceed from two 
different Schools as the two Massorahs cannot be fused. 

The design of this Rubric is to catalogue the words which 
have inadvertently received AUph when the Scribes gradually 
inserted this letter in certain expressions in harmony with the 
later development of Hebrew orthography (see above § 13). The 
List is, therefore, by no means to be regarded as exhaustive 
and the statement in the heading that there are forty-eight 
examples must be taken as simply referring to the number 
given in this Rubric. That this Massorah is only an attempt to 
register the anomalies in question and that it was intended to 
be gradually completed by successive Massorites as is often the 
case, is evident both from its arrangement and the subsequent 
additions contained in the different recensions of it The form 
in which I have printed it exhibits the oldest recension. This is 
evident both from its order and catchwords, which are identical 
with the recension of this Massorah in the St Petersburg Codex 
dated A. D. 916 as far as the passages are here enumerated. 
After stating that this Rubric contains forty-eight such instances, 
this Codex simply gives the first twenty-three, skips over 
twenty-two, and concludes by giving the three instances at the 
end with the remark s]1d tb = etc. Now the order in w^hich these 
twenty-three instances are enumerated is exactly the same as 
that of the Massorah which I hav^ printed. Moreover, in eighteen 
out of the twenty-three instance^ the St Petersburg Codex gives 
the anomalous expressions by themselves without any catchword to 
indicate the passages in which they occur, whilst in five instances 
(2 Sam. 28 16, 16, 20; Jerem. 2 13, 13) it gives catchwords of 
single expressions and omits the anomalies themselves. This is 
exactly the case in the Rubric which Ijiave printed; but not in 
any of the other eleven 'Lists which I have collated. There can, 
therefore, be no doubt that the Rubric, as I have printed it, 
exhibits the oldest recension of this Massorah. Now on carefully 
examining the order in which the anomalies are enumerated it 
will be seen that this Massorah originally concluded with ar; 
(Neh. 18 16), and that the ten instances which follow are out 
of their regular order and hence are additions by later Massorites, 
who tried gradually to develop the List This is, moreover, 
confirmed by the fact that in seven out of the ten Lists which 



K - » § 19. 



10 — 



§ 20. K - » 



contain it, jkt concludes the Rubric (Nos. II, III, IV, VIII, IX, 
XI, XII). 

It is this unfinished state of this Massorah which accounts 
for the circumstance that some Lists omit instances which the 
other Lists have, whilst some Lists have appended to them words 
which are not to be found in other recensions. Thus 

List No. II omits 

D'BKB'Pi Ezek. 28 2G iKaiS 2 Sam. 23 15 

List No. Ill omits 

O'BKtfn Ezek. 28 26 D'K-ian 2 Sam. 11 24 

List No. IV omits 

O'tSKtfn Ezek. 28 26 

List No. V omits 

n'lM Jerem. 2 \n in>«^? 2 Kings 20 12 

O'^'kS Nell. 6 7 M>»B"i Jerem. 51 9 

BK^J Judg, 4 21 ntiKJs „ S 13 

and adds 

c'»n|5 Pb. 99 c 

List No. VI omits 

n'ws Jerem. 2 13 JlKiO Josh. 13 20 

='t?«fn Ezek. 28 26 "iwaa 2 Sam. 28 15 

^Kl-iK Hos. 10 14 iMbO „ 23 16 

nn»a Jcrem. 2 13 

adds 

CHif Ps. 99 6 
and gives twice 

nKB<D Deut. 24 10 
List No. VII omits 

DtMS Dan. 1 4 

List No. VIII omits 

O'pufn Ezek. 38 26 
List No. X omits 

"inw Nah. 2 11 D'BKB'n Ezek. 28 26 

and adds 

'fiK^s Pa. 119 101 a^tt-p Ps. 99 6 

Lists Nos. XI and XII add 

'K^B Judg. IS 18 
List No. XIII adds 

DHbS Job 6 14 »Kf^ Judg. 13 18 

In the second edition of the Rabbinic Bible (Venice 1548— 49) 
the editor of Jacob b. Chayim's Massorah has wrongly omitted 
BWih. Add. 21,161, which is one of the oldest and best MSS. of 
the Bible in the British Museum, Jias not only dko^ with Aleph 
in the text (Job 6 14), but has a Massorah against it 'k 'p k"? = 
Aleph not read (fol. 1766). This, as will be seen from the above 
table (Nos. 7, 8, 16), is the very phrase which the Massorah in 
this MS. uses to indicate a Keri. Frensdorff's remark, therefore, 
that DKtt^ does not occur with Aleph, only applies to the printed 
editions. He is, however, wrong in ascribing the omission to 
Buxtorf (Ochhh Ve-Ochlah, § 103, p. 29, Notes), since it was the 
editor of the second edition of Jacolf b. Chayim's Rabbinic Bible 
who arbitrarily omitted it. Dr. Baer's remark to the same effect 
in his edition of Job according to the Massorah (Appendices 
critieae etc., p. 26, Leipzig 1876) is simply a repetition of 
Frensdorff's. 

B"» = § 19. 
K» — An alphabetical List of words ending in Aleph which 
respectively occur only once. This List, which contains 628 words 
terminating with AUph, I compiled myself (see notes on § 12). 
I have detected the following mistakes in the List since it has 
been printed: 

Omissions: 
»«;'?»'i Exra 4 13 »«'a»ni l Chron. 11 2 

»^ Prov. IH .W 'nj »^\f2h Dan. 2 6 

'on >«ia( ^ 10 18 '^0 K'sioi Isa 54 16 

The following 6 words occur more than once: 
•♦^P 2 Kings 12 21 ; 2 Sam 17 2T 
W,!"* Dan. 2 39; 35 

*r^p Jerem. 17 11; 1 Sam. 3 8 etc. 
»nn Zech. 9 6; Obadiah 12, 13 
••■JW Neh. 9 9; Gen. 3 6 etc. 

*f^^ » B 10; 2 Kings 9 26 etc. 

The following are typographical errors: 

>*ay:^ should be May!^ Dan. 7 19 

S'na ¥h 3 Sam. „ .. 2 Sam. i 



»»??'•!'? 


Should 


be 


Kb'na 


Ezra 


ft 16 




.1 Sam. „ 


» 


w?' 


Ps. 
2 Sam. 


127 2 


WJtM 


" 


" 


*t*l 


Judg. 


19 25 




'3 


= § 


20. 







K* — Ttoelve wm-ds have a sitperjluous Aleph at the end. Of 
this Massorah I collated twenty-five different Lists, eighteen 
in MSS. and seven printed, viz. (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, fol. 
144a, on>ra^iTn Josh. 10 24, which I have printed; (II) the same 
MS., Vol. I, fol. 185a, on rbijn i gam. 17 17; (III) Oriental 16, 
fol. 8a, on K«>rin Josh. 10 24; (IV) the same MS., fol. 46a, on 
ir^|5n 1 Sam 17; (V) the same MS., fol. 205 «, on rpj Joel 4 19; 
(VI) the same MS., fol. 866 i, on kIm Dan. 3 29; (VII) Orient 
1379, fol. 269a; (VIII) Orient. 2848, fol. 118a; (IX) Orient 
2850, fol. 220i; (X) Orient 2864, fol. 145a, all on mt'^ Numb. 
13 9; (XI) Add. 16,250, foL 320a, on »rp3 Joel 4 19; (XII) the 
same MS., fol. 378a, on m Dan. 3 29; (XIII) Add. 15,251, fol. 
442a, in the Appendix; (XIV) Add. I5,45i, fol. I52a, on msbitn 
Josh. 10 24; (XV) the same MS., fol. 3066, on Kiri Ezek. 1 ii'; 
(XVI) the same MS., fol. 451 5, on K-rch Ezra 6 15;' (XVII) Add. 
21,160, fol. 207a, on kib-; Numb. 13 9,- (XVIII) Babylonian Codexi 
fol. 1686, on K.7i5iriKi Ezek. 41 15; (XIX) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah 
I, § 87. (XX) Paris Ochlah Ve-Ochlah, § 104; (XXI) the printed 
Massorah on kibt Numb. 13 9; (XXII) the printed Massorah in 
the square enclosing the word 'iri Ezek. 1 I ; (XXIII) the printed 
Massorah in the square enclosing the word "bta Prov. 1 1; 
(XXIV) the printed Massorah on xijj Dan. 3 29, and (XXV) the 
printed Massorah in the square enclosing the word ruBb* 
Ezra 1 1. 

Though all the twenty-five Massorahs catalogue the same 
phenomenon, yet the headings which describe it exhibit no 
less than eight different forms of describing it I place the oldest 
form of it, which is that of the Babylonian Codex, first in the 
following list: 
No. XVIII nnis'n »i"id3 -k paoj a- |o in 

One of twelve which take Aleph at the end of the word; 
No. I xmrn »i"!D3 'k -i^n' a" 

Twelve toith superfluous Aleph at the end of the word; 
No. XII "in- 'piD-n 'ids 'k 're p'^ts a"" 

Twelve words are written with Aleph at the end of the word which 
is superfluous; 



No. VI 



m'n' 'niyn »iiDa 'k 're a" 



Twelve are toritten with Aleph at the end of the word, which is 

superfluous; 
Nos. X, XIX 'nia n'"?! na'n r|iDa "i^K Tn' p'?o a" 
Twelve wm-ds have a i^perfluous Aleph at the end of the word and 

they have no parallel; 
No. II '--ip K«?i 'a-n 'loa 'k "aon a*" 

Twelve which take an Aleph at the end of the word, hut it is not rmd; 
Nos. Ill, IV, V '-ip K^i 'nia-n »iiDa 'k 'ren p^ a-' fia in 
One of twelve words which are toritten with. AUph at the end of the 

word, but it is not read; 
Nos. XX— XXV jnp k^i 'nia-n "iioa 'k "ran a-' p in 
One of twelve which are tmHtten with AUph at the end of the word, 
but it is not read. 
Equally divergent is the manner in which the twelve words 
constituting this Rubric are treated in the Massorah Parva. 

At the end of the List here marked No. XII a later editor, 
who mistook the impor,t of this Massorah, added pan 'taai owa 
D1K0 (Job 31 7), which belongs to the forty-eight instances with 
a superfluous AUph in the middle word (see above k, § 18). It is 
one of two instances in which this word is abnormally so written 
for which reason it also constitutes a separate Rubric* In thiree 
of the Lists in the printed Massorah, hpre marked Nos. XXI, XXII 
and XXIV, the second K'p: (Jonah \ 14) is omitted. Such scribal 
omissions of one instance when the word constituting the 
anomaly occurs several times in the same Rubric, are very 
frequent The exceptional orthography of Kp: is also treated in 
a? separate Rubric.'* 

According to Ewald (Lehrbuch, § 16, 3), the AUph is 
designedly added at the end of these words to the final it, * and 
3 in order to impart special emphasis to tlie final syllable, tl^is 
being a mode of writing common in Arabic. Against this theory,, 
however, is to be urged that the majority of these words not 
only occur frequently in their normal form, but that some of 

' See 77/« Maintmah, letter 0, § 50, Vol. II, p. «)6. 
' See This Mtuttorah, letter 3, § 368, Vol. II, p. 285. 



K - « § 21. 



u 



8 21. K - K 



them are to be found in the very books which contain these 
isolated phenomena. Thus for instance wS>n the Kal preterite 
third person plural nol only occurs thirty-nine times without an 
Aleph at the end, but has not this supposed emphatic AUpk in 
the other two passages in Joshua (2 5; 5 6). The same is the 
case with 'Vl? which besides the passage in question occurs five 
times, of which no less than three instances are in this very 
book (1 Sam. 25 18; 2 Sam. 17 28, 28) without the Aleph. This 
is also the case with ok the Kal preterite third person plural 
which is not only without the Aleph at the end in all the other 
passages where it occurs (Judg. 19 25; 20 13; 1 Sam. 15 9; 22 
17; Ezek. 20 8; Prov. 1 30), but is written without it in this 
very book (Isa. 30 9; 42 24). Still more remarkable is the case 
with the word S::. This expression is only to be found in Daniel, 
where besides the anomaly in question it occurs thirteen times 
(Dan. 1 7; 2 49; 3 12, 13, 14, 16, 19., 20, 22, 23, 26, 26, 30) and 
no less than eleven times in the very chapter where this 
abnormal form occurs. Is it conceivable that the final Aleph 
which is to impart this emphasis should have been omitted in 
all other instances, that it should not even have been appended 
to these self-same words when they occur in the same books, 
and that a solitary instance should have been selected from 
twelve passages in the very same chapter to exhibit the supposed 
emphasis? 

A careful examination of the facts will show that the Aleph 
in all these twelve passages been introduced into the text has 
inadvertently, and that the Massorah rightly indicates it by the 
remark k "I'n" the Aleph is mperjlttom and is to be cancelled. In 
Numb. 13 9 the word wen which does not occur again in the 
Bible as we are here assured, was written without Aleph. The 
word now ends the verse and there can hardly be any doubt 
that it originally also stood at the end of the line. This was also 
the case with the other eleven words. An examination of the 
MSS. will show that Aleph is one of the letters frequently 
employed by the Scribes to fill out the line when the last word 
in it does not come up evenly to the margin. It is this Aleph, 
therefore, used for spacing out the line which a later Scribe 
joined to the words in question. This is confirmed by the fact 
that many MSS. have not the AUph in these twelve words. Those 
Massoretic Schools, however, who in their recensions found the 
Aleph at the end of the words in question were too scrupulous 
to remove it and they satisfied themselves by simply remarking 
that it is superfluous or that, though in the text, it is not to be 
read as part of the text, and is to be cancelled.^ 

1 Hence Professor Kautsoh in his last edition of Gesenius (Grammar § 2.S, 
3, Note 8, p. 76) rightly regards the AUph in these words as exhibiting an old 
scribal error. 

rS - § 21. 

K« — Ten woi'da are wntten with Aleph "itt the end of the word 
and they have no parallel; or, as the recension of Rubric 21 5 
heads it. The foUotoing words have no parallel being written with 



Aleph at the end of the word. The design of this Massorah is to 
catalogue those words which respectively occur only once with 
Aleph at the end and which in all other passages where they 
occur are severally written with He at the end. That this is the 
import of the Massorah before us and that it is not designed 
merely to give the unique words ending with Aleph is evident 
from the fact th^ there are no less than 628 words which end 
with Aleph (see above Rubric 19), whilst all the combined six 
recensions of the Rubric before us only yield twenty-two words. 
It is equall}'' certain that this Massorah restricts itself to those 
words which occur in the other parts of the Bible more than 
once with He at the end. For those which severally occur only 
once again ending with He belong to the List of words which 
constitute pairs, once with Aleph at the end and once with He 
at the end. Hence these words not only form a separate Massorah 
(see below k, § 23), but are not given in the List before us. 

This Massorah is of rarer occurence than the one constituting 
Rubric 20. For whilst there are twenty-five Lists of Rubric 20 
in the MSS. and in the printed Massorah, there are only six 
Lists of this Massorah in the same Codices and printed editions, 
viz. (I) Harley 5710-11, Vol. II, foj. 896, on Knaa Ezek. 31 5 
which I have printed as No. 21a; (II) Orient 1379, fol. 269a, 
on Ktn Numb. 12 13 which I have also printed as No. 21 6; (III) 
Orient. 2348, fol. Il8a, also on Ktn Numb. 12 3; (IV) Orient 
2365, fol. 1376, on infp Numb. 11 20;' (V) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah, 
fol. 516, in the upper margin, and (VI) the printed Massorah 
Finalis letter k, § 9. The six Lists, however, exhibit different 
recensions and proceed from different Massoretic Schools, as will 
be seen both from the wording of the several headings and the 
variations in the contents. 

No. I rrnia 'bt 'a-n 'wa 'k to p^o " (l) 

2'en words are written with Aleph at the end of the word and have 
no parallel; 

Nob. II and III nsTi 'loa p\bn to 'ma n^^ pbo p'?K (2) 
The following words have no parallel being wintten' with Aleph at the 
end of the word; 

No. IV 'ma n""? na^ »iiDa 9p\n 'na p'?K (3) 

The following are lon'tten with Aleph at the end of the word having 
no parallel; 

No. V 'n nnn 'k 'na p'?n y (4) 

lliirteen words are written with Aleph instead of He; 
No. VI "ot tvh -ini in ^ai 'ma-n "iioa 'k pwawo-i pijo p^x (6) 
The folUnoing words which fnJce Aleph at the end of the toord have 
each one of them no parallel. 

Still more varied are the contents of these Lists, as will be 
seen from the following table. The numbers in each column show 
the order in which the respective instances are enumerated in 
the several Lists, whilst the astei'isks indicate that the word in 
question is not given in it 



List II. 



LiM I 











No. VI 


No. V 


No. IV 


No. Ill 


No. II 


No. I 








Numb. 11 20 


1 




1 








»*7> 


1 ! 








12 18 


• 




2 








«T 


2 i 








83 37 


2 












*'^iv 




Gen. 36 41; 1 Kings U 6 etc. 


n,^K 


(I) 


1 Kings 4 18 


4 












»'?» 




11 .31; 13 &; 30 1; 34 62 etc. 


^^ 


(11) 


16 9 


8 












HfJK 










Ezek. 31 6 


6 












»nu 


i 


„ 13 10; Exod. 3S 36 etc. 


^. 


(HI) 


36 b 


18 












Hb 










41 16 


• 












««n'5'«»r 




Ps. 90 B; Prov. 6 4 etc. 


n??' 


(IV) 


Ps. 137 2 


7 












H??' 


9 ' 


Gen. 34 6, 8; Deut. 13 9 etc. 


nah 


(V) 


Prov. 1 10 


16 












Hik 




2 Kings 1» 32; Isa. 38 9 etc. 


nif 


(VI) 


11 25 


14 












«11' 




Gen. IS S.^; 24 16 etc. 


nb 


(VII) 


1ft .30 


17 












ni? 


■ 12 1 








Job .18 11 


6 










10 


m 




2 Sam. 3 26; Ezek. 37 .30 


nno 


(VIII) 


Ruth 1 20 


12 












nna 










Lament. 3 12 


10 












MIBBB 




2 Kings 5 12; Isa. 06 Ifi etc. 


nan? 


(IX) 


Dan. 11 44 
Ezra 5 11 


9 
















Ezra 4 22; 7 2.3 


n»^ 


(X) 


„ . 8 


8 










11 


K«S 




Josh. 15 .17: 18 23 etc. 


"V?* 


(XI) 


1 Chron. 3 49 
5 26 


11 

If. 








' 








2 Kings 13 2; 2 Chron. 34 1 


'■|;2» 


(XII) 


8 9 


• 






2 


2 




x;??* 




2 Kings 15 .30; Hos. 1 1 etc. 


n;tV 


(XIII) 


11 44 

1 


• 






9 


8 




«'»r 


22 



K — K § 22a— 226. 



12 



§ 22c— 23. K — K . 



By comparing the two tables marked Nos, I and II it will 
be seen that there are properly only thirteen words which occur 
once with Aleph at the end which in all other passages of the 
Bible end with He, and that the heading in List No. IV is perfectly 
correct in fixing this number though some of the instances 
adduced are incorrect Of the remaining nine words three, viz. 
KToa itTiTwi and Kwai have no parallel at all ending with n and 
have manifestly been added by later redactors who mistook the 
import of this Massorah. Two, viz. unh contrasted with nnj (Exod. 
30 9; lievit. 10 1 etc.) and intptts with maan (Jerem. 32 2, 8, 12 etc.) 
and !T1«J0> (I Sam. 20 80; Job 16 12), would exhibit too forced 
a parallel since the expressions which are here compared are those 
that are spelled exactly alike. Whilst the remaining four words, 
viz. KBn which only occurs once with n at the end (Ps. 60 4, see 
letter -i, § 427), K^y^ which only occurs once with n at the end 
(Jerem. 48 34) the other instances being n^y^jti with Vav conjunctive 
(Numb. 32 3; Isa. 16 4; 16 0), ttbi which also occurs only once 
with n at the end (Josh. 18 8, see letter e, § 47), and »nrn which 
likewise only occurs once ending with n (Ps. 8 5, see letter n, 
§ 856), belong to another Massorah which cataloiurues these pairs 
once with Aleph and once with He and which gives three out of the 
four instances in question (see below k, § 28). We have only to 
add that'K^sJia in Rubric 21a can only refer to 2 Chron. 13 2 
which is the sole passage where nys? is preceded by jp. As it is, 
however, here written with n at the end and, moreovei% as l Chron. 
2 49 is the single instance where it occurs with », it is evident 
that the Massorite copyist has attached to it a wrong catchword. 
This is frequently the case, as will be seen in the course of this 
Volume. A similar mistake occurs in this List in the printed 
Massorah where the catchword for K«p> is given nijanKStr (Ezra 
4 22) whereas it should be p-iapn ^ {ihid. 6 8) as the MSS. rightly 
have it 

3*3 » § 22 a. 

^^ _ Wordi which end tdih Aleph. This Massorah which 
catalogues the Chaldee words in Daniel, Ezra and Nehemiah 
written with Aleph or He at the end and have Tt^B, I have printed 
from Arund. Orient 1 6, fol. 8646, on Mijn^ Dan. 2 9. The heading which 
is in brackets I have added in accordance with the remark at 
the end to indicate its position here. Of all the MSS. I have 
collated it is the only one in which this Rubric occurs. It will 
be seen that whilst Kjriif^ is repeated twice in this List, ifj^ir which 
belongs to it is entirely omitted. There can, therefore, hardly be 
any doubt that the one here marked Dan. 2 2 is a clerical error 
for »^t^ Ezra 6 11. The word here printed njpo does not occur 
in the Bible. The MS., however, may be read rr^m as the a and : 
are so much alike. But as this expression also does not occur it 
is probably a clerical error for nj-is Dan. 7 15. The Massoretic 
Rule in the printed Massorah on Dan. 2 9 which corresponds to 
the Rubric is as follows: 













K3P P'D 


Ezra ft 2, 


17; ft 8 




w?a^ 


Dan, 2 21 


H??*"? 


„ 5 16; 


ft 3 




wan? 


„ 2 9 


mt 


„ 6 8, 


10 




Msnp 


„ ft 18; 


7 2.S KJB'n 


„ 4 J3, 


16,21 




Msnnn 


Ezra 5 3 


K??^ 




'r»2»n t\io3 


•K 


"na pp63 







As the word yat with which this List begins in the printed 
Massorah of Jacob b. Chayim does not occur, and as the word 
with which it begins in the MS. is too which does occur and 
belongs to this Rubric, the former is manifestly a clerical error 
for the latter. It will be seen that in .the printed Massorah 10^3 \ 
Dan. 7 24 and ^i^^ Ezra 6 1 1 are omitted. Dr. Baer in his edition 
of Daniel, Ezra and Nehemiah remarks on >o«ri» Dan. 2 21 "Cum 
Zere et Aleph, auctore Masora quae praecipit: .lensr .jornti .kjo 
,np .nsr jcnat) fopi 'a'f« k pn^ .warm .joano -wari' ,»«ao^ .yissh ,¥aen ,»ob?' 
r'a-na wn nn*» -ro"!: .noi .run {Appendices cnticae et mnam-eticae, p. 65, 
Leipzig 1882)." This recension not only contains two instances 
more of words ending with He (nan -rrrn), but makes the import 
of the Rubric more plain by the addition of the expression popi. 
But as Dr. Baer does not state where he found this Massorah, 
it is difficult to say whether he compiled it himself or found it 
so in a MS. 

3*3 = § 226. 

K» — This Rubric treats of Chaldee words which end with 
Aleph or He and have Kametz. I have only found one List of it 
in Arund. Orient 16, fol. 3666, on nji-r Dan. 3 24 which I have 
printed; The word here printed Ka'x^n ought to be k^x^^ with the 
accent Zakeph Katon which is not only the reading in the text 



of this Codex (Arund. Orient 16), but of the following MSS. Harley 
5710—11; Add, 21,161 one of the oldest and most important 
Codices; Add. 15,251; Add. 15,451; Orient 2212; Romberg ed. 
1524—26. The two Codices in the British Museum which have 
the accent (Orient 2201, Orient 2876) also point it ns^ifh Infinitive 
Pael. xa'ari Dan. 7 16 which is here omitted may be included 
under xa'r. The Massoretic Rule in the printed Massorah on 
Dan. 3 29 which corresponds to it is as follows: 

^3 JO'D 



Ezra 


5 14 n'3 n K'JKO tlKI 


Dan 


S 26 




ytst 


„ 


ft b ^nh» n*3 tsMO c)ki 


„ 


3 6, 11, 16, 


21, 28, 


24 ^:h 


„ 


7 18 inu Hi l^y '^ noi 


„ 


3 26; 4 7 




M14S 




Man* ^31 


„ 


3 24: 8 18 




w'«: 




'o«Di n ''ri3 a"02 K ''ns Hsna 


„ 


7 Ifl 




-?r^ 


Dan. 


5 7 nans mp' n 


„ 


ft 18, 24, 26 




MM 


„ 


6 16 pip' nil nana n 


„ 


6 17, 20, 21 




*}=l^ 


„ 


2 9 naia 


„ 


8 22 




Myay 


,, 


3 6 n|T3« 


Ezra 6 8 




•♦?!3:no 


,, 


4 8, 17, 30 na-i 






1103 K 


3'n3 pn^3 




n 3'na "^rhi 




'o'Di n 3'na yoa 'lan »in\ hyi 



It will be seen that the two Massorahs, though treating of 
the same phenomenon, exhibit two distinct recensions and have 
been formulated in different Massoretic Schools. The portion of 
this Massorah which embraces n;rn gold, also constitutes a separate 
Rubric. ' As a specimen how the printed Massorah of Jacob b. 
Chayim suffered through successive editors we refer to the fact 
that in the second (Venice 1548) and third editions (Venice 1568) 
the two catchwords which indicate the word nans and which are 
correctly given in the first edition (Venice 1624 — 25) are 
erroneously curtailed and fused into one x^-^" ^"^ •"'Sra ^H'' "•• '^^^^ 
mistake is not only reproduced in Buxtorf's edition (Bas^l 
1618—19), but another is added to it, viz. rt^-r^ Dan. 2 9 u 
altered into n^n? (Jerem. 10 11; Dan. 2 10; 8 29). 

> See The Ma*»orah, letter n, f llff, Vol. I, p. 227. 

y^ - § 22 c. 

K* — Of this Massorah I have only been able to find one 
List in Arund. Orient 16, fol. 8676, on rjifJp Dan. 4 16. With the 
exception of Kfpim (Dan. 2 87) and K^n (Dan 7 2; Ezra 4 10; 
5 8) this Rubric catalogues those words ending with Aleph or 
He which are preceded by Reah. The word »np*i which I have 
printed without vowel-points and with a mark of interrogation 
is probably designed to give the second instance of Hnjj-n (Dan. 6 18) 
which occurs twice, the first instance (Dan. 2 87) having already 
been adduced in this List rntf^m which is here an integral 
part of the List is also the subject of a separate Massorah.^ 
Baer's declaration with regard to rruie by\ that I have mistaken 
its import since I pointed it rnjK, whereas it ought to be rmt as 
this Massorah treats of Aramaic expressions is unjust This 
quadriliteral with He at the end occurs only once in the Bible 
where it is pointed rvya^ (Prov. 6 8), as I give it, whereas rv^ 
as it is printed by Baer it occurs neither in the Hebrew nor in 
the Chaldee of the Massoretic text Absolutely incorrect is his 
statement that I have taken this Massorah from Codex Erfurt 
No. 1.* The Massorah in question, as I have already' stated, is 
from Arund. Orient 10 on Dan. 4 15, fol. 8676. 

To thiff*Ma8Sorah I have now to add the following Rubric 
from Codex Erfurt No. 1 : 



„ 7 21 aip >na? 

The same Codex:' 



Dan. S 6 >iaip K;3tB» 

„ 3 IS Honi 

„ 4 11 van? Mwn 

„ 4 23 Mog; 



Ezra ft 16 n^niK inmntJ »^jj 3,03 P3S3 mvn kjtiw Vs 

„ 7 20 nao na»nt3 mnh nvt pnsoKn 'a p na 

' See The Ma»»oraJi, letter B, § 336, Vol. II, p. 461. 

I Comp. Zeitachrift der VeuUchen MorgenlUndiaehm Qetelhehafl, Vol. XL, 
p. 746, Leipzig 188C. \ 

3 Comp. Baer, Appemlice* criHew. A. IJhea- DanieU* etc. Dan. 3 13: Ezra i 11, 
pp. 69, 104. 

r3 = § 28. 
Kf — Eleven words which respectively occur twice, once written 
with Aleph at the end and once written with He. Whilst Rubric 21 
catalogues those words which occur only once with Aleph at the 
end and which in all other instances are written with He, the 
Massorah before us simply registers the words which altogether 



K § 23. 



— 18 — 



§ 24a. K - H 



only occur twice, once with Alt^h and once with He at the end. 
Of this Rubric I collated twenty-one Lists, sixteen in MSS. 
and five printed. As these Lists exhibit three distinct recensions 
I shall enumerate them according to the recensions to which 
they respectively belong. 

L The oldest form of this Rubric is the one which I have 
printed. It is taken from Harley 5710 — 11, Vol. I, fol. 93a, on 
nofi Numb. 13 la. With the exception of Kf; being at the head 
because the Rubric is given on this word in the MS. before us, 
the St. Petersburg Codex, fol. 120o, on n|«h Jerem. 62 88 not only 
states that there are eleven such pairs (r^^ca n to in 'a '3 pjir r' fS tn 
■n 're im 'rn), but gives the same eleven instances in exactly 
the same order. The similarity of the Massorah in these two 
Codices is not only to be seen in the Rubric before us, but 
extends to nearly all the parallel Rubrics which are to be 
found in them. 

IL The second recension of this Rubfiic is by far the 
most common both in the MSS. and in the printed editions. 
Thirteen out of the twenty-one Lists exhibit it and one MS. alone 
(Aruud. Orient 1 6) has it no less than six times as will be seen 
from the following enumeration: (I) Arund. Orient. !«, fol. 13 a, 
on rifc^ Josh. 18 8; (II) thid. fol. -iSda, on k^ Ps. 10 12; (III) !lui. 
fol. 2tf8a on n|-) Ps. 60 4 ; (IV) ibul. fol. «r><Wf,' on n^p Lament. 1 15; 
(V) ihitl fol. 383ft, on k^ Neh. 7 48, and (VI) ibid. fol. 248a, on 
M)p9S 1 Chron. 15 22; (VII) Add. 15,451, fol. 157a, on nbi Josh. 18 8; 
(Vlil) Add. 15,251, fol. 2011ft, on m^^ 2 Kings 15 83; (IX) the 
same MS. fol. 43d ft at the end in the Appendix; (X) Halle Ochlah 
Ve-Ochlah, fol. 51a, I,. § 78; (XI) Felix Pratensis' edition of the 
Rabbinic Bible 1517, where it was first printed; (XII) Jacob b. 
Cbayim's Rabbinic Bible with the Massorah (Venice 1624—25) 
on Fs. 10 12, and (XIII) Paris Ochlah Ve-Ochlah, $ »5. In the 
heading of all these thirteen Lists it is distinctly stated that 
there are twelve such pairs ('a -a p y or 'a 'a p a" ja nn). They all 
give the same eleven paira which constitute the first recension 
and add as the twelfth pair wf^ Prov. 7 20 and n(p|j Ps. 81 4 
though List No. V is on iq^n which, however, is not included in 
it, and though List No. XII enumerates thirteen by adding at the 
end the pair 19137? Esther 1 10; r^ia-jn Esther 7 9. It is to be 
remarked that in the first edition of this List (Venice 1517, here 
marked No. XI) the catchword for n^ipni is wrongly given njna pa 
trata which is, however, properly stated in Jacob b. Chayim's 
edition (Venice 1624—25) to be bvnvr npn ps. The catchwords are 
additions by later Massorites to facilitate reference and as we 
have seen are frequently wrong. 

IIL The third recension is the one given in Rubric 23ft. It 
is at least as old as the first since it is from the St Petersburg 
C^ex, fol. 22 ft, where it is given on uhian Isa. 29 14. It will be 
seen that it has no heading and fixes no number, but has at 
the end the following remark: T/ieae toord» which respectively^ oeeur 
twice, are written once with Aleph at </«« end and once are written 
with He. On comparing this recension with the first, which as 
we ha>'e seen also occurs in this Codex, we observe that in 
addition to the eleven pairs which constitute that Rubric there 
are here five pairs more, thus making in all sixteen such pairs. 
That the two Rubrics ai-e perfectly distinct and proceed from 
two different Massoretic Schools is evident since the same 
Massorites would not put the heading to the Rubric stating 
emphatically that there are only eleven or twelve such pairs 
with the Rubric before them, which enumerates sixteen pairs 
and which fixes no number at all. This recension, moreover, 
explains the fact that the printed Massorah both on Jerem. 53 33 
and in the Massorah Finalis m, § 10 in referring to this Rubric 
distinctly says that there are sixteen such pairs. Thus in the 
firat instance it says rroja 'o-m 'n sra im •» sra nn -a 'a p prr v 10 in 
•« T-ips unai «»« nf tiaOeen tenrde which reapeetireJy occur twice, once 
written with Aleph and once written with He; thtt List i» (jlren in 
the Mamorah Mtujna under letter Aleph, and in the second instance 
to which we are here referred it is as follows: 'k a'rc -in pjin" 
•^ |ts*0 B^na leaj n "re nm siaieen pairs of ioord» are respect Irdy written 
once with Aleph and once with He; they are ennmemied in thf 
Massorah on Ft. 10. It is to the third recension, therefore, that 
the reference is here made in the headings of the printed 
Massorah, though the List itself which gives this Rubric on 
Ps. 10, exhibits the second recensions. Such confusion of different 
recensions in the headings and in the body of the Rubrics is of 
common occurrence in the Massorah. 

We have still to consider the three recensions of this 
Rubric which occur in the ancient Codex Orient 4446. The most 
developed form of it is given on Numb. 18 13, fol. 131a. The 
heading here is simply k -re nm 'n 're "in pjit p^ the folUneing pairs 



are sei'einily written once loith He and once with Aleph; and though 
no number is fixed, it enumerates sixteen pairs. It, however, 
excludes two pairs given in the List which I have printed, viz. 
n^^ 19^ and i6f.n tt^fn, whilst it includes the following two pairs 
which are not in our List: 



Dan. 2 S5 Mnn 
Jerom. 5S tS Tuvn 



Esther 1 10 KSfa'in 
„ 7 9 nsto-m 



The other two Lists are given on Exod. 9 4, foL 49fe, and 
Numb. 12 13. They have no heading. One List has eight in- 
stances only and the other six. Their chief interest consists in 
the fact that they exhibit the incipient state of this Rubric 
It is to be remarked that whilst the outer margin of foL 181a 
gives its inception, the Massorah Magna, in the lower margin of 
the same folio gives it in its developed state. 

The Rubrics which respectively give eleven and twelve 
such pairs, probably owe their origin to the fact that the 
Massorites only found this limited number exposed to the 
process of orthographical uniformity on the part of the Scribes 
in their district Hence they not only remarked in the 
margin against each of the words in question that it occurs 
twice, once with Akph and once with He, but collected them 
into one Rubric. A similar cause underlies the more ex- 
tended recensions. The Massorites of the School from which 
they proceed found a larger number of instances peculiarly 
liable to this process. Hence their Lists are larger. But neither 
of these Schools imply that they meant their Lists to be 
exhaustive. 

No less than eighteen of these pairs form separate Rubrics, 
though as we have seen only sixteen are contained in the largest 
Lists. They are as follows: 



(X) 

(XI) K^D 

(XII) wn? 

(XIII) M*< 

(XIV) i^m 
(XV) n^ 

(XVI) urin 

(XVII) Kfl 

(XVIII) w?*! 



triP3 teo letter 3 | 886 
, I 188 

> Tf f U« 
, ■§ 47 

• i 98 

> B « 91 

> 1 i 2fiO 
■» f 4«7 



r I 806 



(I) •W 

(II) nyn 

(III) npn 

(IV) «?*? 
(V) Mtavi 

(VI) n^ 

(VII) mf*r 

(VIII) rw! 

(IX) M9a 



r n f lot 
n f 868 

1 1 70 
ni 86 
ns 41 

'1468 

* I 614 

• i 766 
B| 687 



T3 - § 24a. 

JO 3K» An alphabetical List of hapax legnmena which 
respectively begin toith tteo letters in alphabetical order. That is, the 
first word representing Aleph begins with Ahph Beth, the second 
word exhibiting Beth begins with Beth Oimel, the third word, 
which according to its initial is the third in the alphabetical 
List, begins with Gimel Daleth &c. &e. The design of this Massorah 
is simply to catalogue in one way some of the thousands of 
words which respectively occur only once and which are 
distributed over sundry Rubrics adapted by their various 
arrangements to embrace the whole range of these hapax legomena. 
It will be seen that this and the following Rubric marked 24ft, 
though exhibiting entirely different words, are identical in their 
plan inasmuch as they both embrace those expressions only 
which begin with two letters in alphabetical order. The alpha- 
betical order, however, which these two Rubrics exhibit, is of a 
double nature. Thus the twenty-two words of which these two 
Rubrics consist exhibit in the first place the alphabet vertically 
in the first initial letter beginning with Aleftli the first letter; 
and secondly they also exhibit the alphabetical order in the 
second letter, only that in the second sequence the first word 
begins with Beth the second letter, the Aleph not being repre- 
sented. By this means each of the two Rubrics not only exhibits 
two alphabets vertically, the second line minus the Al^h, but 
the order Aleph BetJi, Beth Gimel, Oimel Daleth &o. &o. is obtained 
horizontally. 

This Rubric has hitherto been unknown. I have only 
found it in Add. 15,451, foL 30 a, where it is given on f^ 
Gen. 41 43, and its discovery enables us to explain the other- 
wise difficult question why there should only be these two 
alphabets of forty-two words (viz. Rubrics 24 a and 24 ft) out 
of the thousands of Jiapax legomena. The explanation of this 
question will be best understood by exhibiting in a tabular 
form the whole range of materials out of which the two 
Rubrics in question are made up, or rather all those hapax 
legomena which respectively begin with two letters in alphabetical 
order. 



K ~ K § 246— 26a— e. 



- 14 - 



i 26«— e. H 



hs 



I, 2-S;§12 
„ t44— 6; § 
„ 199; 8 * 
„ 21C; § G 
„ 242-3; § 7 
„ 366; § 28 
„ 457; § 8 
„ 469; § 13 
,614; § 6 
„ 6C8— 9; § 10 
8 19 



II, 



HapM legomena beciDBlng with 



II, 102—8; g U 
„ 159; 8 IS 
„ 260 7 
» 320; 
„ 364; 
„ 436; 
„ 506; 
„ 623-4 
» M9; 
„ 597; 



661; 



8 11 
8 9 
§ 16 
8 18 
§12 
8 8 

8 10 
8 11 

§ 12 



Hence the rendering of this passage in the Septuagfut ^d 
the Massorah (see S § 281, VoL II, p. 189). In the Rubric 
before us the first and the last letters of each word which 
constitute it, exhibit the pairs of this permutation, via.: 

Sa 0' jB on jn «p fn jn ■« ra n»« 

It will be seen that this anagrammatic chain consists of? 
eleven specific links, and that like Rubric *iB the link which 
yields the fewest representatives limits the representatioi^ of each 
of the more distinctive links, as the following table will show: 



Now in examining the several links out of which the two 
chains exhibited in the two Rubrics in question are formed, it 
would be misleading to conclude that because there are no less 
than 1262 words, therefore they ought to yield 57 such alphabets. 
Regard must be had to that letter which furnishes the smallest 
number of distinctive links and not to the one which supplies 
the largest number. Thus for instance we must not consider 
No. 12, viz. aS which could furnish 282 distinct membera for 282 
such alphabets, but No. 7, viz. n, which can only supply 
representatives for two separate alphabets. Now it is because 
the two Lists before us exhaust the letter ni that no more alphabets 
could be made up. this new Rubric, therefore, shows us that 
the only two representatives of n have been used up. The 
catchwords after the 'b = unique, in each line have as usual been 
added by later Massorites to facilitate reference. Originally the 
form of this Rubric was simply like that exhibited in § 246. 
The absence of •? after ten of the instances is due to a want of 
space in the margin of the MS. 

TD = § 246. 
J^ ^» An alphabetical List of hapax legomena which 
respectively begin wkh two letters in alphabetical order. Literally the 
heading denotes an alphabet of words which respectively take Aleph 
Beth Gimel, Beth Gimel Daleth and which have no parallel By Aleph 
Beth Gimel and Beth Gimel Daleth this heading indicates the first 
letter of the word in the first line and the two letters at the 
beginning of the word in the next line. The unpointed letters at 
the end of the Rubric are intended to explain fully the import 
of this Rubric and are simply an expansion of -im aax given 
in the heading. Of this Rubric I have collated six Lists, three in 
MSS. and three printed: (I) the St. Petersburg Codex, fol. 20a, on 
"mac Isa. 26 16 which I have printed; (II) Harley 5720-11, 
VoV I fol. 1826, Qn'nrsK l Sam 14 50; (III) Add. 15,451, fol. 297a, 
on nn;a Jerem. 41 17; (IV) Halle Och^ah Ve-Ochlah, fol. 36a, 
I, § ^8 ; (V) Paris Ochlah Ve-Ochlah, § 7, and (VI) the printed 
Massorah Finalis k, § 20. All these Lists have exactly the same 
twenty-two instances, though they vary in the heading. Thus for 
instance No. I, Harley 5710-11, as usual has the same heading 
as the St. Petersburg Codex, whilst the other four Lists have 
the heading of the former List, viz. § 24 «. 

n-3 = § 25 a- 0. 
;2?13 riK* An alphal)efical List of hapax hgnmena, the first 
and last Utters of which cnn-espond in sequence to the order of the 
alphabetical pei-mvfaiion Athbnsh. To obtain this permutation the 
alphabet is bent exactly in the middle and the second half is 
turned over under the first where it is placed in a reverse order 

' as follows: 

3 , H n t 1 n T J a » 
ha sDi'DspTirn 
The name Athha^h is derived from the first two specimen 
pairs of letters which indicate the interchange. To the Biblical 
student this anagrammatic alphabet is «yf thfe .utmost interest 
since it is now generally acknowledged that i«'wa«used as cipher- 
writinc' in the Hebrew Scriptures. Thus for instance Sheshach 
(Jerem. 25 26) ite ih accordance with this alphabet' ufeed for 
Babel, viz.: 

,,< -^ V , Vf , .)., 

h 2 i . , i - 

It is already so explained by St Jerome. -According to :this 
alphabet, moreover, we see that the otherwise .unintelUgiblo 
words -op^ ib in t^if^iflsf nfthim thfxt rim.up a^intt rtp ^ecem. 51 1) 
denote tlie Chaldeans, i. e.: - i > , 



Hmprnx legomflBk befiniiiiit witlt 



I, 2-9; 


§12 


n, 


668-80; 


8*1 


„ 148 -16t 


§ 6 


„ 


697-801 


8 18 


„ 198-201 


8 4 


„ 


549-67; 


8 14 


„ 216-217 


8 6 


. » 


524—27; 


§10 


„ 289—256 


8 7 


n 




§14 


„ 888-891 


§28 


„ 


488-40; 


§20 


„ 456—68; 


§ 8 


„ 


888-69; 


8 19 


„ 488-72; 


8 18 


„ 


821-2; 


8 T 


„ 814—16; 


8 8 


„ 


281-69; 


§26 


„ 684-78; 


§ 10 


„ 


172—98; 


842 


II, 6^12; 


§19 


„ 


118 19; 


8*8 



Numbers 4 and 9, therefore, which respectively have onlj 
three specimens, limit the representation of the nine remaining 
links to three each. But though this is the number which we 
should expect to find in the Rubric before us, i. e. three examples 
of each, or a List of eleven triads, a careful examination of it 
will show that this recension was originally designed to exhibit 
two examples only of each link. This is evident from the fact 
that only two out of the eleven links, viz. Nob. 3 and 4, have 
respectively three words, and that these two links had originally 
also only two examples, as will be seen from the explanation of 
the following recension, viz. Rubric 256. This, however, is not 
the only blemish from which the Rubric before us suffers., 
Nos. 9 and 10 respectively exhibit only one example, and there 
can hardly be any doubt that they have originally had each two 
examples like the other links in this chain and that one Jias been 
accidentally omitted. The reason why it is a duplicate and not 
a triplicate alphabet most probably is that the compiler of this 
Rubric could not find the third example of {« for link No. 9. 
It may, however, also be that as a List of a single anagrammatic 
alphabet of wa nK only yields eleven words, the Massorite made 
it a duplicate in order to obtain the number twenty-two answering 
to the number of letters in the Hebrew alphabet 

When later researches on the part of some Massoretic Schools 
showed that the hapax legomena, beginning and ending with the 
requisite letters, would yield materials for an additional alphabet, 
the transition from the duplicate to the triplicate alphabet 
produced the variations in the Rubric which are to be seen in 
the Lists of this Massorah in the different MSS., since some 
Scribes only partially filled up the third examples. Hence the 
fourteen Lists of this Massorah which I have collated, nine in 
MSS. and five printed, exhibit three stages or different recensions, 
which I have tried to indicate by printing the three forms of it 
in Rubrics 25a, 256 and 25c. 

(I) The Rubric printed first which is from Harley 5710—11, 
Vol. II, fol. 2826, on pb-i (Dan. 7 9) exhibits the oldest form, suffering, 
however, as we have seen, from two additions in Nos. 3 and 4 
and two omissions in Nos. 9 and 10. As it has the heading I 
shall here enumerate the other Lists which have also the heading. 

(II) Add. 16,2^0, fol. 381a, on n!-or^jt (Dan. 7 15). Here two 
links are respectively represented by one example each, viz. 
Nos. 2 and 10, so ^bat ^fz (Isa. 40 12)k which is the second 
example in List No. I, is omitted, whilst link No, 10 which has 
only arr^ <Hos. 14 4) is like List No. L Six links have respectively 
two exattipl«» «ach, via. Nos. 1, 4, 5, 7, 8 and ll, five ot which 
exactly correspond to those in List No. I, whilst, one of them, 
viz. link No. 4, which has three representatives in List, No,; I, 
has only two here* pSfl being absent, thu3 corroborating our 
remark :thafc this link was ori^ally. only represented by, two 
examples ip^ths formgr List The remaining thr^ linkii,. viz^ JIo. 8, 
6 and 9,, ^ve respectively three examples each. On comparing 
these three links with the corresponding , three in List No. I it 
will be seen that it is only link No. 3 which is alike i^ both 
Rubrics, and that link No. 6 has ^y\ (Exod. 4 26) beside^, whilst 
,ia link No. J» the Lipt before us has, twp instances more, .viz. jimp 



K ^mh. 



^ 15 



& ,36<j^5S7. ^K ^^1^ 



(Laibent 5 'IS) Jtnd j^n^ (Deut 9 21>. It will thus be seen tbW 
th« baiifl of tills i^ecsnaion 19 stiVI the duplicate' alphabet, though 
it sUfferd :&om the attempt to add triplioa*e examples/ This 
recension has already catohW(*d8, though r^ry teiftf ones* . /. 
''' (in> Add. 1&,451, foi. 36*6, 4m esn (Isa. 30 4). Though thi« 
list has no leM than seven of tlie ^ie^'en littles represented by 
dnplioatds, "thus -rfiowing that the baeis of it is the dnplicatte 
alphabet, yet it exhibit* lettures of a reoension q^ite different 
fivm the two foregoing Lists, as will be seen fi<om the folkiwing 
pe^liartti^. In the first place tKe-^heading is different whi«h 
i* |5n^s»«n«w»b'*fffrih]a'a'K, thus adding the third and fourth 
linkfe. In the seven links which are here twice represented, vi«. 
Nos. 1, S, 5, e, 7, « and 11, »i"w {Exod. 4 IS) Is given as the 
i»6biid feptesentettfvfe in link Ne. G instead of *^ <Isa. 44 l%) 
Whfeh is given in List Ko. I, ind which List No. IT gives as the 
third representative. 

(IV) The same MS., fol. &23«k, on »)'r! (Ez6k. 81 7). This Lifit is 
an exact repetition of the foregoing one, having the same heading 
and the same seven links represented by two examples each. 

(V> The same MS., fol. 4435, on p^ (Dan. 7 «); -though 
conl*in«d in the *,ame MS. this Lidt seems to exhibit & dtffer^ent 
recension, as ^11 be 6een froih the following pecnliaritiefs: 
a) the lieading is different rpa-i rhn vnn xeh nit rvwn a"»e, h}' it 
has only six links respectively represented by two examples, 
e) some of the pairs are different, viz. Nos. 1, 2, 6, G, 8 and li, 
thus showing that there are only fiVe links alike in the two 
Lists • exhibiting two examples each, viz. Nbs. 1, % 5, a and 8, 
en link !Nfo. 7 i&^hich in the two' previous Lists exliibits two examples • 
has Here three, since ynt (Levit. 11 37)^ is added, e) link No. •) 
Which has only one example in the two previotis Lists has here 
three representatives, since jlPitt (Deut. 9 21) and rfnts (Lament. 5 13) 
and iniB (Judg. 16 21) have been added. 

(VI), Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah, foL 36&, I, § 39. This recension 
tpp e:[^hibits the b^isis of a duplicate alphabet, since it has no 
less thun seven o| the links represented, by two examples, viz. 
Nos.„i, 2,- 6; 6, 7,' p and. lU Only two. links are respectively 
represented by three example?, yiz. ]^q& 8 and 4, whilst the 
i«maining twp,. viz. No.; 9 (irnct Jndg. 16 21) and No. ,10 (ppm" 
UoB. 14 4) are each represented by one ex^ample, 

(Vli)i P^ria Oqhlai Ve-Ochlah, § »«- This recension shoves 
stUl more the basis 9! the duplicate alphabet, since it has no 
liQip than eight links respectively represented )>y two examples, 
yjx, the seven of the preceding List and the addition, of t\ne 
(Deujt. 9 21) to linlf Np, lOj, bo that it has the same two with 
three examples, viz^ links; Nos. 8 and 4 and only, one link with 
one example, viz. No. 10. 

(VIII) St. Petersburg Codex, fol. 20 6, on a^ya (Isa. 27 11). This 
recension whi«h occurs in the oldest d*ted Codex is -also,, based 
upon the dnpUcate alphabet Although like the former List it 
has no less t^an eight out of the eleven ^inks represented by 
two eyamp^es* it makes up the pairs somewhat differently* Thus 
l9l^^in^tanee instead of tf-m <Bxod. 4, 26) which is the second 
Buwtber of Knk No, 4 in the foregoing List, the Eubric before 
iw.has ffif*i (Ia«L44 12). Link, No. 9 which is represented by a 
dnpdicate in the former List, viz. timp (Deut 9 21) and }riSe 
^dg. 16 21) is here represented by one exampje only, via. ]is^^ 
(Jiidg> 16 21), whereas link No. J,(V which in the former List l«s 
only one example, viz. Brn^f(Ho8. 14 4^ has heretwo representatives, 
i ar the addition of ar (1 Kinga I l). 

<IX> The same Codex, fol. imh, on cfn; <Hos. 14 4). This 
is exactly like the foregoing List in the e&me Cx^dex. 

<X) Pritfted Massorah Finalis letter Aleph, § 21, The heading 
*|iw«n r-a rcH wwws in in jo s% is rimilar to Uie one in List No* V, 
whilst th* seven links, respectively represented by two exaftiptes, 
exactly correspond to List No. VI in the Halle Ochlah V;^- 
Oehtih.' 

• Lists XI, XII and XIII are exhibited in Rubarics 256 and 
26 k, and are discussed in their place. 

iT3 ,« § 2ai, 
tD HK* This Rubric which consiitutfes* List No. XI is 
from the Bt Petersburg Codex, fol. Uib, on »i'«i (Ezek. 81 7) and 
is printed exactly as ft is arranged in the Codex. It will bC seen 
that With' the exception of link No. 9, which id iw^reeented by 
one- ^sbHfary ^xamiilfe, viz. irrte (^nd^:. «> 21) the whole Li«t 
cblteiStehtly contains n duplicate alphabet As this exhibits the 
M^ form of the Massorah it is dviddnt-that «s we have 
aireiidy'i'emarkek, the design of this Rubric was oriKinillly simply 
to ichfblt a (ihipHcate «liJhabet of Afhhath, and that tlte additions 
of -v (Isa. 27 9) to link No. 3 and pteai-n (2 Kings 16 10) to link 



No.^ 4 which we have 4tlready met with in .the other two Lists 
of this very Codex, viz. Lists VII and VIII, were made by Scribes 
when tiiis Rnbrie. was in a state of transition from a ' duplicate 
t» n- tripiicate alphalwt - * 



n'3 = i 



25 c. 



^^ rM« Of this recMision I ooUi^d thred < Lists here 
described as Nos. XIL XIH and XIV. They ^11 occur in Yemen 
MSS;, viz.. Orient 137ft, fol. 94a, Orient 2;J4«, fol. 6*&, rtnd 
©rient 2349, fol. 49iv *11 on nmk (Gen. 87 2&). It will be seen 
that ' no less than seven out of thd eleven . links are hete 
represented by three examples; and that tiie transition from tl)e 
duplicate to the triplicate alphabet is nearly effected; The- List 
as I have printed it, is from Orient 1379, the other twp omit 
p-jT (Ps. 97 11), thus showing how easily omissions aye made 
even in MSS. which belong to the same School and which, as is 
the case with the Yemen MSS., are exact copies of each other. 

To enable the student to see the relation of the fourteen 
Lists of this Rubric to each other I subjoin a table 'i« which 
every -column exhibit^ the List in the order and with the number 
under which it is discussed. The numerals in the separate iaolumns 
show the tiequenefe in which the examples occur in tl^e respective 
Lists,* Whilst the asterisk indicates tlv^t in the List within which 
it stands the example in question is no* represented. 



I > 

I I 


u 


III 




V 


1 

VI 

_11 


s. 


Ull 


IX 


X XI 


SU 


XlU 


XIV 


t 
i 


1 


1 


.1 




1 


1 


1 


1 


,1 1 1 


1 


1 


;, 


Gen. 


37.26 


"!7'J'*1 , 


2 


2 


2 




2 


2 


2 


2 2 


2 


2 


.2 
3 


2 

3 


2 
3 


Ezek. 
Dan. 


n 20 

7 16 


nnanyj 


3 


3 


3 




» 


3 


3 


3 


» 


»- 


» 


4 

6 


4 
5 




Isa. 


37 11 
16 14 




4 


■* 


4 




4 


*-^ 


4 


* 


4 


4 


4 


G 


G 


6 


..» 


40 12 


■»^|1 


. 5 


4 


6 




5 


>5 


5 


<?. 


^ 


6 


{> 


7 


7 


,7 


M 


54 15 


^'1 


C 





6 




G 


.? 


6 


6 


6 


6 




8 


^, 


« 


„ ,_ 


^7 « 


y H 


7 


C 


7 




7 


7 


7 


7 


'7 


7 


6 


9 


9. 


9 


P». 


«8.31 


"•»* 


8 


7 


9 




8 


8 


9 


8 


8 


8 


7 


16 


10 


10 


Cant. 


6 2 


peii 


9 




10 




9 


9 


M), 


9 


9 


9 


8 


fl 


11 


11 


Dan. 


7 9 


P^l 4 


?0< 
11, 


8 


8 
11 




10 
,11. 


^0 

^1 


8 
11 


10 
11 


10 


10 

a 


9 


12 


12 
13 


■12 
13 


2 Kings 
Job 


IC 14) 
40 li 




12 


k, 


12 




1? 


f2 


12 


1? 


12 


12 


,10 


14 


1 + 


14 


M- 


16 4 


*, 


11, 


ia 




13 


la 


13 


1.'/ 


flS 


M 


u 


|6 


16- 


15 


Ezek. , 


SI 7. 


. ■'^^ 


H 


i» 


* 




•, 


•• 


• 


H 


14 




12 


16 


14 


Iti 


laa 


44 12 


W<« 


18 
.16 
16 




u 




14 
15 


14 
16 


16 


16 
16 


1$ 

16 




J3 
14 


17 
18 
19 


17. 
18 
19 


17 

,1« 
19 


E?ed. 
Esther 
Lovit. 


4 20 

.6 9 
U 37 




. 


15 


16 




16 


16 


16 




t 


16 


• 


20 






Ps. 


97 11 


m^ 


17 


IG 
17 


17 
.18 




18 
19 


17 
Id 


17 
18 


17 

18 


17 
is 


17. 
,18 


15 
16 


21 
22 


20 
21 


20 
SI 


Isa. 
2<King« 


30 4 


BPiinj 


. 


19 


* 




82 


. 


. 


* 


f' 


• 


• 


23. 


22 


2i 


Umfliit » la 


^re 


. 


m 


., 




20 


. 


19 


• 


'>* 




• 


24 


2a 


2.H 


Deut. 


>21 


nna 9 


.. 


18 


til 




21 


•19 


20 


19 


m 


19 


1.7 


25 


24 


24 


Judg. i 


16 21 


impi 


20 


m 


20 




23 


») 


21 


21 


20 

2t 


20 


la 


«C 


«5 


B6 


W^%. H 4 
1 Kimtp t 1 


'"^•JTO 

. owi. 


in- 


33- 


n 




24 


21 


2i 


22 


2e 


n 


80 


• 


• 


.'' 


Jhl) 


8* 24 


hi. 


n 


at 


B? 


'0S 


2^ 


• 


e» 


23 


23 


22 


21 


27 
28 


27 


21} 
27 


Jm. 
Jwein. 


30.29 
20 9 


¥:» 11 



For the tw^nty-siiK veraeH uhkk have respective Itf the whole 
ttlphdbef., see letter b, § 227, Vol. II, p. 456. 

VD = § 27. 
5S» The exin-essiQn 3K has hi all. its forms Kametz except in 
three instances in wliieh it has Pathach, two in TMrew and one in 
Ar<umwc. This Uubric which only occurs in Ilarley .')710~11 
Vol. II, fol. •234«, on SK (Job 29 l<>), registers the fact that thf 
noun in question only occurs twice in the construct state ir 
Hebrew, and that in the only instance in which it occurs ir 
■ Aramaic, with Khe suffik first person it is ♦ok with Pathach, wbUsi 
in iall oth«r instances where it is used with other suffijces it has 
CTiate^ Prj^ch (comp. T3K ''r«X ^^^- V 2, 11. IH). The Massoral 
has also sepdrato Rubrics on the separate forma Thus tjie sam. 
MS., Vol. II, fol. 14fi«, on aK (1 Cliroii. 23 It) remarks on thi 
noun without the prefix Tjanmh 

}i?uo«o? nTB in JO -p nni> Ssa '5mp 3i{ Ss ^ 
Gen, 17 6 , Tnna 01- pan ^* '= 

»«op jina n'S nne t; Sa 



H - K § 28-81. 



16 — 



§ 82-84. K — H 



That is, a^ has always Kametz throughout the Scriptures except 
one* where it has Pathach. igg has always Pnthach and has never 
Kametz. Hence the separate remarks in the Massorah Parva in 
the MSS. on Gen. 17 4 '■? ^, I e. s)^ does not occur agailf with 
PatJiach, and on verse 5 •'? a^, i. e. ajt does not occur again with 
Pathach, and the joint remark aK ifTi 'b a«t^. These two words also 
represent the two letters, viz. tt and b in the alphabetical List 
of words with Pathach which respectively occur only once.* 
Moreover, as the phrase ilona<6 only occurs once (Oen. 17 4), 
and paira^ without the Lamed also occurs only once (verse 5), 
these two words with their companions constitute a pair in the 
Massoretic List of phrases which respectively occur twice, once 
with Lamed at the beginning and once without it* 

i See The Mtuwah, letter 3, ff 684, Vol. II, p. 297. 
> See The Matsorah, letter h, | 2.<), Yol. II, p. 11. 

n'3 - § 28. 

DK1 3K» Ftxliher and mother oeew twice combined in the 
Seriptwres. This Rubric is from Harley 6710—11, VoL II, foL 84a, 
on this phrase in Ezek. 22 7. The same MS. has it again 
VoL II, foL 271 (, on Esther 2 7 where this phrase is to be found 
the second time. Here, however, the heading is somewhat different, 
viz. prnaoi p^aon rrp^. 'S. The Rubric also occurs in Arund. 
Orient 16, fpL 180 b, on Ezek. 22 7 and in the same MS., 
fol 869 a, on Esther 8 7. This Rubric, though not found in the 
printed Massorah, is a very old one, since it already occurs in the 
St Petersburg Codex, foL 144a, on Ezek. 22 7. Hence the Massorah 
Parva both in the MSS. and in «tacob b. Chayim's edition has 
against each of the two passages 'dt '3 twice together, 'a twice. 

B'3 - § 29. 
"•ipX ''5^* My father, my father! odeurs twice. This Rubric 
is from^Add^. 16,261, foL 208a^ on 2 Kings 13 14. It does not 
occur in the printed Massorah and I have not found it in any 
other MS. The MSS., however, have in the Massorah Parva on 
2 Kings 13 4 in the margin 'a = twice. 

'i = % 80. 
^DK1» And my father occurs twice. This Massorah is most 
probably designed to show that though the expression '*^ my 
father occurs upwards of one hundred and twenty times without 
the Vav conjunctive it is only to be found twice with it The 
List is printed from Harley 6710-11, Vol. I, foL 218 a, on 
1 Kings 2 32. It is also to be found in the Vienna Codex 
No. 86 on the same passage and in the printed Massorah on 
1 Sam. 24 11. 

H'b - § 31. 
^n^JSK* His father occurs seven times and the sign for them 
in the Chaldee language is A woman angrily i-usiied from the house, 
the king saw her and pierced her head. This is all that three out of 
the nineteen Lists which I have collated of this Rubric state, 
and it is this enigmatical language which makes is so difficult 
for the uninitiated to understand the import of the Massorah. 
What this Massorah designs to tell us is, that the noun 2)f father, 
which occurs lf»7 times with the suffix third person masculine, has 
only in seven instances the lengthened suffix n, whilst in lOO 
instances it has simp^ly the i , i. e. v^. To indicate the seven pas- 
sages which exhibit this phenomenon, as well as to facilitate their 
being remembe^red by heart by the Scribes who are engaged in 
multiplying Codices, the Massorites translated into Chaldee the 
catchword of each of the seven passages, thus yielding the 
Aramaic mnemonic sign, as will be seen from the following 
comparison : 

1 HnnK = nrVn Judg. 14 10 6 «■» = -tfyo) i Kings ft 16 

2 ntn - nn^ „ „ 19 O mpii = *rnpn^ zecli. W .1 

3 Mn'3 p = n'» „ H .SI 7 ne-nia = tftin^ i ciiron. 26 lo 

4 nnn = nrij 2 Chron. S 1 

Of this Rubric I collated nineteen Lists, sixteen in MSS. 
and four printed. (I) Hprley 5710—11, Vol. I, fol. 106ft, on 
Judg. 14 10, where the mnemonic sign is simply given, which 
I have printed at the end of the Rubric; (II) the same MS., 
Vol. II, fol. 125&, on Zech, 13 3 where too the mnemonic 
sign alone is given; (III) Arund. Orient 1«, fol. 29a, on 
Judg. 14 10 which I have printed; (IV) the same MS., fol. 79/>, 
on I Kings 5 IT); (V) the same MS., fol. 22l/>, on Zech. 13 3; 
(VI) the same MS., fol. 2.54 a, on i Chron. 36 lO; (VII) Vienna 
Codex No. sr* on 1 Kings 5 15; (VIII) the same MS. on 



Zech. 13 3; (IX) Orient 1471, fol. 81a, on Judg, 14 10 where 
the mnemonic sign alone is given; (X) Add. 16,260, foL 8166, 
on Zech. 13 8; (XI) Add. 16,261, foL 147a, on Judg. 14 10 
which gives both the List and the mnemonic sign; (XII) 
Add. 16,461, fol. 1786, on Judg. 14r 10; (XIII) the same MS., 
foL 4826, on 1 Chron. 26 10; (XIV) HaUe Ochlah Ve-Ochlah, 
foL 120&, n, I 228; (XV) St Petersburg Codex, foL 2196, on 
Zech. 13 8 ; (XVI) Orient 2626—28, VoL II, f oL »0«, on 1 Kings 6 16 ; 
(XVII) the printed Massorah on Judg. 14 19; (XVIII) the same on 
Zech. 13 8 which gives both th» List and the mnemonic sign, 
and (XIX) the same on l Chron. 26 lO which also gives both 
the List and the mnemonic sign. The mnemonic sign by itself 
is also given in the printed Massorah Finalia, letter m, § 88 where 
Jacob b. Chayim adds i"> pv rmaan .i"^ p^ »)« onswra iwss t rntr a i and 
the List is given in Judges at the end of chapter 14, and in Zechariah 
chapter 13. It will thus be seen that Jacob b. Chayim has forgotten 
that he also gives it on 1 Chron. 26 10. 

3'^ - § 32. 
V^<1* And his father occurs nine times. Of this Rubric I 
collated thirteen Lists, eleven in MSS. and two printed: 
(I) Harley 5710—11, VoL II, foL 160a, on 2 Chron. 2 18* which I 
have printed; (II) Arund. Orient 16, foL 29a, on Judg. 14 4; (III) 
the same MS., foL 81a, on 1 Kings 7 14; (IV) the same MS., 
fol. 206 &, on Amos 2 7; (V) the same MS., foL 268a, on 2 Chron. 
2 13; (VI) Orient 1474, foL 2355, on Amos 2 7; (VII) Addf 16,260, 
foL 140 6, on Judg. 14 4; (VIII) Add. 15,451, foL 26a, on Gen. 35 18; 
(IX) Add. 21,160, fol. 88a, on Oen. 37 il; (X) the same MS., 
foL 62a, on Oen, 44 20; (XI) the same MS., foK 167o, on Levit 
19 8; (XH) the printed Massorah on Oen. 86 18, and (XIII) the 
same on Judg. .14 4. 

yh - § 88. 

T3K7l« And to his father occurs three times in the Pentateuch. 
This is to distinguish it from the fifteen instances where this 
expression occurs, and where it is simply r^ without the Vav 
conjunctive. Of this Rubric I collated eleven Lists, nine in 
MSS. and two printed: (I) Harley ;67l0—ii, VoL I, foL 81a, on 
Gen. 45 23 which I have printed; (II) the same MS., VoL I, 
fol. 776, on Levit 21 2; (III) the same MS., VoL I, foL 181 6, on 
1 Sam. 14 1; (IV) Orient 1379, foL 110a, on Gen. 45 28; (V) 
Arund. Orient 16, foL 43a, on 1 Sam. 14 i; (VI). Add. 16,260, 
foL 1626, on 1 Sam. 14 1; (VII) Add. 12,251, foL 1676, on 1 Sam. 
14 1; (VIII) Add. 15,451, foL 34a, on Gen. 45 28; (IX) the same 
MS., foL 188 a, on 1 Sam. 14 1; (X) the printed Massorah on 
Gen. 45 28, and (XI) the same on 1 Sam. 14 i. 

T^ - § 84. 
Q^fpK* Their father (masculine) occurs three times as 
feminine. The design of this Massorah is to show that the form 
Brail with the suffix third person masculine plural which occurs 
no less than thirty-six times in the Bible is used as feminine in 
the three passages which constitute this Rubric, and that u^*^ 
with the suffix second person plural masculine which occurs 
twelve times is in one instance used as feminine, though both 
^ the nouns occur with the feminine termination when the feminine 
gender is referred to in other passages. Thus for instance the 
Massorah itself shows that |,T;p^ with the feminine termination 
occurs seven times (see below § 36), jp-a^ occurs twice (Gen. 
31 6, 6), whilst with the Vnv conjunctive this form occurs 
also twice (see § .'J.*)). The anomaly pointed out in this Rubric ~^ 
appears all the more striking when Gen. 31 7 and 9 are 
compared, and more especially Numb. 27 7 where the two 
forms Bn''a^ the masculine and |.TaM the feminine are used 
promiscuously in the same verse, which a copyist would be most 
liable to make uniform. Hence the Massoretic remark against 
these anomalies to prevent the Scribe altering them. Yet notwith- 
standing this Massoretic caution, not only does th% Samaritan 
read ip"3K in Gen. 31 0, but many MSS. exhibit this form. The 
same is the case in Numb. 37 7 and 36 G where both the Samaritan 
and many Hebrew MSS. have frra^. This is also the reading of 
some MSS. in Job 42 15. Of this Rubric I collated fourteen 
Lists, twelve in MSS, and two printed: (I) Orient 1379, 
foL ISi&a, on Numb. 37 7 which I have printed; (II) Orient 2348, 
foL 127a; (III) Orient 2.'i4i>, foL IHa; (IV) Orient 2350, foL 241 6, 
all on Numb. 27 7; (V) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 336 a, on Job 43 15; 
(VI) Add. 15,251, fol. l04<^ <m Numb. 36 6; (VII) the same MS., 
foL 3856, on Job 43 15; (VIII) Add. 15,451, foL 111 6, on Numb. 
37 7; (IX) Add. 'i 1,100, fol. 2.3««, on Numb. 27 7; (X) Vienna 
Codox No. 35 on Numb. 36 6; (XI) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah, 



K — K § 86-88. 



— 17 ^ 



-40. K - K 



Additions foL 1306; (XH) Orient 2626—28, Vol. I, foL 45a, on 
Qml 81 9; (XIH) the printed Massorah on Numb. 27 7, and (XIV) 
the same on Numb. 36 C. 

."T^ - § 85. 
|3^3KU And your (feminine) father oeeur$ twice. This List 
only occurs in Arund. Orient 16, foL 1766, where it is remarked 
on }9*s^ji in the Massorah Parva "q bra 'a it oeeurt twice, the second 
jiitue it Qen. 31 7, and in the printed Massorah on the same 
passage which I have printed. On Gen. 31 7 the printed Massorah 
Panra wrongly states '] » d times. This mistake has been per- 
petuated in all the printed editions of the Rabbinic Bibles though 
on Ezek. 16 46 the Massorah Parva has it correctly a - twice. 

rb - § 86. 

|iT3K» Their father (feminine) oeeurt seven times. The design 
of this Massorah is to show that though the suffix third person 
plural refers in ten instances to the feminine, it is only in these 
seven instances where it is with \, since in the other three instances 
it has which is the masculine termination (see above § 34). 
Of this Rubric I collated seventeen Lists, sixteen in MSS. and 
one printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, fol. 1106, on Numb. 
36 12 which I have printed; (11) Orient 1379, fol. 60a, on 
Qeai 19 88; (HI) the same MS., foL 81 8 a, on Numb. 36 12; (IV) 
Orient 14'71, foL 486, on Josh. 17 4; (V) Orient 2348, foL 48a 
on Gen. 19 88; (VI) Orient 2849, foL 38a, on Gen. 19 33; (Vn) 
the same MS., foL 1226, on Numb. 36 12; (VIII) Orient 2350, 
foL 61a, on Gen. 19 88; (IX) the same MS., fol. 2546, on Numb. 
36 12; (X) Arund. Orient 16, foL 126, on Josh. 17 4; (XI) 
Add. 16,251, fol. 104a, on Numb. 36 I2; (XII) Add. 15,451, fol. 386, on 
Exod. 2 16; (Xni) the same MS., foL 1186 on Numb. 36 12; (XIV) 
Add. 21,160, fol. 7a, on Gen. 19 33; (XV) the same MS., fol. 253a, 
on Numb. 36 12; (XVI) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, fol. 100a, 
in the margin and (XVII) the printed Massorah on Gen. 19 33. 

Vb - § 87. 
I^K» Fathers occurs twice defective in the Pentateuch. The 
design of this Massorah is to point out the fact that ^^^ fathers, 
which besides the two passages before us occurs six times in the 
Pentateuch (Exod. 34 7; Numb. 14 18; 36 1; Deut 5 9; 34 16, 16) 
and twenty-three times in the Prophets and Hagiographa (2 Kings 
14 6, 6; Jerem. 6 21; 31 29; 32 18; 47 3; Ezek. 6 10; 18 2; 
MaL 3 24; Prov. 19 14; Neh. 12 22; 1 Chron. 7 7; 8 6, 10, 28; 
9 9, 88; 24 4, 81; 2 Chron. 25 4, 4, 5; 35 12), is in all 
the twenty-nine passages written with Vav plene, and that 
Exod. 12 3; 20 5 are the only two instances in which it is 
written nb^s without Vav. From the heading, viz. -na 'on -a twice 
defective in the Pentateuch, it might at first sight appear that this 
Massorah only applies to the Pentateuch, and that there may be 
other instances of this defective form apart from the Pentateuch. 
This interpretation, however, is precluded by the Massorah Parva in 
the Cambridge MS. Add. 465 where on 2 Kings 14 6 it is distinctly 
declared a'&a vhn rhs it is always plene except in two instances, and 
again the same MS. on Jerem. 32 18 'on a'&a 'ba '*ro r6a it is always 
written plene except twice where it is defective. Accordingly the 
heading before us has the import of 'nai 'en 'a n=ft fatliers occurs 
twice defective and both times in the Pentateuch. The caution which 
this Massorah gives to the Scribes is all the more needed, since 
in all tiie three passages in the Pentateuch where this identical 
phrase occurs the noun in question is plene (Exod. 34 7; 
Numb. 14 18; Deut 5 9). It has to be remarked that in l Chron. 
24 31 ma^ is a proper name. Hence the Massorah Parva against 
it is V3tt aw 'b unique as a proper name. Of this Rubric I collated 
nine Lists, eight in MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, 
Vol I, foL 416, on Exod. 12 3 which I have printed; (H) Add. 
21,160, foL 97a, on Exod. 20 5; (III) Vienna Codex No. 35 on 
Deut 5 9; (IV) Orient 1379, fol. 161a; (V) Orient 2348, fol. 79 a; 
(VI) Orient 2349, fol. G9a; (VII) Orient 2350, fol. 1296, all the 
four in the Massorah Parva on Exod. 20 5; (VIII) Orient 4445, 
foL 626, on Exod. 12 3 and (IX) the printed Massorah on Exod. 
20 6. This Rubric is one of the oldest portions of the Massorah 
since it is already given in the ancient Codex Orient 4445. 

n*^ = § 38. \ 

jnl3>KT|* And the fathers occurs twice. The design of this \ 
Massorah is to show that in both these passages the noun in i 
question has the Vav conjunctive which is apparently not required, ' 
especially in the second passage, where indeed some MSS. have \ 
not got it<^The Sept has in both passages xal oi Jtaxigeg uin&v ! 
and their fatlters, by which it renders en^aip Jerem. 9 15. This ' 



Rubric I have only found in Arund. Orient 16, fol. 152 a, on 
Jerem. 7 18. 

0"^ - § 89. 
^rrtSK* My fathers occurs seven times plene. As this plural 
noun with the suffix first^ person singular occurs fifteen times, 
and as it is defective in the majority of cases, viz. Gen. 47, 9, 30 ; 
48 16, 16; 49 29; I Kings 21 8; Neh. 2 3, 5, the Massorah 
registers the fewer instances in which it is plene. In thus 
cataloguing the passages in which it is written plene the' Massorah 
takes no notice of the fact that three instances out of the seven 
which constitute this Rubric are in pause and have Kametz, viz. 
'^ilaij 1 Kings 21 4; Ps. 39 13; 2 Chron. 32 16. This is frequentiy 
the case when the design of a Rubric is to register the 
variations in spelling. The differences in the vowel points 
are under such circumstances not noticed. Strictiy the heading 
of this Rubric ought to be 'pia^fi -ki -bn •^ ^rfi^ or '^o 't 'nian 
"V^a, since in one of the instances it is ^nla^ with Vav conjunctive 
(2 Chron. 32 13). Of this Rubric I collated twelve Lists, eleven 
in MSS. and one printed: (I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 956, on 
1 Kings 21 4 which I have printed; (11) the same MS., fol. 11 3a, 
on 2 Kings 19 12; (IH) the same MS., fol. 2936, on Ps. 39 13; 
(IV) Vienna Codex No. 35 on 1 Kings 21 4; (V) Add. 15,250, 
fol. 1966, on 1 Kings 21 4; (VI) the same MS., fol. 326a, on 
Ps. 39 13; (VII) Add. 15,251, fol. 212a, on 2 Kings 19 12; (VIH) 
the same MS., foL 3536, on Ps, 39 18; (IX) Orient 1474, fol. 180a, 
on Isa. 87 12; (X) Add. 1^461, fol. 243 a, on 1 Kings 21 4; (XI) 
the same MS., fol. 357 a, on Isa. 37 12, and (XII) the printed 
Massorah on 1 Kings 21 4. These twelve Lists exhibit two 
recensions of this Massorah. The first recension contained in 
Nos. I, IV, V, vn, IX, X, XI and XH exhibits the recension 
which I have printed, whilst the second recension contained in 
Nos. II, III VI and VIII gives nbn rw 'nno = 1 Kings 21 3 as 
the first of the seven passages where this plene spelling occurs 
and omits 1 Kings 21 4, which is the first instance in the first 
recension. It is also to be noticed that all the Lists which give 
the lengthy catchwords for 2 Chron. 32 14, viz. Nos. I, H, HI, 
IV, V and X, distinctly read nir^ "nbyt bs^ 'a as is it in 2 Kings 
18 25, and not oMin ^n^K as the present printed text has it Though 
the printed Massorah (List No. XH) also exhibits this reading 
in the catchword, Frensdorff has taken no notice of it in his 
Massorah Magna, p. 2. Hanover 1876. 

'0 = § 40. 
"rpnlmW^* " Thy fathers occurs three times with Vav plene, 
once in the Pentateuch, once in the Prophets and once in the Hagio- 
grapha, and the sign for them in the Chaldee language is the king 
returns to Oie world. Though TC^^ occurs no less than twenty-six 
times, it is in all the other twenty-three instances written without 
Vav (Gen. 15 16; Exod. 10 6, 6; Deut 1 21; 4 31, 37; 6 3; 
8 3, 16; 10 22; 12 1; 27 3; 30 5, 9; 31 16; 2 Sam. 7 12; 
1 Kings 13 22; 2 Kings 20 17; 22 20; Isa. 39 6; Ps. 45 17; 
1 Chron. 17 11; 2 Chron. 34 28). The Massorah, therefore, registers 
the three instances which constitute the exception to the uniform 
orthography of this • form of the noun, and which the Scribe 
might be liable to make conformable to the general rule. The 
necessity for this Massorah is still more apparent when it is 
borne in mind that the form in question only occurs twice in 
Genesis, and that it is defective in the first instance (Gen. 15 15). 
Of this Rubric I collated sixteen Lists, thirteen in MSS. and 
three printed: (I) Harley 5710-11, Vol. II, fol. 556, on Jerem. 
34 5 which I have printed; (11) the same MS., Vol. I, fol. 20 6, on 
Gen. 31 3; (IH) the same MS., Vol. II, fol. 253a, on Prov. 22 28; 
(IV) Orient 1379, fol. 81 6, on Gen. 31 3; (V) Orient 1474, 
fol. 44 ff, on Jerem. 34 6; (VI) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 3446, on 
Prov. 22 28; (VII) Vienna Codex No. 35 also on Prov. 22 28; 
(VIII) Add. 15,250, fol. 206, on Gen. 31 3; (IX) the same MS. 
fol. 2586, on Jerem. 34 6; (X) the same MS., fol. 364a, on Prov. 
22 28; (XI) Add. 15,251, fol. 392 a, also on Prov. 22 28; (XII) 
Add. 15,451, fol. 226, on Gen. 31 3; (XIII) Add. 21,160, fol. 27a, 
also on Gen. 31 3; (XIV) the printed Massorah on Gen. 31 3; 
(XV) the same on Jerem. 34 5, and (XVI) the same on Prov. 22 28 ; 
These Lists exhibit several, recensions of the Massorah before 
us, as will be seen from the different ways in which it is 
formulated. Thus for instance Lists Nos. VIII, XII and XIV have 
not the addition "airea "in aja nn 'na in once in the Pentateuch, once 
in the PropJiets, and once in the Hagiographa. List No. XIII which 
also has not this addition gives the mnemonic sign at the end, 
whilst List No. X is simply as follows lo^o ntn proo'Di "k^o 'j ymaK 
'irea in "asa nn "ina "Tn ko^p^. The mnemonic sign too which besides 



^-^ §41-48, 



18 - 



§ 44-:4fia, II ~ ^ 



in this Codex and in Add. 21,160 or List JJo. XIII is al»o to he 

found in the printed Massorah parva oh Gen. 31 3, exhibits 

variations. Thus for instance in List No. X the verb is -itn, in List 

No. XIII it is -nn, whilst in the printed Massorah Parva it is i-n, 

though all the three verbs have the same senses Tha sign is 

obtained as usual by translating a word into Chaldee froih each of 

the three passages in which the anomaly in* question occurs. TTIius 

1 Tin ,iin («• "nn = sw Q«n. *1 9 

t K3^ = aoSon Jer9ra. S4 ft > 

3 ttthvh - thv Prov. ti 28 

K'O - § 41. 

T'lrrtDK* Wherever his fathers occurs in the Scriptures tt' is 
dufective except in three instances fchere it is pkne. Tte design of 
this Massorah is to point out the fact that though this form of 
the noun in question occurs no less than seventy-six time? in 
the Hebrew Scriptures it is only plene ip the three passages 
registered in this Rubric. Of this Rubric I collated twelve 
Lists, ten in MSS. and two printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, 
foL 1566, on Judg. 2 10 which I have printed; (H) the same MS., 
Vol. II, fol. 188a, on Ps. 4$ 20; (III) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. Ub, 
on Judg. 2 10; (IV) the same MS., fol. 296a, on Ps. 49 20; (V) 
the same MS., foL 276a, on 2 Chron. 30 19; (VI) Vienna Codex 
No. 36 on Judg. 2 10; (VII) Orient 1471, fol. 62a, alsp on 
Judg. 2 10; (VIII) Add. 15,260, foj. 1325, on Judg. 2 JO; (IX)' the 
same MS., fol. 328a, on Ps. 49 2K>; (X) Add. 15,261, fol. 1396, on 
Judg. 2 10; (XI) the printed Massorah on Judg. 2 10, and (Xll) 
the same on Ps. 49 20. The fact that the heading of List 
No. II which occurs in the sume MS., viz. List No. I, as here 
printed, has simply the, heading rmpa '«?o •; rjj^aK i< occurs three 
times plene in the Scriptures, shows that the two recensions of this 
Massorah proceed from two different Masaoretic Schools Which 
formulated this Rubrfc differently. 

I'O = § 42. 
Vri3K» His fathers occurs three times in this section^ The 
design of this Massorah is to register the fact that in the section 
extending from Numb. 1 l to 2 84 there are three exceptions to 
the general phrase used in the description of the different tribes. 
Whilst the. expression onbjt (heir fathers with the suffix third 
person plural is used with n"?^ to the house of, no less than 
seventeen times in this description (Numb. 1 2, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 
28, 30, 82, 34, 36, 38, 40, 42, 45j 2 2^ 82), in the three instances 
in question it is rrbjj his. fathers, with the suffix thir4 Pfii^son 
singular. Hence the third catchword i-im dtwk i^b rhv - Numb. 13 2 
is manifestly a clerical error for rmeh v% vn. v.t dsiwi Humb. 1 4. 
Tliis is, moreover, confirmed by the declaration in the heading 
of this Rubric, viz. Krsra in this sjBcHon, which cannot be chapter 
13 2, since this is found so many sections later on. Xhis Rubric 
I have only found in Add. 15,25.0, fol. .726, on. Numb. 1 44. The 
importance of this Rubric as a guide to the copyistj will be 
all the more apparent when it is borne in mind that y&riatiohs 
existed with regard to these passages. Thus is Numb. 1 4 the 
Sept exhibits ma^ without any suffix, in Numb. 1 ,44 It exhibits 
orftait, which reading is also to be found in several MSS. ad well 
as in the Samaritan, whilst in 2 34 the Sept has also "^T^- 

a-D =« § 43 
Tnt3K» His fathers occurs seven timss defective (in the 
Pentateuch). Prom Rubric 41 we have seen that the Massorah 
catalogues the three instances in which this form of the noun 
is by way of exception written plene in contradist^iction \o the 
seventy-three passages in which it is defective. Now in the Rubrip 
before us the Massorah registers the instances in which it occurs 
altogether in the Pentateuch. It will be seen that though the 
heading of this Rubric simply says that rps^ occurs seven times 
defective, it ought properly to be mina 'w^a 'fin -i A is seven times 
defective in Viis form in the Pentateuch, and that the words 'S^b^ 
mma are omitted, which is not unfrequently the case. Of this 
Rubric I collated three Lists, two in MSS. and pne printed : 

(I) Add. 16,261, fol. 82a, on Numb. 1 44 which I have printed; 

(II) Add. 21,160, foL 2526, on Numb. 36 7, and (HI) the prmted 
Massorah on Niunb. 1 4. The words mvo 'vrbz in this form in 
the Pentateuch, which are absent in List No. I are supplied by 
the other two List Thus for instance. Lists No. II heads it 'on 't 
•«^^a, whilst List No. Ill heads it lifva 'on 't ^*ifiifi r^. It will 
thus be seen that all the three Lists distinctly declare that 
including yi^b^ which occurs twice (Numb. II 12; Deut 31 20), 
there are seven instances in the Pentateuch where this form is 



defective. This is confirmed both by the MS. Massor^i Parva pf 
Add^ 21,160 which remax'ks in the margin on three of the ini^tancest 
Numb. 14; 284; 36 7) -on 't seven times defective, ahd by the. 
printed Massorah which makes a similar remark in five out of 
the seven instances. Thus on Numb. 1 4 the Massorah Parva has 
•vbs 'on •% On verse 44 of the same chapter it has -ywB^*^ 'cn 't 
seven times with Vox defective in this Pericope, , where TOa is 
evidently a mistake for -ivo PentcOeuch, as the seven instances, 
are not in the same Pericope nor even ^n the same bpok. On 
Numb. 2 34 and 13 2 it has simply 'on \ whilst on 36 7 it haa 
mina 'on 't seven times defectioe in the Pentateuch, But though the 
printed Massorah like the MS. Lists distinctly declares that there 
are only seven such instances it envimerates' dight h^jf incf^rting 
»rn qoya Kan Levit 25 41 between Nuinb. 11 12 and 36 7. There 
can, therefore, hardly be any doubt that it is an insertion by a 
later writer, since it is not only against the se<queBoe of 
the books, but against the heading. Accordingly the tl^^^e Lists 
before lis are based upon a recension of the Hiebrew text in 
which the form rri^ only occured seven times defective, i. e. 
r^ five times (Nuinb. 1 4/ 44; 2 84; 13 2; 36 7) and rrfiip twicp 
(Numb. 11 12; Deut 31 20). There is, however, another recensioa 
of this Rubric exhihited in the Massorah Parva of the Yemen 
Codices ahd of Harley 6710— II. Thus for instance the ,YemenMS^.. 
Orient 137^, fol. 5376; Orient 2348, fol. 1076; Orient 234^, fcoL 97^^. 
remark against r^ai5iLevit2641, 'om 'fO 'JB nine times in the Pentateuch 
and defective, and Harley 6710—11, Vol. 1 has agains^J itjn Levit 
25 41 -Dm 'na 'p, against Numb. 13 2, to 'on •», a^inst Numb. '36 7 
and against verse 8 'pm 'na 'b. These nine instai^es are made up b^ 
seven times vnbK (Levit 26 41; Numb. 1 4, 44; '2 34; U 2; 
36 7, 8) and twice v^h (Numb. 11 12; Deut 31 ^0). The two 
instances^ therefore, contained in the recension of the text upori 
which this Massorah is based and Vhich are not contained in 
the other Lists are Levit 2^5 41 ancl Numb. 36 8. 

TO - § 44. 

y^nl3i<» Our fathers occurs eight times plene troughnut the 
whdle 8crip^res .... and troiighout Joshua, Judges and P^i^ms it is 
liketeise so exce^ in one instance. To understand' this Massdrah it 
is necessary to remark that the form ifrtoK and wt<a>f5 occurs 
forty-four times in the Bibld, that it is sixteen times plen6 
with Vav after the Beth and defective In twenty-eight passages. 

When, therefore, the Massorah catatlogues eight mstaiices of' 
plene and confines itself to three bbolcs. Viz. Gen^sik, Jereoniah 
and Chronicles, the arrangement is moat artifical and is palpably 
designed to exhibit the three divisions of the 04d Testament vi*. 
the Law, the Prophete, and the Hagiographa. Still' more artificial 
is the heading of this Rubric in the ancieht Codex Orient 4446 
where it is stated Ihat ij"rrta«| is eleven times plene (]«<?b «•') and 
where the number eleven is obtained by taking the three boofc» 
Joshua, Judges and Psalms as representing three instahcfes. Prom 
the fact that the instance in Jerem! 3 25 is wTfli^ci it i« Evident 
that this Rubric includes this form with the Vav cbnjtmctive 
Accordingly Pa 78 3 which is plene in th^ priiited'edMons mutrt be 
defective. Of this Rubric 1 collated twerity-thred Li^ts, twenty- 
one in MSS. and two printed: (1) Harley 5710— 11, Vol. ff, 
fol. 1386, on 1 CSiron. 12 17 Which I haVe printed; (II) the same 
MS., Vol. 11, fol. 166a, pn 2 Chron. 29 9; (HI) Orient I8r&, 
fol. 1120I (ly) Orient 2848, fol. 65*; (V)' Orient 234^, fol. 566; 
(VI) Orient 2350, foL lOOa, all on Gen. 47 3; (Vll) Arund. 
Orient'. 16, fol. 1496, on Jerem 3 24; (VIII) the same MS., fol. 1566, 
on Jerem. 14 20; (IX) the same MS., fol. \t>'t% on Jerem: 16 19; 
(X) the same MS., fol. 246a, on 1 ChrPn. 12 li\ (XI) Viennst 
Codex No. 36 on Gen. 47 3; (XII) the sameldS. on Jerem. 14 20; 
(XIII) Add. 15,250, fol. 306, on G6n. 47 3; (XIV) the samfe MS., 
fol. 2466, on Jerem. 14 20; (XV) Add. 16,251, fol. 3^ a, on Gen. 
47 8; (XVI) the same MS., fpl. 2466, on Jerem. 14 2o; (XVri) 
Add. 15,461, fol. 35 a, on Gen. 47 3; (XVIII) the same MS., fol. 377a, 
on Jerem. 14 20; (XIX) Add. 21,160, fol. 566, on Gen. 47^; (X5J) 
Orient 4445, fol. 876, on Gen. 47 8; (XXI) Halle Ochlih Ve-Ochlih 
n, fol. 131 a; (XXII) the printed Massoi-ah on Gen. 47 8, and ^ 
(XXin) the same on Jerem. 14 20. Lists VII, XX and Xltll omit^ 
the addition Ktsa Trat tehtr\ crteBin verer hds, which makes the Rubric 
unintelligible, whilst List XI has only 'n»i "loBiBn vwr bs\, omitting 
the\word o'bni and roa. The List in the Halle Codex, viz. LXt XX 
oniy gives seven instances omitting Jerem. 14 20. 

.TO- -'9 *6«- 
D^IP^rilSK* Your fathers occurs only once entire:^ plena in 
the Pentateuch. This expression which occurs ten timM in> the 



K — 8 8 46&-46/. 



— 19 - 



§ 46. K 



Pentateuch and which is in eight passages written D^-pbif (Gen. 48 21 ; 
Exod. 8 16, 16; Numb. 32 8, 14; 33 54; Deut 4 1; 32 17) 
with Vav defective and Yod plene is in two instances written 
differently from the general orthography followed in the Law. 
In one instance it is o^'niaif (Exod. 3 13) with Vav plene, whilst 
in the other instance it is B^nhif (Deut 1 11). Hence the remark 
ymbn tn vna 'on "nn^ the only instance with Vav defective, one instance in 
the whole world, i. e. Scriptures which is added in the printed Massorah 
from whence this Rubric is printed, is a mistake for -I'ra 'on T-rh 
only once loith Yod defective. This is, moreover, confirmed by the 
Massorah in Orient 2350, fol. 108«, on Exod. 3 13 where this 
Rubric is as follows: 

Deut. 1 11 ^yhi «\D'T B3nhi« Exod. S 13 ma '70 "^ DS»ni3H 

11 'on 'ro D3»nilK •»v^ m* 'on ini 

,T0 = § 456. 
WnllSK* Y<mr fathers is throughout the Penfuteuch written so 
exempt in two instances. This Rubric which I have printed from Jacob 
b. Chayim's Massorah on Numb. 33 64 catalogues the same 
phenomena registered in the preceding Rubric. The two different 
forms of expressing the same fact show that the two Rubrics 
proceed from two different Massoretic Schools. 



D3^ri^DK» Your fathers is twice plene in the hook of Samuel. 
In Samuel, where this expression occurs altogether fonr times, 
the variations in spelling are very striking, since they are not 
only to be found in the same chapter, but within three verses, 
viz. 1 Sam. 12 6, 7, 8. Indeed in verse 8 where ta^-nlSK occurs 
twice it is defective in the first part of the verse and plene in 
the second. Hence the Massorah before us guards the Scribes 
against obliterating this anomfdy. This List is from Arund. 
Orient 16, foL 42a, on 1 Sam, J2 8. As the Massorah is restricted 
to Samuel the heading is simply 'uoa in this book. Fqr disttnotness 
sake I added the name of the b^ok, which I put in braketsi thus 
marking it as my addition 

fT» - $ 45d' . ' ' . .^' 
OyrilSK* Your fathoms is plene throughout Jevemah ^except 
in tKo passages. The tw« instances h«re adduced- which- by way 
of exception are defective in Jeremiah, viz. Ba-rajjt^i 35 15 and 
DyrbKi 44 3 are both with prefixes, ftence strictly the heading 
should be 'xrhz 'on 'a t*eice defective in iMs farm,, ^.^g^ ;>^ord 
•trhz, however, as we have already seen, isi often omitted. The 
reason why the form with .the -prefi«x is h«re registeared is that 
BjTrtaiji without the prefix which occurs -eleven, times i» tfois book 
(Jerem. 2 6; 3 1»; 7=22; 25; 11 4; 16 11; 17 22; 34r-18, 14; 
44 9, 10) is invariably plene. The exceptions are^ ther«foi?e, 
confined to the form with the prefix^ 

,TP ,= § 45*. 
D3''n\SK» Yovtr fathers is three times plene ' in the Minor 
PrdpJuts. As this expression Only occurs s^rven times in the Minor, 
Prdphets «nd is airee times plene (as given in this Rubric) and 
for times defective (Joel 1 2j Zech, 1 <-, 8 14; JMal. Jt 7> the 
Massovab as lusua:! registesTs -die instances which are fewer m 
ntttobqr. Of this Rubric I collated six Lists, -four in' MSS. 
and two printed: (I) Harley 5710-11, Vol. .II> fol. ^21 a; on 
Zeohi I 2; (H) Arund. Orient, loL202«, on Hoe. » 10; (III) the 
sattwB^,:fol. 3i7tt, on 2ech. 12^; (IV> Add. i»,25ft, foL 3 12 at, on 
Zech. 1 2; <V) the printed Massorah on Hos. 9 lO, atfd (VI) tbe 
aamef on -Zech, 1 2. Th» word' •w>r\ iwdve^ I have add»d in> 
brackets to to niak^ ik^ heading more cl«ar. It will be seen that 
the Massorah treats the twelve Mhior Projj^faets as cme %ook. 

.TO = § 45/ ■ , , ^ „■ 
MTrtSK pV* Sign fM' the sacpre9»hnytrtirftttk0r$. ThiftRubrid' 
shows how it is written in the different books of the Hebrew" Sible. 
*; In THE PENTATEUCH it is always wifitteft with 2 Vav 
defective and Yod plerte except in twb in*taii«e« (see above 
§^^45a). • ' ■ ' 

by Iti JOSHUA ff where it bcours sixtime^ it is uriiforinly- 
■ -Written o^'piaK plene (18 ft; 24 2, 6, 6, n, ib). 
e) In JUDf^ES Where, as it is hei»e sflftd '«A »> ationyw phwi. 
«iw:*p« W«'', ^eo'ryD)* does nd; occur at all, and the passage 
*'hert '^^vfotfed fs'tariiif^ (chaptw '2 1) with the 'pr*fK ^w^h 
' biil5*'ofe<iurs bnee' altogether: Hdhdir it shdtiia eithW have 
beeri 'hh frt*rt always defective. Or 'feni 'r only bate atifi ktfiikim! 
As the Rubric now stands it is misleading. This, however, is 



obviated in Lists Nos. V, VI and VII, where Joshiia and 
Judges are put together under one heading. 
dj In SAMUEL it is always defective except twice where it 
is plene (see § 45c). 

e) In KINGS it is always plene except once. As this eTcpression 
only occurs once in Kings the remark is misleading, since 
it implies that it is plene in other parts of this book. 

f) In ISAIAH it is always defective except once. In this bopk 
too, the word only occurs in the single passage adduced. 
The remark is, therefore, misleading. 

g) In JEREMIAH it is always plene except twice where it is 
defective (see § 45 d). 

h) In EZEKIEL it is always plene expept twice where it is 
defective. In Ezek. oa-niajf occurs five times (20 18, 27, 30, 
36; 37 25) and is always plene, whilst o^niaitb with the prefix 
occurs three times, once plene (20 42) and twice defective 
(36 28; 47 14, see the next Rubric 4p). The Massorah^ as i^e 
have seen, makes no distinction between these forms a^d 
hence remarks that it is always plene excejpt , in , two 
instances where it* has, the prefix. 
i) In the MINOR PROPHETS it is always, defective except in 

three instances where it is plene (see § 45 e). 
k) In the HAGIOGRAPHA it is plene except in two instances; 
Ezra and Nehemiah, which are on^rbool^ in the MjisaoraJti 
and in the MSS. and where it occurs three tinges defective 
(Ezra 8 28; 10 11 ; Neh. 13 18) ^re net included. This 
difficulty is removed in Lists Nos. V, VII and IX where 
'niai mw "jsi is added at the end. 

It will thus be seen that this Rubric is a lat^eemgilation 
of the several Rubrics on the separate books. In order to 
enumerate the different books of the Bible the Massorites , fead 
to make highly artificial remarks about those portions which do 
not yield materials for distinct Rubrics. Of this Rubric I 
collated eleven Lists, ten in MSS. and one printed: (I) Ad^ 
21,160, fol. 67cf, on Exod. 3 13 which I have printed; (H) Add. 
15,251, fol. 426, on Exod. 3 13. This List omits the portion refca-rii^g 
to the Hagiographft (*ui D'sma Mi) here n>arked ^; (III) thft;,8aine 
MS., fol. 23 8 J, on Isa. 66 7. In this List the words '"ji; 'bp p'Odtw 
R-an (marked c) have dropped out pif .the text, since the insftan^ 
is given, whilst the. whole, portion re|e,rring to Ezekiel (marked A) 
is entirely omitte4;j (IV) Ad^, l5,4Al, fol. 39 «, on Exod. 3-13; 
(V) Orient 1379, fol. 314^, on J>eut 1 \t. Thi» List put^ Joehua 
and Judges together (in 'tya a'»*iBi ripn" !3»i), thus oibvial|ing.-tlM6 
difficulty pointed out above (m^J^ed c) and bas at the end V3>i 
•ni5 R-itr which as has been pointed , put,, is absent in the othttr 
Lists; ;(VI) Orient 21^48,, fol. laaa, also on Deut 1 U. Thj? List 
like the one marked Na II omits Uie, portion referring to Uve 
Hagiographa, but puts Joshua and Judges togeUiei* as in lA$t 
No, V; (VJI) Orient 234.9> fol. 123a, also on Deut 111. Here too 
Joshua and Jud^s are put together ,ajB^ 'ni»n ic-iip ^ffi is put.^at 
the end; (VIU) Orient 23^0, fol.. 2(is(Ja, on Deut 1 31 whieh is 
exactly like the preceding List; (JX) Orient 1471, fol. 0;{a, t>n 
Ju4g'. 3 It which has simply >n»» "»"^ nt tliseend; (X) Halle Oc^lak 
Ve-OelUahll, Supplement, £gL)31<i, and (XI) ^eprinfied Massorali 
Eiealfai, letterjfe § 41. In this List the printed Massorah remarks iat'th© 
end 'ttiftt'oprma^'wraa/^e'insbsi «w4 throughout 4kfi HagiographA 
it is plena except thl'fe times and, thf, inst^m/^eif fire gf^en 'in Hoseit, 
eh^ptet: VIW On Hose* to which. -the first editor of tbe printed 
Masserah thus refers u* the .heading alsaisayrf ^q '■ftsn.fi'awto "ma 
•onftUa, but. only two instances ace ftdducod. This .^lly agrecis 
with all the MS. Lists, thus showing that-tlxe. fetaark atsa, as Is 
frequently. the case, is siaiply a mistake f©r a-as whiclralso the 
MSS. give. »Bu*torf, however,, in his edition of tbe Rflbbi»ic Bible 
most -arbitrarily added aa-niaK'BBPirB k^ Neh;i3*l« ;s© as. to obtaiii 
thiree inctaaees. , . ^ .,. > . 

Besides the full Massopnh the iotir Yemen MSS. . in the 
Britn^ 'Museum give an abbreviated fe^ni ef it in the Massorah 
Parva: Thns <1) Orient 1379, i«i. I22b; /(II)- Orient 2;J48, foL «9«; 
(III)- Orient 2349, fot 59 «»^ and (IV) Orient 2360, fol. lOSa, all 
on' Exod. '3 12 have the- foUowinj? form of it im •n3'^>*?-aa'maR 
'b» -ma 'a*)to h^vbn ifaa- *Dn -rtia 'wr *WDrt nn^b'a '"^fc '.rtia w ^vhr*^ 
•Bn*raa'*» t« "pirn ^T" tensmyws. This not only «li<»ws the identity 
of the Massorali in alJ the Yemen MSS., but that the-i<eoenBion 
in Sou& Arabia followed a distinct Masdoretic School. 

TO = § 46. 

CpTlilK?* To your father's is twice defective in Eseliiel. As 

this form ocenrs three times in Ezekiel and is plene in one in- 

^t6Aie» enly (20 42) the Massorah according to its usual practice 

ought to have registered the exception, i. e. the one instance and 

8b 



K - « § 47a-476. 



— 20 — 



§ 48a. K 



not the two passages. The Rubric, however, may be due to the 
fact that the annio examples form part of the j,'eueral List of 
plenes and defectives catalo^jfuoil in the precedinjj: Rubric. Of 
this Rubric I collated two Lists: (I) Arund. Orient. 1«, fol. r.M)rt, 
on Erek.}|62H, which I have printed, and (II) Orient. 1174, fol.US^, 
also on Ezek. 3G 28. 

ra = § 47a. 
Dn^ri^3J<7» The^'r fntheis ofcnrs fmr timeit plene [in this form] 
/« the j\-ophetM. To understand this Massorah it is necessary to 
remark that arniaK with suffix third person plural masculine 
(bt ) whicli without and with prefixes occurs thirty-three times, 
is restricted to four books in the Bible, viz. Kings, Jeremiah, 
Ezra-Nehemiah and Chronicles. Now in the books which here 
represent the Prophets, i. e. Kings and 3eremiah this expression 
is only to be found four times altogether, once without any 
prefix (BTniaif Jerem. 30 7), once with Vav conjunctive (orrr-'a^ 
ibid. 19 4), once with the prefix Lamed, {arrrfls^b l Kings 14 15) 
and once with the same prefix a» well as with Vav conjunctive 
(BTniait^i Jerem. 24 lo). In all these four instances the Massorah 
tells us it is written plene with Vav after the B*sth. Accordingly 
the heading ought strictly to be ••<sa 'ir*?a 'ba\ "i this form only 
occurs /our timet in the Prophets and is always plene. The word 
•r^a which is in brackets I have supplied. Of this Rubric I 
collated two Lists: (I) Harley 5710-11, Vol. II, fol. 47 o, on 
Jeremiah 24 10 which I have printed, and (II) the printed 
Massorah on 1 Kings 14 15. 

ro - § 476. 
QTITlS^* Their fathers oeeurt nine times defective ia Chronicles. 
Deducting the four instances which constitute the preceding 
Rubric there are still twenty-nine passages left where this form 
is to be found in the remaining two books, viz. Ezra-Nehemiah 
and Chronicles. Of these twenty-nine instances only three are to 
be found in Ezra-Nehemiah and na less than 'twenty-six occur 
in Chronicles alone. As seventeen are plene (1 Chron. 4 88; 5 IS; 
23 24; 2 Chron. 11 16; 18 18; 14 8; 16 12; 17 14; 19 4; 24 18, 
24; aO 7, 22; 31 17; 34 82, 88; 96 15), the Massorah registers 
the twelve defectives which are the exception. Whilst in the 
seventeen instances it is the simple form arniaii without any 
prefix, the twelve instances exhibit no less than four forms: 
a) BTP^ without any prefix eight times (Ezra 8 1 ; Neh. 9 2 ; 
1 Chron. 5 26; 9 9; 24 80; 29 20; 2 Chron. 7 22; 20 83); 
h) arrtif) with Vav conjunctive once (1 Chron. 9 19); c) Drprb|6 
with Lamed prefix twice (Neh. 9 28; 1 Chron. 6 4), and 
d) urrrtiifh) with the same prefix as well as with Vav conjunctive 
once (2 Chron. 6 2ft). The second part of this Massorah which is 
■headed 'b& TOa "en inon 'iras ho) and throughout the Prophets and 
Exra it is Uketoise so except in four places where it is plene, gives 
the same four instances which constitute the preceding Rubric 
This artificial, arrangement, however, which links the several 
Rubrics together is, as usual, at the expense of strict accuracy, 
since the word in question does not occur as defective in the 
Prophets, whilst in Ezra where it is to be found three times 
(Ezra 8 1 ; Neh. 9 2, 28) it is defective in all the three passages 
and hence cannot be cited as exhibiting an exception. Of this 
Rubric I collated six Lists, five in MSS. and one printed: 
(I) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 2696, on 2 Chron. 20 88 which I have 
printed. Here, however, the heading is 'iroa 'on 'b nine times defective 
in the Hngiographa. The expression 'inaa I altered in to 'Boa in 
the hook; (II) the same MS., fol. 260&, on 2 Chron. 6 25 where 
the heading is 'naa 'on " ten times defective in the Hagiographa, 
though it only enumerates the same nine passages and finishes 
with the same second part as the first List; (III) Vienna Coidex 
No. 85 on 2 Chron. 20 38. This List has the heading 'neoa "-len •» 
nine times defectire in thie hook, i. e. Chronicles, and simply adds 
at the end 'en 'rron tnty hen and throughout Exra it is Uketoise defective, 
without mentioning the Prophets which obviates the difficulty 
pointed out above; (IV) Add. 16,250, fol. 4146, on 1 Chron. 24 30. 
This List has also the heading 'Boa ~>Bn ", though it only gives 
nine instances which are exactly the same as those contained in 
the Rubric which I have printed. It will be seen that here 
too it is 'BBa in thi* hook, i. e. Chronicles. In this recension there 
is no addition whatever at the end of the Rubric; (V) Orient. 5875, 
fol. 2885, on 1 Chron. 29 20. Here the heading is also 'naa 'on " 
though the same nine instances only are adduced. The addition 
at the end differs somewhat from the one I have printed, viz. 
'Va Tea 'mn '»ra: ^ 'rian mw bs\. The four instances from the 
Prophets which this List duly enumerates are the same as those 
printed in § 47a— 6; and (VI) the printed Massorah Finalis, 



letter k, § 40. Here the List begins with the four plene instances 
in the Prophets which form the second part of the Rubric I have 
printed and which, as we have seen, are also a separate Massorah, 
i. e. § 47 a. The editor, however, does not enumerate the passages, 
but refers to i Kings 14 15 (t^ jo'd •»» era^aa 'boj "w^). Then follows 
'DO -oa 'bo 'm "aina bce\ and the passages are duly given. It will 
be seen that like Lists Nos. II, IV and V the heading here states 
that there are ten such instances, though only nine are 
enumerated. In this enumeration, however, "^ orrraK npai (Jerem. 
50 7) is given which is contrary to the import of this Rubric, 
since the passages are distinctly declared to be from the Hagio- 
grapha and Jeremiah belongs to the Prophets. There can, there- 
fore, hardly be any doubt that if is a clerical error for "rhith 
BTroK (2 Chron. 20 33) which belongs to this List, but which is 
here omitted. The succeding editions of the Rabbinic Bibles 
published at Venice by Bomberg reproduce this Massorah as it 
is printed in Jacob b. Chayim's editio princeps (1624 — 25). 
Buxtorf, however, has altered it in his edition, since he not 
only puts the heading 'on B-oa '^o 'lan "aina ba\ which, as we shall 
presently see, is wrong, but omits •'•'• arnaK mpai and adds moan yt 
n-Tf no Kb (2 Chron. 20 83). 

Now in examining these six Lists it will be seen that they 
exhibit two different recensions of the Massorah before us, viz. 
one which restricts itself to Chronicles and hence heads the 
Rubric 'toa 'on 'B nine times defective in this hook, and the second 
which takes in Ezra-Nehemiah and hence heads it 'inaa 'on "* ten 
times defective in the Hagiog*-apha. The ten are made up by the 
nine instances in Chronicles and counting by Ezra-Nehemiah as 
one, a mode of reckoning which is very common in the Massorah, 
especially when the book in question exhibits orthographic uni- 
formity in all the instances. In such a case all the instances 
are described as one. This is what is meant by the phrase bsn 
'mat mtr and aU Esra is so. Accordingly those Lists which give 
the number as nine in the heading ought to be 'coa 'on 'b nine 
times defective in the book of Chronicles, as it is in List No. lU, 
whilst those Lists which give it as ten must be 'inaa 'en " ten 
times defective in the Hagiographa, as it is in Lists Nos. II, V and VI. 
Hence List No. I which has 'inaa 'on 'b and List No. IV which 
has "TBBa 'ion "• have mixed up the two recensions. For this 
reason I corrected "inaa 'B in the heading of the List which I 
have printed into 'Boa 'B, and for the same reason Buxtorf's 
alteration of 'on •"•oa 'ba "on "aina tei into 'on b'bo is wrong. 

n-O - § 48a. 

Dnl3K« Their fathers is twice plene in the Pejttateueh. Besides 
the termination dtp- attached to nla^ footers, to express the suffix 
third person plural masculine, which has been discussed in the 
preceding Rubric and the use of which, as we have seen, is 
restricted to three books, viz. Kings, Jeremiah and Ezra- 
Nehemiah, there is also the more frequent termination b- as 
the suffix third person plural masculine for this noun. This 
form of the noun, even omitting the instances with the different 
prefixes, occurs no fewer than eighty-six times. It is defective, 
L e. without Vav after the Beth in forty-eight passages and 
plene in thirty-eight As the defectives are the rule and the 
plenes the exception in some parts, and as the reverse is the 
case in other parts of the Bible, the Massorites register the use 
of Ihe one or the other form under the three groups into which 
the Hebrew Scriptures are divided, viz. the Law, the Prophets 
and the Hagiographa. ^^ 

In the Pentateuch where onait their fathers, occurs forty-two 
times, it is only twice plene and defective in forty passages. 
Hence the Massorah registers the exception to guard the Scribes 
against making these two passages uniform with the others. For 
this reason Add. 21,160, fol. 218 a, on Numb. 17 18 makes a 
separate Rubric of these two instances without noticing the other 
portions of the Bible, and for the same reason £he Massorah 
Parva in the MSS. and in the printed text has against each of 
these two passages the simple remark "una 'ba 'a t^iee plena in 
the Pentateuch. 

In the Prophets where o^iaiji their fathers, occurs twenty-six 
times it is plene in twenty-three instances (Josh. 4 21; 22 14; 
Judg. 2 12, 17, 20, 22; 8 4; 21 22; 2 Kings 17 14, 15; 21 16; 
Isa. 14 21; Jerem. 9 13; 11 10, 10; 16 8; 28 27; 31 82; Ezek. 5 10; 
20 4, 24; Amos 2 4; Mai. 3 24) and is defective in only three 
passages. Hence the Massorah registers them sepurately. Of this 
Rubric, however, registering the Prophets separately I have 
found one List only in Arund. Orient 16, fol. 846, on 1 Kings 9 9, 
which I have printed and which is marked § 486. In this List 
the third instance, viz. 2 Kings 17 41 has been oritted by a 



K — K § 485-61. 



- 11 - 



§ 62—55. H -- K 



clerical error. But tlie Massorah Parva in the MSS. duly remarks 
against each of these three passages 'rua 'on '3 Atm timet defeetiw 
in the Prophete. It will be seen that the three instances are 
described as occurring in the Prophets, though they are all to 
be found in Kinga But the styling of one portion of the diyision 
by the name which belongs to the whole division is of common 
occurrence in the Massorah. The fact that these three exceptions 
are in this division restricted to Kings explains the remai'k of 
the Massorah Parva in the printed edition against 1 Kings 14 22 
'B*B3 'on '3 three times defective in this honk. 

In the Hagiographa, where nnlaijt their fuflusra occurs eighteen 
times, it is in sixteen passages plene (Ps, 78 12; Prov. 17 6; 
Job 8 8; aO 1; Ezra 2 59; 1 Chron. 5 15, 24, 24; 7 2, 4, 9; 
9 18; 12 80; 24 4; 26 13; 2 Chron. 28 G) and only in two in- 
stances defective. Hence the Massorah registers the exceptions. 

The grouping together into one List of the different 
Massorahs registering the orthography of onia^ as exhibited in 
§ 48a is as usual a later development of the Massoretic labours. 
Of this Rubric marked § 48 a I collated ten Lists, eight in 
MSS. and two printed: (I) Orient. 137!», fol. 436, on Numb. 1 16, 
which I have printed; (II) Orient 2348, fol. 1096; (III) Orient 
2849, fol. 996; (IV) Orient 2350, fol. 200«; (V) Orient 4445, 
foL 1166, all on Numb. 1 16. These four Yemen MSS. have 
exactly the same wording, i. e. have no 'on defective after '-^tn 
•^-nm and the other instances in the Pentateuch, nor do they give 
the number of the instances in which it is defective in the 
Prophets and Hagiographa, but simply enumerate the five 
passages and add at the end '^a 'np 'mn "on pbn fJiese are defective 
and the others in the Scriptures are plene, thus affording additional 
evidence that the Rubric in these MSS. proceeds from the 
same Massoretic School; (VI) Add. 15,251, fol. 81a; (VII) Add. 
16,451, fol. 90a; Add. 21,160, fol. 1846; (VIII) Orient 2626—28, 
Vol I, fol. 117 a; (IX) the printed Massorah, all on Numb. 1 16, 
and (X) the printed Massorah on Neh.-7 61. 

H'O - § 486. 
Of this Rubric I found two separate Lists: (I) Arund. 
Orient 16, fol. 846, on 1 Kings 9 9, which I have printed, and 
(II) Add. 15,451, fol. 237a, on 2 Kings 14 22. It will be seen that 
though the heading states that there are three instances in the 
Prophets where an!:|« is defective, the Rubric adduces two only 
and that 2 Kings 17 41 is omitted, as is evident both' from the 
preceding and the following recensions of this Rubric, viz. 
§ 48 a and § 48 c. In accordance, however, with the principle 
which I have stated in the Preface to Vol. II of the Massorah, 
I have faithfully reproduced the MS., especially as the Rubric 
occurs' in the superb Model Codex Arund. Orient 16. 

»'0 - § 49. 
iTT^ljU She perished occurs twice in pause. The Kal preterite 
third person singular feminine, which occurs seven times, pre- 
cedes the subject in five instances and has Shvivi under the 
BeOi .-nsM (Exod. 10 7; Jerem. 7 28; 9 11; 49 7; Ezek. 19 5), 
whilst in two instances it follows the subject and being in pause 
has Kaimetz under the Beth. Hence thv Massorah registers the 
exception. Of this Rubric I collated two Lists: (I) Arund. 
Orient 16, fol. 340a, on Prov. 11 7 which I have printed, and 
(U) the printed Massorah on Eccl. 9 6. The heading in the 
printed Massorah indicates the import of this Massorah more 
distiiictly by expressing it fdj^ 'a twice with Kametz. The Massorah 
Parva, too, both in the MSS. and in the printed edition on 
EeeL 9 6 expresses this by the remark '^ with the vowel sign 
under the Beih. 

•3 - § 50. 

rn!^|t| which is here registered as occurring three times, 
is probably designed to show that this is the reading in Ezek. 87 li, 
where the Fav seems to be superfluous. It may also be intended 
to indicate thereby that main in Prov. 27 20 is not to be read 
with the same vowel points as it is in these three instances. Of 
this Rubric I collated five Lists, four in MSS. and one printed: 
(I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 1306, on Isa. 29 14, which I have 
printed; (II) the same MS., fol. I90a; (III) Add. 15,250, fol. 290a; 
(IV) Add. 21,160, foL 2806, all on Ezek. 87 IJ, and (V) the 
printed Massorah Finalis, letter m, § 44. 

K': - § 51. 

^9^ ^0 Kal future third person singular masculine occurs 
fkn Hmes, In the two instances before us it is in the middle of 
tiM Mntence and hence has the normal Pathaeh under the Beth 



{"(^ic), whilst- in the other three instances it is in pause and the 
PatJuich is changed into l\gri (ijn^ Prov. 19 9; 21 28; Job 20 7). 
The Massorah, therefore, registers the minority. Add. 21,161, 
fol. 1746, on Job 3 3 describes in the Massorah Parva these two 
instances as forming part of the alphabetical List of words 
which respectively occur twice with Pathaeh. On referring to 
this List, however,^ it will be seen that it is not contained in 
the Massorah in question. As in Job 3 3 the accent is on the 
penultima (nar), whilst it is on the ultima (nar) in Jerem. 4 9 
the Massorah calls the former V-r^a and the latter rha. Of this 
Rubric I collated three Lists: (I) Add. 21,160, fol. 5926, on 
Job 3 8 which I have printed; (II) Harley 5710—11, VoL II, 
fol. 223a, also on Job 3 3, and (III) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 1496, 
on Jerem. 4 o. The printed Massorah Magna has not this Rubric, 
but the import of it is referred to in the Massorah Parva both 
on Jerem. 4 9 and Job 3 3. 

> Gomp. The MatsoiaJi, letter 3, § 539, Vol. II 299. 



nSK'n occurs ticice. nain which occurs six times exhibits 
three distinct pairs, each having different vowel-points. Thus in 
two instances it is nait^ the normal Kal future with Vav con- 
junctive and Sheva under the Beth; in two passages it is the 
same tense with Vav conjunctive, but is in pause and has, there- 
fore, 7'»?i« under the Beth naih, whilst in two instances it is 
rtakn with Vav conversive. This is the reason why the Massorah 
so carefully registers the respective forms in the different 
passages. In the Rubric before us, i. e. § 52 the two passages 
are given where it is with SJieva under the Beth. Of this 
Rubric I collated two Lists: (I) Orient 1474, fol. 187a, 
on Isa. 41 11, and (II) the printed Massorah on the same 
passage. 

r3 = § 52*. 

I'^SKH occurs tmce. This Rubric which registers the two 
passages in which this form is in pause with TzSr^ under the 
Betli. I have only found in the Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah, foL 1256, 
II, § 338. I have given it in the Appendix, letter k, § 52*. 

r: - § 63. 

1^5^ occurs twice. Of this Rubric I collated three 
Lists: (I) Add. 15,250, foL 165a, on 2 Sam. 1 27 which I have 
printed; (II) the same MS., fol. 84a, on Numb. 16 33, and (HI) 
Add. 21,160, fol. 2166, on the same passage. Though this Rubric 
is not to be found in the printed Massorah Magna yet as in 
the MSS. it is indicated in the Massorah Parva on both 
passages. 

T3 - § 54. 

|1*1IM^* Ye shall perish occurs four times, i. e. Kal future 
second person plural masculine with paragogic } and in pause 
for {naiin or natipi. Strictly the heading shotdd be •kbs\ n four 
times and in this book, since the form in question not only occurs 
four times, but is restricted to Deuteronomy. But this more 
minute description is often omitted in the Massoretic headings. 
Of this Rubric I collated six Lists, five in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Orient 1379, fol. 3216, on Deut 4 26 which I have 
printed; (H) the same MS., fol. 8296, on Deut 8 20; (III) Orient 
2349, fol. 128a, on Deut 8 19; (IV) Orient 2360, fol. 2686, also 
on Deut 8 19; (V) Add. 21,160, fol. 261 6 on Deut 4 26, and 
(VI) the printed Massorah also on Deut. 4 26. It is to be 
remarked that List No. V heads this Rubric as follows: t^ 
"1 pn^ibn ye shall surehf perish occurs four times. Accordingly the 
reading in Deut 8 20 should be p-giin -b^ u in harmony not only 
with the immediately preceding verse, but with the other two 
passages. This reading, however, is not supported by the other 
five headings of this Rubric, though it may have belonged 
to a particular Massoretic School. It must also be borne in mind 
that Lists I — ^IV are not four independent witnesses, but belong 
to the Yemen School and are copies from the same Model Codex. 

iT3 - § 66. 
TSwp i« twice plene in this form, i. e. as participle, once as 
the simple participle t3« and once with the prefix *? which is 
expressed by the term tov^a. Of this Rubric I collated four 
Lists, three in MSS. and one prin^: (I) Add. 15,251, foL 118a, 
on Deut 26 5; (II) Vienna Codex No. 36 on the same passage; 
(III) Orient 2876, fol. 686, on Job 81 19, and (IV) the printed 
Massorah on the same passage. There is, however, another 



K § 55*— GO. 



— 22 



§ 61—68. K — 8 



recension of this Massorah in Add. 21,160, fol. 329 «, on Job. 29 13, 
which is exhibited in the following Rubric. 

.T3 - § r,.'-,'. 

"T5*IK i« twice jtlene. This is another recension of the pre- 
cedinK Rubric It registers the fact that naiK which occurs eight 
times is in those two instances only plene, whilst it is defective 
in tlie other passages (Deut. 26 5; Ps. 31 13; 119 176; Prov. 31 6; 
J3ob 4 11; Eccl. 7 15). Accordingly it is Job 29 13 which is plene 
and Prov. 31 O is defective. The Massorah in this MS. as we 
ha^'x? already seen in the preceding Rubric often proceeds from 
a diffei'ent Massoretic School and is based upon a different 
, reQensjon of the text. 

T: = § 56. 

13K* He has destroi/ed, occurs ticice. The design of this 
Massorah is to distinguish the Piel preterite third person singular 
from the Kal preterite (nan), the infinitive (thK) and the participle 
(ink) as well as from the Piel infinitive (nsx) etc. all of which are 
written with the same three letters, but are differently pointed. 
Of this Rubric I collated four Lists: (I) Arund. Orient. 16, 
fol. 1146, on 2 Kings 21 3 which I have printed; (II) Vienna 
Codex No. 35 on the same passage; (III) Add. 15,250, fol. 269a, 
on Jerem.51 55, and (IV) Orient. 1474, fol. 686, also on Jerem.61 55. 
The heading in this List is 'n:o'ci 'cm 'pi •: ism including the 
instance witli Var prefix in Jerem. 51 55. In the text of this 
Rubric it is wrongly printed tsk with Tzrn- under the Beth instead 
of Pathach. 

. n = § 67. 

DTTlSSl occurs t.tclce. The design of this Rubric is to 
distinguish tliis Piel preterite second person plural masculine 
fnmi the Kal preterite second plural which is written with the 
same letters, but is differently pointed (comp. Levit. 26 38; 
Deut. 11 17; Josh. 23 16; Jerem. 27 lo, 15). Of this Rubric I 
collated seven Lists all in MSS.: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, 
{<)i. 109a, on Numb. 33 52 which I have printed; (II) Add. 15,250, 
fol. 9* a, on the. same passage; (III) Orient. 2348, fol. 1406, on 
Deut. 12 3; (IV> Orient. 2349, foL 52a, on Numb. 33 52; (V) the 
sameiMSi, f«?l.' 130a, ^m Deut. 12 3; (VI) Orient. 2350, fol. 2.516, 
on Numb. 33 52, and (VII) the same MS., fol. 2736, on Deut. 12 3. 

.,,,.. '<.._. ■ , , : ■: n"a = §58. ,, , . ...... . 

s 1'^tV^ occurs twtiiie. Of this Rubric I collated two Ligits 
bothin MSS. :^I) Arund. Orient 16, foh.2l5?», and (II) Add. 15,251, 
fo]^ 9!i)7f?< both on; Zeplu ^ 13. ; 

" '/' ["■ ■ ■■ ^m = §■ 69.^ '',.,-K.! ',.,' ,r ,.■.... 

nS^^ ^^fc'ii'' three times in the Pentateuch. This expression 
is only to be f(mnd once more besides the Pentateuch, viz. 
1 Kings 20 8 and is in two instances Kal future second person 
singular masculine, (Deut 13 9; l Kings 20 8), nod in two 
instances thjird person singular feminine. The Massorali, however, 
makes no difference in tlie gender A:c., but registers the words 
spelled and pointed alike, u^ider the same Rubric. I have only 
found this Rubric in Add. 15,251, fol. 236, cm Gen. 24 5. 

'D = § 60. 
DIDNIf Crih occurs tin'ce. The design of this Massorah is (I) 
to distinguish this noun from the participle passive maiK with 
Kameh (Prov. 15 17), from CSK, as well as from the Kal future" 
first person singular with Vnr conjunctive ciaKi (Isa. 63 6), from 
Cia to trend doimi, both of, which also occur in the same two book?. 
This is evident from the recension of this Rubric in the ancient 
Codex Add. 21,161, fol. IIMW/, on Prov. 14 4 where it is as follows: 

Prov. ir» 17' d;:k -nirmni prov. J4 4 la 

Isp. r.:l r; o'Oy B«>n nni iga. \ » vV;2 

And (II) it shoA^'s that this expression only occurs" in the 
two passives' in question in the MSS. recognizee! as authoritative' 
by tlie Masaorites, artd that other Codices had it also in some 
other passitgcs. This i* evident from the Tact that both the 
Septuagint and the Vulgate have in Job 6 5 ^xl tpdtvrjg i%av xu 
pQcjfiara at the crib hnn'ng fothUr and ante praesQpe plenum 
steterit wh»>rP, it siandeth before a full crih = "iS*'w disk by. 'tpckvri and 
prnesfpe are the very expressi()hs by whicli thd Sel)t and Vulgate 
render srzn in Isa. 1 3; Prov. 14 4 and Job 39 •.). Resides the 
recension in Oode?^ Add. 21,161 I h^ve only found one other 
List of this Rubric in Harley 5710-11, fol. la, on Isa. 1 3 



which I have printed. From the fact, however, that it is to be 
found in the ancient Codex, viz. Add. 21,161, and that it is 
mentioned in the Massorah Parva of the St. Petei*sburg Codex on 
Isa. 1 8 it is evident that it is one of the oldest portions of the 
Massorah. It is also referred to in the Massorah Parva of most 
of the Biblical MSS. as well as in the printed Massorah Parva 
on Isa 1 3. 

K"D = § 61. 

n*3K« Abiyah is ticice the name of a woman. Besides these 
two passages this form of the proper name occurs no less than 
twenty-one times, seventeen times without any prefix, viz. H??*} 

1 Sam. 8 2; l Kings 14 1; Neh. 10 8; 12 4; l Chron. 3 10; 

2 Chron. 11 20, 22; 12 16; 13 1, 2, 3, 4, 15, 17, 19, 22, 23; twice 
with Vav conjunctive, viz. rvaijii 1 Chron. 6 13; 7 8 and twice 
with prefix T^vned n«zKb Neh.' 12 17; 1 Chron. 24 10. As it is the 
name of a man in all these passages and as it is only in the 
two instances in question that it is the name of a woman, the 
Massorah registers the exception. Of this Rubric I found three 
Lists: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 131a, on 1 Chron. 2 24 
which I have printed; (II) Add. 15,251, fol. 31.5a, on the same 
passage, and (III) Orient 2626—28, Vol. Ill, fol. 26, also on the 
same passage. It is referred to in the Massorah Parva in the 
MSS. of the Bible and in the printed edition on both passages. 
In the MSS. the reference is under the following three forms: 
(I) 'apJ 'veb "2 twice a feminine expression; (II) 'apjs '3 twice in the 

feminine, and (HI) rap: ae 'a ttoice the name of a female. On 
1 Chron. 2 24 the printed Massorah Parva has the third of these 
forms, whilst on 2 Chron. 29 1 it has ktitik dw 'a the same form 
in Chaldee. 

2'D = § 62. 

in*SK» Ahiyahu occurs twice. To understand the import of 
this Massorah it is necessary to remark that of the twenty-three 
instances in which the name Abiyah occurs, as shown in the 
preceding Rubric it is the name of the son of Rehoboam no 
less than twelve times, viz. 2 Chron. 11 20, 22; 12 16, 13 1, 2, 
3, 4, 15, 17, 19, 22, 23. In 2 Chron. 13, however, where nine of 
the twelve instances occur, he is also called twice injajt Ahiyahu 
(verses 20, 21). Hence the remark at the end of the first pari 
of this Rubric n'SK 'na ikw in the other parts cf the Hagiographa 
this name (i: e. Abiydhu) is toritten Abiah. 

It will also be seen that out of the twenty-three times in 
which the name Abiah occurs, twenty -one are to be found in 
Nehemiah and Chronicles which belong to the third division of 
the Hebrew Scriptures called the Hagiographa, whilst only two 
instances occur in Samuel and Kings which' belong' to the second 
division called the Prophets. The naine of the son of Rehoboam, 
however, occurs no less than five times in Kings; but here it is 
invariably written B»aK Abiyam (1 Kings 14 31; 15 1, 7, 7, 8), and 
it is only twice that Abiah occurs in the Prophets', onCtd^Vas^ the 
name of the second son of the Prophet Samael (1 &am^ 8 2) 
and once as the name of the son of Jeroboam (1 Kings 14 1). 
Hente tibe iremark which forms the h-eading df the iiecoad- part 
of this Massorah n»aK a-ea oja* '>r» Wi throughout the Prophets: the 
mune is Ah^fom except in two instaities in uJiioh it w Hintten Abiyak. 
The necessity for this Massorah defining the several, passa^f in 
which these throe diff^ent forms, Abiyab> Abiyahu and Abiyam 
are respectively used to denote the same person, arose from th&i < 
fact that the MSS. greatly varied. Thus for instance tJie;Sept;« , 
hs^ in aU passages, tvp,^. AhlyaJi in which the presetnt text hMi>-t^ ' 
Abiyrwi. The same is the case in njany Hebrew MSSw, M^hiiei 
Add. 15,250, fol. 192a, has one more, instance, of B*^-«46»';^ani'th9Mi 
the Massorah recognizes, inasmuch as this Codex readsr.lii' 
1 Kings 16 6 or a-'" pai o'aK pa as in verse 7. This was also the 
original reading in Orient 26^6— 28, Vol. II, fol. 103a. Add. l.^aso 
also points this name in two different ways; in four^^pwssnges 
the Yod has Kametz and in three it, has Path/ich, v|z. pp)^ apd ; 
UieMa^Sorj^h Parva remarks against it '3, three times so. Mo;r^ov«i^, 
ar^, whether written witli Kametz ^ or vrOh Patha.ckj, has no Dn§^h 
in the Yod. I have only found this jRubric in Arund. Orienjt. 16, 
fol. 2656, on 2 Ohron- 13 19. It is, however, referred to in « the 
Massorah Parva on 1 Kings 14 1; 2 Chron. 13 19 both ia4he( 
MSS., and in Jtacob b-.Chayim's edition. 

ro - § 63. ' ■ ' 

S^ZIIK occurs three times in the Scriptures. This expression 
which occurs nine times altogethi^r, has in six instances the article 
and is preceded by the word tnh, viz. a-axn nn denoting the 
month Alib (Gxod, 13 4; 23 15; H l^, 18; Deut lls 1, 1), i. e. the 



H ~ H 8 w^«&* 



— t8 



-67. K - K 



■'??3'9¥» 



moiitb pf gr«en ears, or when the barley was in ear, afterwards 
called Nisan, and it is only in the three instances in question 
that it is without the article and without wnh preceding it. 
Hence the Massorah as usual registers the exceptions. This was 
all tbe more necessary since in two out of the ^roe passages 
the readings varied. Thus one of Kennicott's MSS. reads *i-'£k 
tlr0nff^ in Exod. 9 81. In E26k. 3 16 the ancient Codices varied 
still more. Thus the reoensioll from which the Septnagint was 
made does not seem to hav<e 6xhibited it at all, whilst the ^yriac 
wMeh renders it ii wrt^w, ^«/(3^ k^) reads sks. The Massoi^ites, 
tli«t:efore, attest > that in the Codices which they regard€(d as 
•iithoritative, the r^lading in these three pbdsages wis a^aii. Of 
Ibis Rubric I collated two Lists: (I) Harley 6710-11, Vol. II, 
foL 72rt, on Ezek. 3 15, which I have printed, and (II) the printed 
Massorah Finalis k, § 47. 

TD - § 64. : 
Abigail which occurs seventeen times is written iii 
foilr diffiM^eiSt ways: (I) in twelve instances it has two Yods, 
i. et one after the Beth and 6ne after the Gitnel (i Sam. 2S 14, 
28, 86, 3i, 40, 42; '27 3; $0 5; 2 Sam. 2 2; 1 Chron. 2 16, 17; 
•t'l); (II) once it is with the first Yod defective (viz. •?'»»{ 

1 Banfi. 26 8); (Itt) in three instances the second Yod is ^efectiv^ 
KKk it Js'l^inted.^ra^j (l Sam. 26 32; 2 Sam. 3 3; 17 25); and 
(IV) in one insitance it is written b:vQ» Ahugail, with Vav after 
the 5e«^' instead of Yod, biit is read ^:r9i< with Yod^i Sam. 26 1 8). 
Though in twp instances o^t of the three where it is without the 
second Yod it is pointed Ahigal bi or "?.; (1 Sam, 26 3.2; 2. Sam. 
Vl 2^), yet in one instance the Massorah substitutes b"}"^ Abigail, 
with Yod in the Keri (2 Sam. 3 3). Moreover b^v^ which occurs 
six times without a prefix (1 SanU 2^ 3, 18, 23, 36, 40, 42), is 
as we have seen in one instance written "wjoj* with one Yod and 
wjth iuowMrfjti^d^r the Qiwil b^ing i^ pause (viz. 1 Sam. 25 3), 
wiiilst l^e. f()rm. ^i'aub which occurs tMrice (l Sam. 26 32; 

2 9ain, 3 3), is in one ii^st^inoe only b'%'^ in the Ken (2 Sam. 3 8), 
whilst, ip the 'other it isrboth written and read bT^ (1 Sara, 26 32). 
H^nce theMassor^ register^ .in the first line of the Rubric 
before its the single instance in which it is written with the 
first y<wi 4ef|BCt»ye. tn the sewpd Une it gives tjbe one inatauoe 
in ^. which thft.tejttual readiJjg.brajfb 1^819. the marginal rea4iug 
yp^. Iq t]^^ third, li^ the Massorah informs uq that in all 
ouicarpassagfta where thisi laame xx^curs besides the ooe mentioBed 
iUr.^.lirst.Uiae (lSam-26^a), H- is written with two Fwfo; whilst 
in the fourth line it states that 1 Sam. 86 82 which is the 
only other instance where the form b^'si^b occurs, both the 
textual and marginal readings itre alike, thus differing from 
2 Sam. 3 8. 

As this name has furnished materials to no less than 

fivd' different Massorahs i subjoin Uie ten different forms in 

which it oceai«, as wefl as reftfttences to the Rubrieri to which 
it has eontributed. 

1 , ^^ 1 Sam. Sft 3> 

8 aw ^JOH ; „ ^ is V letter 1, f U8, Vol. I, pi 421 

4 hf^ 2 Bam. 17 26; letter h, § 16, Vol. II, p. 108 

A 'TTin 1 Sam. 2ft 89; letter S, S 6, Vol. I, p. 14.3 

« ,1,1 )^»am rt 17 8; 80' ft; 2 Bast. 8 2; 1 Ohfon. 8 16, V? 

t ^^ ,, MM; lettW \ i 16, ytA tl, p. 108; letter », ff 669, 

Vol. II, p. 80ft " 

8 3wSj»aii^ 2 8am. 8 8 ; letter 3, § 4^(>, Vol. II, p. 68 

• ^^^ 1 Chron. 8 1 ' ,, , 

10'" S^Mi^ i Sato. '8ft 14; letter/, § 17^, Vttl. I, p. 829. 

Of this ftubriC I collated thrfee Lists: (1) Arund. 
Orient '16^' fbl. 688, on .2 Sam. ^ 2; (II) Vienna Codex No. 35 
also' on i Sam. 3 8, ahd (H^ the printed Massorah, also on 
2 daini^ 8.' In ;ihe text 6t this Rubric '?r3^^ (1 Sam. ^6 32) is by 
mistake printed with KaTnetz under tjxe Qtmet instead of Paikach. 

iTD = § 66. 

trf'SIf* >The poor occurt three times defective in the Sevipturet. 
The'singular|i'?|t which without and with , prefixes occurs .np 
less than forty-one times is invariably written with Vav plene, 
whilst the plural d-jI'?^ which' occurs 'eight times, is in six in- 
Btan<^ plene (Jerem. 2 34^ 6 28; Amo^ 4 1{ ?s. 12 fj^^fiO 34; 
7t:.xi^ and ,is only in two instance^ defective (Ps. liO 18;, 
Job. 24 4), and VY!^ which occurs three times, is in two 
ftisages plene (Ps. 112 9; Job 29 16) and is only in one passage 



defective (Esther 9 22). This is the .reason why the Massorah in 
the Vienna Codex No. 35 i*emarks on Deut. 16 4 'ba 'n'?3 ];1'2K that 
jttiK if invariably j^ne, and why the Massorah before us registers 
the three passages out of the eleven in which the plural is 
exceptionally written defective. Of this Rubric I collated three 
Lists:' (I) Harley 5710^11, Vol. ll, fol. 275fr, on Esther 9 22 
which I haV6 printed; (II) the printed Massorah tin Ps. 140 13, 
and (III) the same on Job 24 4. As one of the tliree instances 
is B'j'a»6 with Lavml prefix the heading of this Rubric ought 
strictly speaking to be jr-ba 'orf T three times defective' in ihia 
form, 1. e. in the plural whether With or without the prefix. 
But this is implied ih the Massoretic language. Hence the ex- 
pression jw'ja is frequently omitted from the headings' of the 
Rubrics. Its presence or absence is quite arbitrary. Thus in, the 
printii'd Massorah on Ps. 140 18' and Job 24 4 the heading is 
'W^a'cn'i, whilst in the printed Massorjah Finalis k, § 49 where 
this Rubric is referred to^ the heading is" simply o^ncn ':. .Tlie same 
is the case in the Massorah Parva 'both in the MSS. and in the 
printed edition. Thus Harley 5710 -U has on Ps. 140 13 and 
Job 24 4 'cn 'J, whilst on Esther 9 22 the sfime MS. has 'vbo 'on -3. 
Arund. Orient. 16 has on all the three passages simply 'on •), 
whilst the printed Massorah has on Job 24 4 ; Esther 9 22 simply 
'on '3, and on Ps. 140 1 3 'bt'^s 'pn 'j. • , 

VT3 = § 66. 
''3''3J<* The poor of occnra twice, once defective and once plene. 
Of this^ Rubric I collated two Lists: (I) Harley 5710—11, 
Vol. I, fol. 49a, on Exod. 23 11, and (H) Add. 24,160, fol. 102a, 
on the same passage. Here too th.e heading ought strictly to 
be jvba '3 twice in the construct form, since one of the two 
has Vav conjunctive. The Rubric before us is according to one 
School of Massorites who registered the orthography of the 
Codices which they regarded as authoritative. According to 
another Massoretic School, howfever, b6th these instances were 
written defective. Hence Ciambridge Add. 466 has in Isa. 29 19 
not ohly ^j^iKi defective, but remarks in the Massorah Parva 
Against it •v'j^^ 'on 'i. * This is corroborated by the St. Petersburg 
Codex which 'also reads 's^ski defective in Isa. 29 1 9. It is this 
School which the printed Massorah Parva follows in Exod! 23 11 
where it remarks on '"a, whilst on Isa. 29 19 where the printed 
Massorah Parva has 'b1i^•b unfque and pf'ene, it is no contradiction, 
but it simply foUpws the first recensipn of this Rubric. 

■ ' ' ' rT3 « § 67. • 

b'triljl^* AUchail occurs four times tn the Scriptures. The 
design of this Massorah is to distinguish, the four passages in 
which this name is masculine and, ' is written with C%«<A from 
the two instances in which it is feminine and is written with 
He. Of this Rubric I collated thirteen Lists, twelve in MSS. and 
one printed. As these Lists exhibit two distinct recensions I 
shall divide them acCoi*dingly. * " 

RECENSION ONE IS &s follows: (I) Harley 5710—11, 
Vol. II, fol. 276&,on Esther 9 29 which I have pointed; (II) Arund. 
Orient., fol. 240 J, on i Chron. 5 14; (111)1 thfe same MS., fol; 8696, 
on Esther 2 15;" (IV) Add. 16,250, fol. 4046, on 1 Chron. 6 14; 
(V) Add. i?i;i60, fol. 190a, onNumB. 3 85; <VI) Orient 2626-28, 
Vol. I, fol. i20a, also on Numb. 3 85; <VIl) Ihe same MS., Vol. Ill, 
fol. 4^, on 1 Chron. 5 l4, and (VIH) the printed Mass6rah FiftaHs 
letter k, § 48. With the exceptioh of the printed Massorah 'which 
adds at "the end the tw6' instances thM tdim the next RtibiAc, 
all the MSS. simply say^ that this name occtirs four' times and 
enumerate the tnstanceil as given in the Rubric. 

HECENSION TWO which occurs in five MSS., viz, Orient 
1379, fol. 249a; Orient 2348, fol. Ill6; Orient 2849; fol. 101^; 
Orient, 2360, fol. 205a; Orient 2365, fol. 127a, all on Numb. 3 35 
is as follows: 

1 Chron. ft J4 '^f P 'j'n'ax Num. 8 36 "^^ 

in 'ns 'Kifi Bsther 2 ,16; 9 29 "WBk n^JD 

It will be seen that, th^ apparent discrepancy between this 
recension which states that there are three^ such instanccjs and 
the formei; one vhich states th^t Inhere are four is du^ ,to the 
peculiar, manner in which this Rubric is foynaulated by the two 
MwBoretio Schools. T^^^or^^^r Sehopl i^ecQj:d8. the , instances 
separately and hence givps \h^ nnjnber as/wr^ whilst, tj^e latter 
has regard tp the three bpok^.in which they ocpur, viJ^ th^Law, 
Esther and Chronicles and hence giv^s tl^e number as ^r»e, since 
the two passages in Esther are according to this artificial 
arrangement counted as one. 



8 — X § 68—70. 



24 



§ tl- 78. H 



n"D = § 68. 

^TTpK Ahihail oecurt twice. Though both the Authorised 
Version and the Revised Version make no distinction in the trans- 
literation of the two instances before us and the four recorded 
in the preceding Rubric, yet the Massorah calls special attention 
to the fact that in the two passages where it is the name of a : 
woman it is written Abihail with He (n), whilst in the four j 
passages which constitute the preceding Rubric and where it is I 
the name of a man, it is Abichail with Cheth (n). The absence of { 
any distinction in the A. V. may be due to the fact that in some 
MSS. and in most of the early printed editions of the Hebrew . 
Scriptures both names are with Cheth as may be seen in tbe ' 
notes to my edition of the Hebrew Bible. Of this Rubric I I 
collated four Lists, three in MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley I 
5710—11, Vol. II, foL 131 a, on I Chron. 2 29 which I have j 
printed; (II) the same MS., Vol. II, fol. 15Ga, on 2 Chron. 11 18; | 
(III) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, § 146, fol. 115a, and the printed 
Massorah Finalis letter m, § i8. The concluding part of this ! 
Rubric which refers to the vowel-points and in which it is stated 
that "in the Prop/tets it is with Pathach and in Chronicles it is \ 
with Katnetz"' must be a clerical error, since both instances occur ! 
in Chronicles. In the second instance where this Rubric occurs j 
again in this very MS. this addition is omitted. 

The apparently conflicting remark in the Massorah Parva | 
of some MSS. against 1 Chron. 2 29 that it is unique (-b) or : 
does not occur again, whilst in other MSS. it is stated against it I 
that it occurs twice (-a) is due to the fact that the former refers ' 
to its pausal form with Kametz under the He (^rrsK), whilst the 
latter has regard t«» the spelling with the He. 



points, the Revisers have this margin against every passage 
except one, viz. 1 Chr<m. 19 16. 

K'J? - § 71. 
Dl7^5^ Ahwhalom, occure twice. This is to distinguish it 
from a^bfs» Abshalom. which occurs often (comp. § 91). Of this 
Rubric I collated two Lists: (I) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 90a, on 
1 Kings 16 2 which I have printed and (II) Orient. 2626 — 28, 
Vol. II, fol. 102a, on the same passage. In the editio prineept of 
the Massorah Parva, where this Rubric is mentioned on 1 Kings 15 10, 
the catchwords for the two passages are Abigam and Asa,^ the 
names of the two Kings in whose reign Abishalom is mentioned. 

1 KOH can '3 m'?B"2K. 

2-V = § 72. 
T'SS to mourn, which ftltcnys taket the preposition ^y hat in 
three imtances -bv:. The third instance, viz. Amos 5 16, cannot 
properly be said to belong to this category since the preposition 
'b¥t is here governed by the verb iini5i and not by bs». Still more 
objectionable is this Rubric in the printed Massorah on Eccl. 7 2 
which catalogues five instances adding Gen. 37 ;)5 and Eccl. 7 2. 
In the first of the two passages b^ belongs to -nK and in the 
second to rr^V. They have evidently been added by a later 
Massorite who has been misled by the instance from Amos 5 16. 
The Rubric as I have printed it is from Arund. Orient. li>, 
fol. 45a, on 1 Sara. 15 35 and though I have not found the List 
in any other MS., yet the Massorah Parva in Harley 5710—11; 
Harley 5720, Arund. Orient. 16; Add. 15,250, and Add. 15,251, 
on 1 Sam. 10 35 distinctly declares that there are three instances 
only in this Rubric. 



ro = § 60. 
T'SS Strong, mighty, occurs twice. The design of this Rubric 
is both to guard the reading and to distinguish between the two 
instances before us where these four letters are with Pathach 
under the Aleph and Dagesh in the Beth from the four instances 
where the same letters are with Chuttph- Pathach under the Ak'ph 
and the Beth is liaphe (Gen. 49 24; Isa. 1 24; 49 26; 60 10). 

I Sam. 21 8 shows that the Codices from which the Sept. was 
made read "nnaTiK nyn instead of cy-rt tsk, whilst in Job 34 20 
TSK was altogether absent. Moreover, in some of the MSS. tsk 
is pointed -rrK in 1 Sam, 21 8 and this pointing is followed in 
the editio prineeps of the Bible, Soncino 1488. The Rubric is from 
Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 338a, on Job 34 20 and though I have 
not found it in the Massorah Magna of any other MS. the 
existence of these two instances is mentioned in the Massorah 
Parva both in the MSS. and in the editio prineeps of Jacob b. 
Chayim's Rabbinic Bible 1524 — 25. 

'P = § 70. 
^^^SK Ahlshai is the ^spelling throughout the hook of Samuel 
except in one instance whfU'e it is Ahshni ('rSK). To understand this 
Massorah which I have printed from Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, 
fol. 202 />, on 2 Sam. 10 10 it is necessary to remark that Abishai, 
one of the sons of Zeruiah the sister of David and one of David's 
generals occurs twenty-five times and always in Samuel and 
Chronicles. In Samuel, where it occurs twenty times, it is spelled 
it^ Ahishai, except in one solitary instance, viz. 2 Sam. 10 10, 
whilst in Chronicles, where it occurs five times (I Chron. 2 16; 

II 20; 18 12; 19 11, 16), it is without exception spelled 'tfSK. 
ITence the recension of this Rubric in the Massorah Parva in 
Arund. Orient 16, fol. 626, on 2 Sam. 10 lu 'lat .tt ^si 'b 'tfaK 
Ahshni lines not occur again except in Chronicles where it is always so. 

The variation in the orthography of this name is due to 
the primitive manner in which it was written. Originally it was 
T2H without Yod, but pronounced "s^at Ahishai in three syllables 
as is attested by the transliteration of the Sept and Vulg. in 
Chronicles. When in the course of time the Yofl was inserted 
after the Chirek by. the earlier Massorites in accordance with 
their principles of orthography, the process of uniformity did 
not extend to the last book of the Bible. Hence the later Massorites 
pronounced and pointed the primitive form »bt3k Ahshai in those 
passages where it survived. 

The Authorised Version has uniformly discarded the Mas- 
soretic vowel- points in all the six instances where it is "tfsic Ahshti 
and made it ^tf^M Alnshai. In one instance only did the trans- 
lators indicate that they have altered the Hebrew text, viz. 
1 Chron. 19 11, by placing in the margin against it "Heb. Ahshai. 
In the Revised Version, which also discards the Massoretic vowel- 



i r» = § 73. 

: ''5^ "'■*^''' P'J^ff'f'f' [under the lieth] occurs three times. That 

i is the Kal third person, masculine preterite to distinguish it 

I from the adjective ban mournitig which has 'ZW? under the Beth. 

Of this Rubric I collated six Lists, four in MSS: and two printed: 

(I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 128a, on Isa. 24 7 which I printed; 

(II) Orient 1474, fol. 174a, on Isa. 33 9; (IH) Add. 15,251, fol. 224o, 
on Isa. 24 7; (IV) Vienna Codex No. 35 on the same passage; 
(V) the printed Massorah on the same passage and (VI) the same 
on Hos. 10 5. As this masculine preterite also occurs once with 
Vav conjunctive, viz. bs>fn Amos 8 8, later Massorites have included 
this Rubric in the large List which they compiled of all the 
words which severally occur four times, three times without 
Far conjunctive and once with it.* 

' Comp. The Maatoruh, letter ', § 73, Vol. I, p. 406. 

TV = § 74. 
^SK occurs twice. This Rubric which is given both in the 
'■ Massorah Parva and Magna in the splendid and most carefully 
I written Model Codex Arund. Orient 16, fol. 207 a, on Amos 6 16 
I cannot explain, since b^ occurs no fewer than thirteen times. 
I Besides the two passages in question it is to be found in 
! Gen. 27 41; 50 11; Deut 34 8; 2 Sam. 14 2; Isa. 61 3; Jerem. 
: 6 26; 16 7; Ezek. 24 17; Eccl. 7 2, 4 and Esther 4 3. 

.TJ? = § 75. 
HT'SS she mmtrned (Kal preterite third person feminine) 
occurs Jive times. This Rubric I have found only in the printed 
Massorah Finalis letter k, § 51. 

rV = § 76. 
T^SK^^ and. her mourned (Hithpael future third person 
singular masculine with Faw conversive) occurs fmir times. This 
Rubric too I have fouijjl only in the printed Massorah where 
it occurs twice, once on Gen. 37 34 which I have printed and 
once in the Mas.sorali Finalis letter k, § 52, where it is incorrectly 
printed. The second i:a bv b^»rr, 2 Sam. 13 37 is omitted and the 
catchwords from 1 Chron. 7 22 are wrongly divided into two 
separate passages to obtain the requisite four instances. 

rV = § 77. 
Dpn It'SK^'I and tiie people mourned occurs twice. This Rubric 
which does not oc^ur in the printed Massorah is from Arund. 
Orient l«, fol. :)«/>, on 1 Sam. 6 19. 

n-v = § 78. 

?3K3 with a stom- occurs three times in the Scriptures. This 
is to distin«,'uish it from ;ax2 with Kametz under the Beth 



K — K § 70-85. 



— 25 — 



§ 8B-90a—b. K — K 



[-r^orn^] which also occurs three times in the Bible (Leyit. 20 27; 
Jttdg. 20 16; Ps. 91 12). Of this Rubric I collated ten Lists, eight 
in M8S. and two printed: (I) Harley 6710-11, Vol. I, fol. 206a, 
on 2 Sam. U 26, which I have printed; (II) Orient 1879, 
foL 158a, on Exod. 21 1«; (IH) Arund. Orient 16, foL 66a, 
on 2 Sam. U 26; (IV) Add. 15,460, fol. 44a, on Exod. 21 18; 
(V) the same MS. fol. 95 a, on Numb. 86 17; (VI) Add. 16,261, 
foL 176a, on 2 Sam. U 26; (VII) Add. 16,451, foL 11 8a, on 
Numb. 8ft 17; (VIII) Add. 21,160, fol. 251a, on Numb. 85 17; 
(H) the printed Massorah on Exod. 21 18 and (X) the same on 
Numb. 85 17. In the first of the two places the printed Massorah 
gives the two instances only which occur in the P<3ntateuch. As 
an also occurs once with Vav conjunctive, viz. pi|^^ Dan. 11 88 
later Massorites have included this Rubric in the large List 
which they compiled of the words which severally occur four 
times, three times without Vav and%>noe with it' 

> Comp. T%» Mauorah, letter \ f !», Vol. I, p. 406. 

B-y - § 79. 
|^^t^T{ and the itone oecur$ twice. This Rubric is from the 
printed Massorah on Gen. 29 2; Harley 6710-11, Vol. I, foL 186, 
has it in the Massorah Parva on Qen. 28 22. 

'D - § 80. 
pK^ for a Hone occurs twice with Kametz under the Aleph. 
Of this' Rubric I collated four Lists, three in M88. and one 
printed: (I) Harley 6710-11, VoL I, foL 1926, on 1 Sam. 25 87 
which I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient 16, foL 686, on the same 
passage; (HI) Add. 16,250, fol. 96, on Gen. 11 8, and (IV) the 
printed Massorah on the same passage. 



y^^ 



re - § 81. 

> D^pH XDH* Stone precede* wood in four inttancM. The 
normal phrase in the Bible when these two materiaHs are 
mentioned in conjunction is ''wood and stone" ^ except in the 
passages before us where they are inverted. The Massorites, 
therefore, guarded the scribes against making this anomalous 
phrase conformable to the regular order. When it is borne in 
mind that some ancient Codices had the normal order in 
Levit 14 46 as is evident from the Septuagint, the newjssity for 
this Massoretic caution is apparent Of this Rubno K collated 
seven Lists: (I) Orient 1H79, foL 2l7a, on Levit U 46 which I have 
printed; (II) Orient 2849, foL 905; (HI) Orient 2350, fol. I7i»6; 
lIV) Orient 2865, foL 108a; (V) Add. 2i,160, foL I60ta, all on 
Levit U 46; (VI) Ochlah Ve-Ochlah Paris recension f| 286 and 
(VU) the printed Massorah on Levit 14 46. The compiler of the 
Oeblah Ve-Ochlah adds a fifth instance, viz. Jerem. 3 9 wbich 
he says is outside the Massorah.* 

< Comp. Deut t8 86, 64; S9 16; 2 Sun. S U; 2 Kings 19 18; Im 87 19; 
Eidt. to S2 etc. 

» rrn nm pim nn iiitjni Hn-noeo la^ nm Comp. | 285, p. 182. 

yt - § 82. 
^j^KI ^JOK« Two verses are alike, they have severcdly twice -y^ 
stones of, the first is without Vav conjunctive and the s&eond is with it 
The design of this Maraorah is to guard against maV.ing Exod. 25 7 
eonformable to the parallel passage in 35 9 ^^rhere "j^ also 
occurs twice, but where it has Vav conjunctive in both instances. 
Of this Rubric I collated four Lists: (I) Orien^i. 1879, foL 1586, 
which I have printed; (II) Orient 2348, foL 81a; (HI) Orient 2849, 
foL 1716, and (IV) Orient 2350, foL 1356, all on Exod. 25 7. 

:'D - § 88. 

D^3!3Kn the stool, (he wheel occurs iwic9. 'Of this Rubric I have 
found one List only in Harley 6710-11, Vol. I, foL 86 a, on 
Exod. 1 16 which I have printed. 

TO - § 84. 

PpK Ibtan occurs twice. This Rubric which does not occur 
in the printed Massorah is from Ar und. Orient 16, fol. 28 a, 
on Judg. 12 8. 

iTD - § 8f,. 
D*|n3K Ql^SK Abraham, Abt •aham occurs twice in this 
redaplicated form. It will be seen tl*iat the two instances are not 
exactly parallel, since in Gen. 25 l 9 the second Abraham begins 
a new sentence. As it is Gen. 22^ 11 only which properly exhibits 
an emphatic iteration it is induided in the separate Massorah 



which records this special class.' This Rubric I have found only 
in the printed Massorah on Gen. 25 19. 

1 Ck>mp. The Mauorah, letter V, |f 686, 687, YoL II, p. 6S«. 

TD - § 86. 
«3p2^ pUSr* &*n!!^ AbrcAam, Isaac and Jaecb occurs twice. 
This Rubric records the two exceptional passages where the 
three patriarchs occur conjointly and where the third patriarch 
is called by his original name Jacob. It is to be remarked that 
when -*9tt (Exod. 6 8)^ (Exod. 6 8; 88 1; Numb. 82 11; Deut 1 8; 
6 \0; 9 6, 27; 29 12; 80 20; 84 4) -njt (Exod. 2 24) or vh^ 
(Exod. 8 6, 16; 4 6) pracedM each of the three names of the 
patriarchs the phrase is not included in this Rubric Equally 
excluded is the triplet in which the second patriarch is called 
prrtp: (Jerem. 88 26). Of this Rubric I collated three Lists: 
(i) Orient 1879, foL 122a; (II) Orient 2848, fol. 69a, and 
(HI) Orient 2849, foL 69 a, all on Exod. 816 and all Yemen MSa 

ro - § 87. 
7Krt?n pnip 01*08 Abraham, J^iac and Israel occurs four 
times. In this Rubric are registered the four instances of this 
triplet in which the third patriarch is by way of exception called 
Israel, the name given to him by the angel with whom he wrestled 
at Penuel. It is remarkable that whilst all the instances in which 
the Lamed is prefixed to each of the patriarchs are carefully 
excluded from the former Rubric, yet Exod. 82 13 which has the 
Lamed before all these names is here included. Of this Rubric 
I collated nine Lists, eight in MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 
6710—11, Vol. I, foL 56a, on Exopd. 82 13 which I have printed; 
(H) the same MS. Vol. I, foL 283a, on 1 Kings 18 86; (HI) Arund. 
Orient 16, foL 98a, on 1 Kings 18 36; (IV) the same MS. foL 2566, 
on 1 Chron. 29 18; (V) the same MS. foL 276a, on 2 Chron. 80 6; 
(VI) Orient 1879, foL 178a; (VH) Orient 2348, foL 8«6; (VHI) 
Orient 2849, foL 766, all on Exod. 412 18 and (IX) the printed 
Massorah also on Exod. 82 13. 

n"D - § 88. 
DTTSK1 And Abraham begins a verse five times. With Vav 
conjunctive the name of this patriarch occurs only eight times 
altogether and this Rubric shows that in five out of the eight 
passages it begins a verse. As all the instances occur in Genesis, 
the heading of this Rubric ought properly to be 'reai ri 'n ^»« 
tim^s at the beginning of a verse and in this book, i. e. Genesis. But 
the qualifying expressions are often omitted. This Rubric is from 
the printed Massorah on Gen. 18 Id as I have not found it in 
any MS. 

tS'D - § 89. 
D1I38 ^6*"ai» begins a verse twice. Though arr^ Abraham the 
trisyllabic name occurs no fewer than one hundred and thirty 
eight times it never begins a verse, whilst en^ Abram the bisyllabio 
form which occurs fifty times only begins a verso twice. This 
Rubric I have printed from Harley 6710-11, Vol. II, foL 180a, on 

I Chron. 1 26. As these two instances constitute one of the pairs 
without Vav prefix at the beginning of the verse whilst they 
have it in all <Aher passages, they are included in the separate 
Massoretic List which enumerates these phenomena.^ 

1 Comp. The Mtutorah, letter i, | 62, Vol. I, p. 898. 

.3t - § 90 a— 6. 
ffpK Abram occurs twice: '3 on?* Abram occurs three times. 
Thei<3e two Rubrics are simply two different forms of recording 
the same fact Though the shorter name on^^t Abram, occurs 
altogether sixty-one times, fifty times without prefixes and eleven 
times with prefixes, yet in two instances only is this bisyllabic 
name to be found outside Genesis. It is this fact which the two 
Rubrics before us record in two different ways. The first states 
that it occurs twice only, L e. outside Genesis and that every 
where from Gen. 11 26 to 17 5 it is also D-p|t The second Rubric 
which states that this bisyllabio name occurs three times in the 
Scriptures obtains this number in artificially regarding the 
portion from Gen. 11 26 to 17 6 as exhibiting one example. The 
Rubrics are from Orient 1879, foL 486; Orient 2348, fol. 44a, and 
Orient 2349, fol. 84a, all on Gen. 11 26. After mp' K«yi ly mn »m p 
these MSS. have -in one, i. e. from Gen. 11 26 to 17 6 <» one 
ifiMtfsnee, which I have inadvertently omitted. In § 90 a Gen. 

II 26—7 5 should be 11 26—17 6 and in § 906, Gen. 10 26 
should be 11 26—17 5. 



K 1^ K ft ^1—96. 



26 



»M-ioiJK --^ 



K*3f - § 91. 

QT^tS^SK Absalom ia thirteen times defective. Out of the one 
hundred and nine times in which this name occurs, eighty-six times 
without and twenty-three times with suffixes, it has retained its 
primitive orthography in thirteen instances only. This is the 
number given both in the heading of the Jtnbric and in the 
detailed enumeration of the passages in the Model Cod,ex liajrley 
6710—11, Vol. I, fol. 2056, on 2 Sam. 1* 4 which I have printed. 
The other fiv« Lists, however, which ^ have collated, > lour in 
^S3r And on« printed give the. mumbor as fourteen, though they 
differ in some iBst^ces as to the j^recise f»assages which majce 
up the requisite number. List 11 is in Arund. Orient 16, foL €66, 
on 2 Sam. 15 14; List III is in the same MS^ fol. 676, on 2 Sam. 
16 18; List IV is in the Vienna Codex No. 35 on 2 Sam. 15 14; 
List V is in Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah, fol. 986 note and, List VI 
is in the printed Massorah on 2 Sam. 17 18. The following Table 
exhibits the points of agreement and difference in the, six 
Massoretic Lists; the numbers indicate the order in which the 
passages are given in the several Lists: 





ssa 


^ 










^ 




=^ 




*!* 




^ 


VI 


V 


IV 


m 


11 I 




VI 


V 


IV 


IH 


II 


l< 


1 ■ -, 




3 


4 


8 


8 


. 


, 


2 Sam. 1? 16 


. 


1 






1 


1 


2 «ftm. n 4 




12 


12 


12 


11 


9 


■g" 


n >• 18 


' 


i 






2. 


ti 


' „• '-l^U 




8 


9 


10 


10 


» 


• 


„ » 24 ' 




• 






3 


8 


„ 16 18 




10 


10 


11' 


12 


10 


10 


» » as 




8 






4 


4 


A „ 21 




U 


tl 


9 





♦ 


IS 


» 2« 




6 






5 


6 


„ » *3 




18 


13 


13 


18 


11 


11 


„ 18 10 




fr 


• 


•< 


• 


6 


„ 17 1- 




U 


14 


14 


U 


12 


J2 


» » 18 




7 




& 


2 


n » 4 




















3 


7 


7 


T 


7 


• » » » 





It will be seen that there are altogether fifteen such in- 
stances and that these gix Lists exhibit two diMinct recensions 
Which proceed from two different Schools of Massorites. The 
first recension is given in List I and the second is contained in 
the remaining five Lists. 

3*» « § «2. " r 

H^K This expression occurs itbice; it. is hath times pkne and 
denhies too different things. In the first iristan<ie it is Kal future 
first person singular from nii and in th$ second it is the Jjroper 
name Agur. This Massorah is fi-om Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, 
fol. 257a, on Prov, 30 1. In Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 3476, where 
this Massorah is also given on the same passage, the heading is 
simply 'a-iUK which is not so distinct. As the hbnionyma have 
been arranged alphabetically by the Massorites, this palf is in- 
cluded in the alphabetical List which records these expressions.* 

.» C9nip. Tlu} Mattorak, letter ts, $ 428, Vol. H, p, ,217. 

D3K/' to a j>ool, or <t pool of occurs three times. This Rubric 
Is- ftom Hatley 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 20B6, ori Ps. 107 35. In 
Arund. Orient. 16, fol. l»e6, where this Massorah i8 given on 
Isa. 41 18 this e*«reihely corfeet Codex has it 'nt^i o^ H isHn 
aU the three inwtdmes wi^ Pathath, i, e. tii»b though it is in the 
absolute in Isa. 35 7. The printing bM*» with Kametx in the editio 
prineeps of Jacob b. Chayim's Rabbinic Bible (Venice 1524—26) 
in Isa. 35 7 is not only against the Model Codex, but against 
Jacob b. Chayim's own Massorah on this very passage which 
expressly says pwiB 'i ovth. ' 

, '. / " . TV,* § 94.' 

JbulK « hoiiing caldron, a ruth or bulrush is three times defective 
i» this sms0* Altogether. *hi« expression occurs five times with 
.40d Without prefixes, aiMi it- is these three instanceB in which, it 

. has- retained its • pdinitive .orthograpbyy having escaped the. in- 
•ertion of the imiter heU»i^. In some Massoretie S<kboole the 
process, ef uniformity wm more suocesefia since eesveral MSa as 
well as thei etWw prUeep^ot the Prt?)hets, NKples 148«r^87 and 
the first edition of the ^ib}e, Scmeino 14^8 have {iti^ pltoe in 
Isa. 58 ,5. , The Bnbrio which I haye printed is from Arund. 
Orient. 16, foL 3356, on Job 40 26, This List is also given in the 
printed Massorah oa the «aqie passs^ge. 

"""' ■ ' n*x « § 96. ■ 

^h|^ teith t^Jist aecw* twiu. The ^esigA of thiji Haasoroh 
is to sh^w that in both these JnataaoeiB.the expression in questipii 



is 'Without the tucker Itctionis.' -Thi4 ir attested by the besf Oodiote 
and th« early printed editions where it is defective. The insertion 
of Vav; la. v^i^^KA' in Isa. 58 4' in the first edition oi Jaobb b. 
Chayim's Rabbinic Bible is, therefore, incorrect ( This Rubrio I 
have printed from Harley 5710—11, Vol. n, fol. 27 a> on Isa. 68-4. 
It Is also givei^ in Arund Orient. 16, foL 4S6,ifinf l^e same 
passage^. The Rubric r does not occur in the printed Maasoisyi 
though it is noticed in the Massorah Parva on Exod. 21 19. 

ri =. § 96. ' ' ! , . 

I^V The expreastan ittl ^ccur*- t%oic« and in two diffefent^enB^. 
That is^ it denotes both vapour and caktmiti^. Each of the -Aree 
L^s which I iiave. collated of this Mas»orah has a different heading: 
(I) the one ' which , I have printed and which is from ' H«iey 
571Q— 1], Voi. I, foL 24, on Qen. ^ 6 emphasisea the fact .that 
it has two dii'ferent meanings; > (II) th$ printed Massorah on th^ 
same passage heads it K^a 'tr 'sn 'k 'a ntr, simply points out that 
it is defective, i. e. without Yod in the first instance and plene 
in the second and says nothing about its different senses, whilst 
(III) the printed Massorah Parva- on Job 18 12 heads it 'a tmi 
'vr*? "vo which Isiys stress upon, its denpting two differant things 
without any reference to its being defective in one passage and 
plene in the second This pair is. included in the alpbabetipal 
List of homonyms.! 

' Oomp. The Matiorah, letter 0, § 426^ Vol. II, p. 217. 

rt = S.97. 

d'^^TK Eddnites occurs twite., That is the plural of *i^ dtkXf 
'occurs twice. This Rubric is from Harley 5710—11, VoL H, 
fbl. 164rf, on 2 Chron. 25 14. ' ' 

n-jf = § 98. 

?HKn ihe Lord occurs twice. That is in this primitive ortho- 
grapliy without the matet^ lectionis this expressioa oacurf twice, 
whili^t in the other six instances, where' it occurs, (Isa. 1 24; 
3 1; 10 16, 33; 19 4; Mai. 3 i) it has the Vav. This Rubric is 
from Add 1174, Cambridge University Library, on Exod 23 17. 
The printed Massorah Parva on this passage makes the import 
of this, Rubric much clearer^ viz. peci 'on 'a pttn it is tunce defective 
and has Pflsek. 

tS'Jf -'§ 99. ^ ■ 

nli<i5t •l^'l'? J^*TJ|»n the Lord Jehovnh of Hosts is one nf jive 
instances in this book. This Ruliric which I have printed from the 
St. Petersburg .Codex A. T>. 916 is one pf the oldest constituent 
parts, ol, the Massorah. It is given "qn Isa. 10 16 and hence the 
heading describes it as ''one of the five" instances in which, this 
phrase qccurs in this book, i. e. Isaiah. As this p^ase does noi 
occur aj»art from Isaiah 'oa ought properly to be 'oai and in 
this book. This Rubric is also given in the printed Massorah on 
lsa.'S 1 where the heading i» Mrnpa TartDOn 'a th**i iki^e^ expressions 
occur five timas in combination in the Scriptures. 

'P - § 100. 
QTp'l"lK» The expression ITW with different sufjtxes occurs six 
times pLne' in Ihis sense. It \vlll be aeen that' ^among^' ike six 
Instances constituting thia Rubric is the proper name njrt-i^ 
2 Chron. 17 8. This is due tP the fact that like .(he other forms 
of this root i\'' has the Vav abnormally inserted The fnserfioi^ 
however^ of th^ mater leoHonis in this propei^ name is in deoordanoe 
with the Pileslittian recension. The Babylonians read it n^ 
defective. Those llassorahs, therefore, which aal»lgn five inetanoiss 
only to thia Rubric are based upon the Eastern recension of tik4 
text Of this uncommon Rubric I collated two Lista: (I) Arund 
Orient 16, fol. 3166, on Ps. f83 2 aiid (II) the printed Massorah 
on the same paac£^^. The latt«> is manifestly corrupilC no^ only 
states in the heading that there are 4eveu plesk instaneee 
(nuTK 'r''?a 'bn 't), but t»ives l Sam. l^ 16 as one of liift seren^ 
though in quoting thiii passage it distinctly declares that mj'tij 
here is doubly defective^ ("ibm -ion i3:-i»t w iok"), i. e. without Vav 
•and without- iToii. . » i -% 'i.' 

li-p - § 101. , 

^3^^ my lord is twice with the accent on the penultima. This 
illustrates the extreme minm':en^ss of the Massorah extending even 
tp the accents. Though the t^^resaion t^h^t tecttifil^otfl^'er than 
one hundred and sixty, titam, in the Bible the Maasorah defi&itely^ 
Btatea that it is Mtlk in th^^se two inatanoos otaly where' the 
J^ktleih has Munack. I have v er^ied every passage and found 



K -~ K § 102- 



— 27 



§ 105—109. K -" K 



the statement absolutely correct. Of this Rubric I collated two 
Lists: (I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 186, on Judg. 1 6, which I have 
printed and (U) Vienna Codex No. 35 on Dan. 10 17. 

I'p = § 102. 
'^flH the lord or master of oeeura four times in the Scriptures. 
Though plural construct, this form is used in all the four instances 
as plur. exellentiae and is translated by the singular. Of this Rubric 
I collated six Lists, four in MSS. and two printed: (I)' Orient 4445, 
foL 88a, on Gen. 42 80 which shows that it is, one the oldest 
parts of the Massorah; (II) Harley' 6710—11, Vol. I, fol. 232, on 
1 Kings 16 24; (III) Arund. Orient 16, foL 91a, on the same 
pysage; (IV) Add. 21,160, foL 486, on Gen. 43 30; (V) the printed 
Massorah on the same passage and (VI) the printed Massorah 
on 1 Kings 16 24. As this plural construct also occurs once with 

Vnv conjimctive it is included in the alphabetical List of words 
which severally occur five times, four times without the prefix 

Vav and once with it' 

1 Comp. The Mattorah, letter \ § 75, Vol. I, p. 407 etc. 

rp -* § 103 a. 

m3*TK \?i3 '^pBtt t* In seven instances is the Aleph sounded 
in the expression lord. That is though preceded by the prefixes 
Beth, Vav, Caph and Lamed this expression has abnormally-C%a<«pA- 
rathaeh under the Aleph. Of this Rubric I collated nine Lists 
seven in MSS. and two printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, 
foL 26 6, on Gen. 40 1 which I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient 16, 
foL 76a, on 1 Kings 1 2; (III) the same MS. fol. 206 a, on Amos 4 1; 
(IV) Add. 21,160, fol. 426, on Gen. 40 l which gives the mnemonic 
sign; (V) Vienna Codex No. 35 on Amos 4 1; (Vl) the same MS. 
on Ps. 136 3; (VII) the same MS. on Neh. 8 10; (VIII) the printed 
Massorah on Gen. 40 1 and (IX) the same on Ps. 136 3. The 
mnemonic sign King David said to God, the Lord, the Holy one 
Give ye thanks, which is given in List IV and which consists of 
seven words, is as usual obtained by translating a word into 
Chaldee from each of the seven passages in which this anomaly 
occurs. In the printed Massorah Parya by Jacob b. Chayim 
Venice 1624—25 where this sigh is given on Gen. 40 1 it is as 
follows: K«mpf? niK \h'oh -UaK nm »0i3"i >O^0 the King, the Lord of David 
said to all Give thanks to the Holy One. 

rp = § 1036. 
"IJilli Ttt^» Sign for 1M prefixes Beth, Vav, Caph and Lamed^ 
This Rubric not only records the instances contained in § 103a, 
but lays down the rule from which the instances in question 
depart In giving this rule, however, the Massorah mentions the 
fact (I) that in vr^hn God, wheiv it is preceded by one of these 
four serviles the AUph is also Raphe, or has no vowel-points and 
(II) that in nirr the Yod loses its Sheva when the Tetragrammaton 
ha« one of these prefixes. This Massorah is from Harley 5710 — 11, 
VoL Ii; fol. 2176, on Ps. 136 8. The seventh instance, i. e. Neh. 8 10 
is here omitted. This is manifestly due to an oversight on the 
part of the Scribe as is attested by the heading. The omission 
of the last line is by no means of uncomniion occurrence. 

rp *i § lOSc. 

''Ih>jl7« Lord hat in nine inttances an audihk Aleph. Tl^S 
recension of Rubric 103 ,which is from the Model Codex Arund. 
Orient 16, fol. 31 8 a, on Ps. 136 3 is one of the oldest part* of 
the Massorah, «ince it is also given ^l the anciel^.t Cq^9X 
.Orient 4445^ fQl..29a^ on Qen. 40 1. It will be seen tli^t whilst 
a|L lihe nine Lists .reaord^d in § loaa, aa well 4s the most elabV^te 
recension., in g ,1096 i^mphntically state that thdfe ure seven 
instances pnly which constitute th^s exception and accordingly 
,«;niim9rate.0Aly soveo^ Uiis r^oension. as- emphatically states- th»i 
tbsre ar^ nine ins^^nces and irecords the nine exeeptionfl. The 
two instanoei? lueco^dJUg to this rftcensipn Are w;'^ which occurs 
.twice, viz., Deut 10. 17 and Ps, 136 ,8. It is, therefojre^ evident 
that the ancient School o£ Massprites froniL yrhieh this Massorah 
tpi¥)ceeds did not limit the effect ol the prefixes uimnb th« vowel' 
poii^ts of -the Aleph in }i*t||t l<^'d to ^3is, sin<» in these twa instanoefl 
it is-B*}'T|fn with the prefiJs Se-in). 

\ ' rp'^ § ip4^ 

'^!'3'T^ <Ay lord oceurs^twic^. >ybat is with the miflix second 
person singular feminine. In all the other instance where this 
expression has th^ (foiii^f. second peii^on .sy^gu^aiT it is masculine, 
viz.il'3'w. Of thiaJiuba:i«a colteted three Lists: ^) Harley .6710—11, 
Vol. li, fol. 25 o, on Isa. 51 22; which I have printed; (II) Arund. 



Orient 16, fol. 295a, on Ps. 46 12 and (HI) the printed Massorah 
on Isa. 51 22. This Rubric forms one of the pairs in the alpha- 
betical List of words which severally occur twice with Pathach.* 

> Comp. 7%e MoMorah, letter 3, § 539, Vol. II, p. 200. 

,Tp = § 105. 

13''3^K5 and our lord occurs twice. That is with Vav prefix, 
to distinguish it from the other seven instances where it is without 
this Vav. Of this Rubric which does not occur in the printed 
Massorah I collated three Lists: (I) Harley 5710—11, VoL II, 
foL 2176, on Ps. 186 5 which I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient 1«, 
fol. 76 a, on 1 Kings 1 2 and (IH) Vienna Codex No. 35 on Ps. 135 5. 

Vp - § 106. 
J^rriflK^ to their lord occurs twice. That is with the prefix 
Lamed to distinguish it from the other nine passages where it is 
without this prefix. This Rubric is from Harley 5710—11, VoL II, 
foL 1 10a, on Amos 4 1. 

rp - § 107. 
"•^K* Lord occurs twelve Himef in the Pentateuch. That is this 
expression standinjg by itself is used in twelve instances in the 
Pentateuch for the Tetragrammaton. It indeed occurs sixteen times 
in this division of the Hebrew Bible, but in the other four 
instances it is in combination with the Tetragrammaton, viz. •>f^ 
ntT (Gen. 15 2, 8; Deut 8 24; 9 26). As there can be no doubt 
about its import in these passage they are excluded frqm this 
List The two instances where it has the prefix Lamed and where 
it stands for the Tetragrammaton in the Pentateuch, viz. "j'tS^ 
Gen. 18 30, 32 are according to this Massoretic School, also excluded 
from this List because they are part, of a separate Rubric which 
registers the passage where this expression with Lamed occurs in the 
whole Bible.' Of this separate Rubric which does not occur in 
the printed Massorah I collated two Lists: (I) Harley 5710—11, 
VoL I, fol. 576, on Exod 84 9, which I have print^d and (II) Orient 
1379, foL 576, on Gen. 18 32. In the printed Massorah Parva on 
Gen. 18 27, reference is made to this separate Rubric stating 
that there are fourteen such instances in the Pentateuch, but this 
manifestly includes the two passages with the prefix Lamsd, 
viz. 'jhK^. 

> Vide infra, g llg, p. 27. 

H'p - § 108. 

*'^lVk* Lord is five times so written, in Kings. In Joshua *p^ 
occurs once only by itself, viz. 7 8, in the other passage (7 7) 
it is combined with Jehovah, viz. .Tirr 'J'lK. Of Judges where it 
occurs twice by itself (6 15; 13 8) and twice in combination with 
Jehovah (6 22; 16 28) I have lound no separate List The six 
instances in Samuel are all combined with Jehovah (2 Sam. 7 18, 
19, 19^ 20, 28, 29). and hen3e do not belong to this category. It 
is only when we oome to Kings where it occurs five times that 
we have again, a separate List . Of this Rubric which does not 
ocQur in th& printed Massorah I <>olUted two Lists: (I) Arund. 
Orient^. 16, foL 96a, on 1 Kiiigs 2fi 6 which I have printed and (II) 
^.ddt l^^50, foL 197 a, on the same passage. It will be seen that 
whilst the passages where this expression hw the prefix Lamed 
are excluded from the List on the Penstateucfa the in^ance in 
which it has Fa«> prefix ('j'tki t Kings 7 ^) is here given as <ine 
ol the five. It is Important to remark that this Massorah proceeds 
from a School of textual redactors which read ^pf, in. these 
passages instead of njrr and that the recension which o4»tained 
in other Schools had njrr in at least diueeout at the livepaswges 
as> KiU be sedn from, tl^e notes to my edition of the Hdi»iBW 
Bible. ' 

rp *, §1,109-' . '..-,. 

< '^Sli^t- Lord ufwanfy^-^rke Htaee 4eritten so in Isaikh. Of this 
Rfibria whioh does not occur iu th6 ^Hnted MasSorah I collated 
two Lists:' (I) Arundi Orient* 16, foL 1206, on Isa. 4 4 and \U) Add. 
ld,2&l,^ M: nrjb, on the same passage^ The heading M the second 
^isi distinctiy states that thdre are' twenty-twd Sutfh inbtAflces 
only in Isaiah.* But as it'entnn**at«6 Wenty^nfe passagfes Wily 
and omits two, viz. Isa. 9 7, anji"^8 16 it is difficult' to say 
which of these is meant to be excluded according ^to this 
Tebension. ^ Th» Importimt features of this Missorafif, ''however, 
which are ©enttmori to both l^ecenMonS arte that (3f)'^they both 



4 b 



K ^ H § 110—118, 



— 28 



§ lu— 116. K — K 



read *j^ in Isa. 38 14 which is the Palestinian reading, whilst 
the Babylonians and the Hellali Codex read here r«r;» (II) thoy 
both read ^ in Isa. 49 14a instead of mn^ which is the reading 
ia the textus reeepttu and (III) that in no fewer than thirteen 
out of the twenty-three passages which are here recorded as 
reading ^ some of the CodicM and the early printed editions 
read ntr, as will be seen from the notea in my edition of the 
Hebrew Bible. 

' It if to be remarkod tbat the ■o-ecUed Babylonian Codex of A. D. 916 
reada hare ^i* In aooordanee with the PaleatiniaB reoanafon. 



tnj. 



♦•p - § 110. 

> Lord it tix [five] thuM to toritttn in Etekitl In Jeremiah 
where ^ without any prefix occurs eleven times * and with the 
prefix Lamtd three times* it is invariably in combination with 
n^ and hence does not belong to this category. It is remarkable 
that in Ezekiel, where *;h|( occurs no fewer than two hundred 
and twenty-two times, it is combined with niT in two hundred 
and seventeen instances and in five passages only does it stand 
by itself for Jehovah. Of this Rubric which does not occur in 
the printed Hassorah I collated two Lists: (I) Arund. Orient Ifl, 
foL 17S<r, on Ezek. 18 26 which I have printed and (II) Cambridge 
Add. 1174 on the same passages. Both these Lists state in the 
heading that there are nix such instances in Ezekiel and both 
enumerate five only which is in accordance with the Uxlut 
rtctptut and with the statement of the Massorah Parva in Arund. 
Orient 16, on Ezek. 81 14 and the printed Massorah Parva on 
Ezek. 18 26. Such discrepancies between the number stated in 
the heading of a Rubric and tiie actual number of passages 
given in the Rubric itself are not uncommon in the Massorah. 

> Comp. Jemn. 1 6; t 19, 22; 4 10; 1 20; 14 IS; tt 17, 25; 44 20; 
41 A; 80 SI. 
* Comp. 



4t 10, 10; M 26. 

>rp - g 111. 
^J^ Lord ocatri ttven timet in tht hook of the tmlve Minor 
l^-epheU. Though y^ without any prefix occurs thirty-three times 
In the Minor Prophets it is in seven instances only that it 
stands by itself. In all the other twenty-four passages it' is 
combined with m-r. The single instance where it has the prefix 
Lamed ^piff Mai 1 14) the Massorah does not include in this 
List thougk it stands by itsolf. Of this Rubric Vhich does not 
occur in the printed Mansorah I collated two Lists: (I) the 
Vienna Codex Ko. 86 on Zech. 9 4 which I have printed and 
(U) Add. 16,260, toL sub, on the same passage. 

a-^p - § 112. 

"♦^^TK* Lord vritten wH Aleph oeeurt thirty-four timet in the 
Prophett and hat here a Patek. This Rubric which does not occur 
in the printed Massorah is from the St Petersburg Codex 
of A, D. 916 on Isa. 11 11. It is of great importance inasmuch as 
it shows that the record of the divine name Adonai in the 
several books of the Hebrew Scriptures is tstte of the earliest 
portions of the Massorah. The expression written >rith AUph is 
meant to distinguish it from the Tetragrammaton whiek is also 
pronounced Adonai, but is written with Yod at the beginnii^. 
The expression 'aa - o^as^does not mean the Prophets generally, 
i. e. the Former and Latter which is its usual sense, but is here 
restricted to the Latter Prophets since the instances from the Former 
Prophets, viz. Joshua, Judges, Samuel and Kings are excluded 
from this List Nor does per denote that -4<io//ai is followed by 
a Pauk in all the thirty-four instances, a sense which might 
apparently be assigned to it, but simply means that in the 
passage on which this Massorah is giren, viz. Isa. 11 11 Adona% 
is followed by this accent 

On comparing this ancient general List of the Latter 
Prophets with the several Rubrics on each individual Prophet 
which I have given from other MSS. it will be seen that with 
the exception of Isa. 49 14 a they harmonise absolutely. With 
regard to the relation of this Massorah to the text of the 
St Petersburg Codex itself, however, it is to be remarked that in 
Isa. 6 8 and 9 7 this Codex originally read mrr instead of 'jha 
whilst in Ezek. 21 14 it reads nvr "sntt 

J'^p - § 118. 
^J^* Lord it to icritUn forty-tix timet in the PtaUer. This 
Rubric which does not occur in the . printed Massorah is from 
the Model Codex Arund. Orient 16, foL 800a,. on Ps. 68 12. 



ro in the heading is a mistake for vts-46. The forty-six in- 
stances are made up by the inclusion of ^ with the prefix 
Vav Ps. 86 28. The two instances where it has the prefix Lamed, 
viz. ^pt^ Ps. 22 81 and 180 6 are excluded though Adonai in 
these passages stands by itself. This is in accordance with the 
principle of the Massoretic School which included in this reckoning 
the prefix Vav and excludes the prefix Lamed. (Oomp. § 108.) 
On refering to the notes in my edition of the Hebrew Bible it 
will be seen that in no fewer than seven instances some of the 
MSS. and early edition read nli; instead of ^p^^ It is also 
important to notice that in quoting the passage from Ps. 16 2 
the Maraorah before us substitutes Tvh for rvcthf thus giving the 
pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton instead of the letters of 
the Tetragrammaton. 

> Comp. Pa. so 0; 88 10; 89 8; 40 18; 44 24; 80 8, «. 

T'p - § 114. 
^J^» Lord it fourteen timet to wr^ten in Lameniaiiont. Of 
this Rubric which does not occur in the printed Massorah 
I collated two Lists: (I) Arund. Orient 16, foL 967a, on Lament 8 81 
which I have printed, and (II) Cambridge Add. 466 on Lament 2 20. 
The two instances which I give in the notes to my edition of the 
Hebrew Bible where some MSS. and early editions read rtw 
instead of pi( (Lament 2 19; 8 81) are supported by considerable 
authority. It is, however, important to remark that several MSS. 
read rrjrr in other passages and that the superb Codex of the 
Pentateuch with the Megilloth Add. 21,160 originally read np< 
in no fewer than thirteen out of the fourteen passages. The 
Psalter and Lamentations are the only two books in the Ha< 
giographa of which I have found separate Lists recording the 
instances in which Adonai occurs by itself instead of the Tetra- 
grammaton. 

rep - § 115. 

^JTK* Lord it one ht^ndred and thirty-four timet vnitten to. 
This Rubric distinguishes the one hundred and thirty-four 
passages where Ationai stands by itself from the three hundred and 
four instances in which it is combined w#b Jehovah. Of this Rubric 
which records all the instances in the Bible where Adonai stands 
by itself for the Tetragrammaton I collated four Lists, three in 
MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 6710 — 11, VoL I, foL 676, on 
Exod.84 9 which I have printed; (II) Add. 16,261 in the Massoretie 
Appendix fol. 488 a; (IH) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah I, § 161, and 
(lY) the printed Massorah Finalis letter k, § 86. The heading 
in Lists I and II is as I have printed it In the Ochlah Ve- 
Ochlah, however, as well as in Jacob b. Chayim's Massorah the 
expression rrm and wm follow the word vm, I e. rm •jth and 
M**m '*>ntti i- e. Adonai entirely or Adonai ly ittelf. List I is complete 
having the seven instances in which Adonai has the prefix Lamed 
at the end of the Rubric List II gives two instances only of *n»6, 
viz. Isa. 28 2 ; Mai. 114, and omits five, viz. Qen. 18 SO, 82; Ps. 22 8 1 ; 
180 6 ; Dan. 9 9. List III gives one instance only of Adonai with the 
prefix Lanted and omits all the others. It also omits Exod. 6 22 
and Job 28 28. List IV apart from separating the seven instances 
of <ni6 is also complete. It will thus be seen that all the four 
Lists include the one instance in which Adonai has the prefix 
Beth, the three instances in which it has the prefix Vav and the 
Mven with the prefix Lamed^ in the one hundred and thirty-four 
passages. According to this computation, therefore, the Pentateuch 
has fourteen instances and not twelve (comp. g 107), Isaiah has 
twenty-three and not twenty-two (comp. § 109); the Minor 
Prophets have eight and not seven (comp. § 111); the Latter 
Prophets have thirty-six and not thirty-four (comp. g 112) and 
the Psalter has forty-eight and not forty-six (etMup. g 118). 

We have seen that in many of these one hundred and 
thirty-four instances in which the present received text reads 
Adouai in accordance with this Masoorah, some of tiie best M^S. 
and early editions read the Tetragrammaton, and the question 
arises how did this variation obtain? The explanation is not far 
to seek. From time immemorial ^be Jewish canons decreed that 
tiie incommunicable name is to be pronounced Adonai as if it 
were written nmt instead of mr. Nothing was, therefore, more 
natural for the copyists than to substitute the expression which 
exhibited the pronunciation for the Tetragrammaton which they 
were forbidon to pronounce. This is confirmed by the fact that 
the Massorah itself in giving the catchword of a passage 

i Comp. *}'iN» Fa. 78 28; *^tH 2 Kings 7 6; biu 40 14; Pi. tt 28; *fwfj 
Qeo. 18 80, 82; Iml 28 2; XtL 1 14; Pi. » 81; UO »; Du. 9 9. 



K — K § 116a— 118. 



— 29 



§ 119a -188. K — K 



substitutes -j-ik for mrr' (vide supra, § 113) and that the Easterns 
read -j-ne where the Westerns have nirr and vice vevsa.^ Hence 
we may safely assume that though the Scribe wrote Adonai for 
.Tpp he would not- insert the incommunicable name instead of 'hk. 
The reading, therefore, in the conflicting passages is in favour 
of the Tetragrammaton. 

* Comp. I8a. 38 U; Mai. 1 14; Lament 5 21 and the notes in my ediUon 
ot the Hebrew Bible. 



rop •= § 116a-c. 

Adonai Jehovah is four times so toritten in the Pentateuch. In 
the Pentateuch there are two different combinations of the 
Tetragrammaton with another Divine Name, viz. Jehovah Elohim 
which is the more common and which occurs no fewer than 
twenty times* and the uncommon combination Adonai Jehovah 
which occurs four times only. The Massorah, therefore, in the 
Rubric before us records the less usual combination. Of this 
Rubric I collated five Lists, four in MSS. and one printed: 
(I) Orient. 1879, foL 68a, on Gen. 16 2 which I have printed; (II) 
Orient 2348, foL 46a; (III) Orient. 2349, fol. 85a, on the same 
passage; (IV) Add. 16,251, fol. 110a, on Deut. 9 26 and (V) the 
printed Massorah on Gen. 15 2. List I states at the end that all 
the four instances occur in the Pentateuch, whilst the other 
three Lists record this fact in the heading of the Rubric. 



« Comp. Gen. 8 4, C, 7, 8, 9, 16, 16, 18, 19, 21, 22; 8 ] 
22, 28; Ezod. 9 30. 



8, 9, 18, 14, 21 



r^p - § 1166. 

Adonai Jehovah occurs four times in the Hagwgrapha. It will 
be seen that the heading describes these four instances as 
occurring in the Hagiographa though the instances adduced are 
all from the Psahns. This is due to the fact that there are no 
other passages in the Hagiographa where this combination occurs. 
The Psalms, therefore, represent the whole of this division of 
the Bible. Of this Rubric I collated two Lists: (I) Harley 5710—11, 
Vol n, fol. I94i, Ps. 71 5 which I have printed and (II) Add! 
15,251, foL 8596, on the same passage. 

rtSp = § 116c. 
Throughout the Pentateuch <&c. — This Massorah summarises 
the various combinations of the two Divine names in the three 
divisions of the Scriptures. In the Pentateuch it is always 
vrhk mrr with the exception of four passages where it is mm -nK. 
In the Prophets it is always mm *t» with the exception of five 
passages where it is o'nbK mm, whilst in the Hagiographa it is 
always trhti mm with the exception of four passages where it is 
mm'j-iK. Moreover, in the Prophets and Hagiographa there are 
five instances in which mm precedes -nK. It will be seen that in 
these passages the Tetragrammaton has the vowel-points of 
Is^him in accordance with the Massoretic rule. Hence the heading 
^jiK B'n'?K 'm instead of "hk mm, substituting the expression which 
represents the pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton for the 
Tetragrammaton itself. Of thisT Rubric I collated six Lists, five 
in MSS. and one printed: (I) Orient. 1879, fol. 331 5, on Deut. 9 26 
which I have printed; (H) Harley 5710-11, Vol. I, fol. 9a, on 
Gen. 16 2; (III) the same MS., Vol. I, fol. I13a, on Deut, 3 24; 
(IV) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 210a, on Jonah 4 6; (V) Halle Ochlah 
Ve-Ochlah I, § 152, and (VI) the printed Massorah on Ps. 69 7. 

rp « § 117. 

Adonai wiOi Vav prefix ('shKi) occurs three times. These three 
instances are included in the one hundred and thirty-four passages 
where Adonai by itself stands for the Tetragrammaton. (Vide 
lupra, § 115.) 

ny - § 118. 

Adonai with Lamed prefix OjhKb) occurs seven times. Of this 
Rubric I collated six Lists: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. H, foL 179&, 
on Ps. 28 31; which I have printed (II) the same MS., VoL II, 
foL 2846, on Dan. 9 9; (HI) Arund. Orient. 16, foL 129 6, on laa. 28 2; 
(IV) the same MS., foL 2226, on MaL 1 14; (V) the same MS., 
foL 8716, on Dan. 9 9 and (VI) the printed Massorah on Isa. 28 2. 
The mnemonic sign at the end of the Rubric I have found in 
the printed Massorah Parvaonly on Gen. 18 30. Though these 
seven instances are an integral part of the one hundred and 
thirty-four passages where Adonai by itself is equivalent to the 
Tetragrammaton yet they not only form a separate Rubric which 



by a mnemonic sign. This is due to the fact that the Easterns 
read mm^ in Mai. 1 14, and this reading is exhibited in most of 
the early printed editions, as will be seen from the notes on 
this passage in my edition of the Hebrew Bible. It is to exclude 
the Eastern reading, therefore, that the Westerns formulated 
this separate Rubric. 

83*»p - § 119 a. 

J?*7S <^»^ the adverb, begins a verse thirteen times in Daniel . . . 
So it is also from Dan. 3 30 to 6 12 and throughout Esra except in 
three instances . . . Every where else it is toith the prefix Beth (frm)- 

fi3*»p - § 1196. 

|^*TK then, the adverb, begins a verse eighteen times in Daniel . >. . 
Sj it is also throughout Ezra except in the three instances where it is 
(n>»9) ^^ *^ P^^fi^ Beth. 

In order to understand these two apparently conflicting 
recensions of the same Massorah it is necessary to remark: 
(I) that pTM which occurs twenty times in Daniel begins a verse 
in eighteen instances; (H) that i:t»«5 which occurs twenty-five 
times in Daniel begins a verse in twenty-two instances and that 
(III) this Massorah is designed to guard against the inter- 
changing of these two forms on the part of the Scribes. To 
effect this the Massorites as usual tabulate the fewer instances 
and thereby indicate that in all the other passages which 
constitute the majority }n»»j begins the verse. As the part of 
Daniel from 6 4 to verse 12 is the only section where ir^ and 
I'lK? do not interchangeably begin a verse, the first recension 
of this Massorah states that in this portion which exhibits five 
instances, it is always p-ne. This leaves thirteen instances where 
i:^ begins a verse and where it has to' be safeguarded against 
its rival jnK?. The second recension gres the eighteen instances 
in their natural order with their separate catchwords. In Enra 
where i:njj occurs seven times and where itjitegins a verse six 
times, whilst p-TK? only occurs three times, the latter is the exception. 
•Hence the minority of instances are recorded for safeguarding. 

The first recension of this Massorah which is more artificial 
is more popular in the MSS. Of it I collated six Lists, five in MSa 
and one printed: (I) Harley 6710-11, VoL II, fol. 277a, on 
Dan. 2 17 which I have printed; (II) the same MS. (VoLII, fol. 278a, 
on Dan. 2 48; (IH) the same MS. VoL H, foL 2786, on Dan. 8 24; 
(IV) Arund. Orient. 16, foL 8646, on Dan. 2 17; (V) Halle 
Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, § 99 and (VI) the printed Massorah 
Finalis letters, § 64. Of the second recension I collated three Lists: 
(I) Arund. Orient. 16, foL 368a, on Dan. 5 6; (II) the same MS., 
foL 3696, on Dan. 6 15 and (IH) the same MS., foL 3746, on 
Ezra 4 24. 

rp - § 120. 

IIHKS JHK. That is, this adverb without and with the 
prefix Beth occurs nine times at the beginning of the verse 
with the accent Telisha-gedola. Of this Rubric I collated five 
Lists, two in MSS. and three printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, VoL II, 
foL 281a, on Dan. 6 7 which I have printed; (H) Arund. Orient 16, 
fol. 3756, on Ezra 6 13; (IH) the printed Massorah on Dan. 6 6; 
(IV) the same on Ezra 6 13 and (V) the printed Massorah 
Finalis, letter k, § 63. The first of the three printed Lists alone 
is complete, the other two are defective. 

K'Sp - § 121. 
J^IXS* This adverb with the prefix Beth occurs three 
times at the beginning of a verse in Ezra. In the other six instances 
where it begins a verse in this book it is without the prefix 
Beth.^ This separate Rubric which is of frequent occurence in 
the MSS. I have printed from Harley 5710—11, VoL II, foL 289a, 
on Ezra 5 2. It is also a part of Rubric 119a. 

» Comp. Ezm 4 9, 23} 5 4, 9, 16; 6 13. 

3'3p * § 122. 

Xr^X2 occurs five times with the accent Oeresh. Of this 
Rubric I collated four Lists, three in MSS. and one printed: 
(I) Harley 5710—11, VoL II, foL 2786, on Dan. 3 21; (II) the same 
MS., VoL II, foL 279a, on Dan. 3 26; (HI) Arund. Orient 16, 
foL 3686, on Dan. 6 17 and (IV) the printed Massorah on 
Dan. 3 26. 

J'Dp = § 128. 

D*1*1K the mighty, the noble in Ezek. 32 18 is defective of 



18 01 frequent occurrence in the Massorah, but they are guarded | both Yods and in Zech. 11 2 it is defective of the first Yod, whilst 



K — K § 124—126. 



— 80 



§ 127—181. K "~ K 



in all the other instances both without and with the prefixes it 
is entirely plena This Rubric which does not occur m the 
printed Massorah is from Orient 1474, fol. 108a, on Ezek. 3i 18 
The orthography in Ezek. as here set forth is that of the second 
edition of the Bible, Naples 1491-93; the Latter Prophets, 
Pesaro 1515; the fourth edition of the Bible, Pesaro 1511-17, the 
Complutensian, the first edition of Bomberg's Rabbinic Bible, 
Venice 1517 and Jacob b. Chayim's edition of the Bible with the 
Massorah, Venice 1524-25. But in the editio princeps of the Pro- 
phets, Soncino 1485^86, the first edition, of the entire Bible, 
Soncino 1488 and in the third edition, Brescia 1494, it is b'-!^ 
entirely plenc. The same diversity of orthography also obt^ns 
with regard to Zech. 2 2. The second edition of the Bible, 
imples 1491-93 and the first edition of the Rabbinic Bible 1517 
are the only two editions which follow this Massoretic precept 
here. The editio princeps of the Prophets, Soncino 1485-86, the 
first and third editions of the Bible, the Pesaro edition of the 
Latter Prophets, the fourth edition of the Bible, the Complutensian 
and the first Rabbinic Bible in the margin, read D'n'^ entirely 
plene, whilst the editio princeps of the Rabbinic Bible with the 
Massorah by Jacob b. Chayim has on-m with the second Jod 
defective and a Massorah against it p -ra '•? unique in this spelling. 

r3p = § 124. 

DT*1'''TK1 and their mAles occurs twice in the Scriptures once plene 
and oncld^fecUve. According to this Massorah which I have printed 
from Harley 5710-11, Vol. II, fol. 40a, on Jerem. 14 3 the plene 
instance is in Jeremiah, whilst in Neh. 3 5 it is xxrr^, with the 
second Yod defective. On Nehemiah 3 5, however, where the same 
MS gives this Rubric a second time (Vol. II, fol. 294«) it simply 
states that d.t-i^i occurs twice and in the text itself this Codex 
has both instances plene. This coincides with the Massoretic 
Rubric given in the printed Massorah by Jacob b. Chayim where 
it is expressly stated that both are plene ^ though in the text Jacob 
b Chayim has orrnnKi with the first Yod defective in Jerem. 14 3. 
This spelling which I adopted in my edition of the Bible is 
supported by the important Codex Harley 5720, which has a 
Massorah on it,« Cambridge Add. 4C5, the carefully printed 
Lisbon edition of Jeremiah 1492, and the Complutensian The 
plene reading d.th'^ki, however, is in the St. Petersburg Codex 
of A D 9 J 6, Arund. Orient. 16, t)ie editio princeps of the Prophets, 
the first, second and third editions of the Bible (1488, 1491—93; 
1494) the first Rabbinic Bible (1517) and the Bomberg quarto 
of 1521 It is, therefore, evident that there were different 
Massorahs with regard to the orthography of this expression 
which were based upon the different recensions of the text 
preserved in the several Massoretic Schools. As this expression 
also occurs once without the prefix Vav, it is included in the 
alphabetical List of words which respectively occur three times, 
twice with Vav and once without it.^ 

1 Sen 'a cnnnm Comp, 4he printed Massorah on Neh. S 6. 

2 -So 'H 'a cn-mxi. 

3 Comp. The Ma»»orah, letter i, § 71, Vol. I, p. 404. 

,TDp = § 125. 

D*TK a man occurs ttn 'times at the beginning of a verse. It 
will be seen that Adam in i Chron. 1 l which is a proper name 
is here included in the ten instances. This Rubric I have not 
found anywhere except in the printed Massorah of Jacob b. 
Chayim on Levit. 13 2. 

r3p = § 120. 

DHK5 in a man occurs four times in the Scriptures ...and 
once it tVonioi with Vav prefix. The design of this Massorah is 
to distinguish between the five instances where the Beth has Sheva 
and the twenty passages in which it has Kametz. Of this Rubric 
I collated six Lists, four in MSS. and two printed : (I) Harley 5710-11, 
Vol. II, fol. 253 6, on Prov.23 28 which I have printed; (II) Orient. 
4445, fol. 107 fc, on Levit. 22 5; (III) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 345rt, on 
Prov. 23 28; (IV) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah fol. 1206 note; 
(V) the printed Massorah on Levit 13 9 and (VI) the 'same on 
Prov. 23 28. The fact that this Rubric occurs in the ancient 
Codex Orient 4445 shows that it is one of the oldest constituent 
parts of the Massorah. It also forms part of the alphabetical 
List of words which respectively occur five times, four times 
without the prefix Vav and once with it' 

» Comp. The Maitoi-aJi, letter i, § 75, Vol. I, p. 407. 



r"3p - § 127. 
DUO and man occurs nine times in the Scriptures. Of this 
Rubric F collated elevei Lists, eight in MSS. and three printed:^ 
(I) Harley fi7l0-il. Vol. II, fol. 2426, on Prov. 3 4 which Ihavfe 
printed; (II) Arund. Orient 16, foL 1246, on Isa. 13 12; (III) the 
same MS., fol. 1386, on Isa. 46 12; (IV) the same MS. foL 1966, 
on Ps. 49 13; (V) the same MS. fol. 333a, on Job 34 15; (VI) the 
same MS., foL 337a, on Prov. 3 4; (VII) the same MS., foL 344fl, on 
Prov. 20 24; (VIH) Cambridge Add. 465, on Isa. 13 12 which 
alone has the mnemonic sign; (IX) the printed Massorah on 
Prov. 3 4; (X) the same on Prov. 20 24 and (XI) the sam3 
on Job 34 15. 

n-3p - § 128. 
taiKS like man occurs three times in the Scriptures. Of thU 
Rubric 'l collated five Lists, four in MSS. and one printed: 
(I) Harley 5710-11, VoL II, foL 105a, on Hos. 6 7 which I have 
printed; (H) the same MS., Vol. H, foL 1996, on Ps. 82 7; 
(HI) the same MS.. Vol. H, fol. 235 6, on Job 31 33; (IV) Arund. 
Orient 16, fol. 305 a, on Ps. 82 7 and (V) the printed Massorah 
on Hos. 6 7. 

B-Dp - § 129. 
GlVh with Sheva under the Lamed without and with Vav 
prefix occurs thiHeen times. This Rubric which I have printed from 
Jacob b Chayim's Massorah on Job 33 23 is incorrect There are 
altogether fifteen such instances. The editor had either an 
imperfect List before him or by oversight omitted Isa. 44 15, and 
Job 33 23 and altered the heading in harmony with the recorded 
instances. 

yp = § 130. 
' Dnj<^^ occurs three times. That ijJ With Sheva under the 
Lamed and the prefix Vav. Of this Rubric which does not occur 
in the printed Massorah I collated four Lists: (I) Harley 5710-11, 
Vol II, fol. 264a, on Eccl. 2 21 which I have printed; (11) Aruni 
Orient 16, fol. 351 6, on the same passage; (IH) Halle Ochlah 
Ve-Ochlah fol. 1206 note and (IV) Vienna Codex No. 35 on 
Eccl. 2 21. This Rubric forms part of the preceding List m 
Jacob b. Chayim's printed Massorah. 

K-^p - § 131. 

DIXb occurs five times in the Scriptures Through^ 

EccUtialtes it is likewise so except in one instance where it t* DTK^. 
As DTK"? with Sheva under the Lamed is the normal form and dtkJ? 
with kametz under the Lamed is of less frequent occurrence, 
the exceptions are safeguarded in this Rubric. In Ecclesiaste^ 
however, mn'? with Kametz under the Lamed is the rule^ and dtk^ 
with Sheva Jnder the Lamed is the exception, hence the smgle 
instance is recorded. Of this Rubric I collated twelve Lists nine 
in MSS. and three printed: (I) Harley 5710-11, Vol. II, fol. 38a, 
on Jerem. 10 23 which I have printed; (II) the same MS., Vol. II. 
fol. 119a. on Zeph. 1 17; (III) the same MS., Vol. II. fol. 234a, on 
Job 28 28; (IV) the same MS., Vol. II. foL 2556, on Prov. 27 19; 
(V) St Petersburg Codex of A. B. 916 on Zeph. 1 17; (VI) Arund. 
Orient 16, fol. 1.^4a, on Jerem 10 23; (VII) the same MS., 
fol. 215a, on Zeph. I 17; (VIII) the same MS fol 3*66 on 
Prov 27 19; (IX) Cambridge Add. 465, on Zeph. 1 17 from which 
I have printed the second mnemonic sign; (X)the printed Massorah 
on Exod. 4 11; (XI) the same bn Jerem. 10 23 which gives the 
first mnemonic sign and (XII) the same on Zeph. 1 17 where 
this mnemonic sign is given again. The mnemonic sign by itself 
is also repeated in the printed Massorah Fmalis letter K § 68. 
It is remarkable that the St Petersburg Codex gives 
Eccl 2 1*8 as the first instance instead of Job 28 28. But as w^ 
occurs no fewer than seven times in Ecclesiastes and moreover, 
as the ^addition of this single instance is contrary to the 
structure of this Massorah, there can hardly be any doubt that 
the catchword w:kw = E(^cl. 2 8 is a mistake for -^^ or nKnjn- 

'^''^ Tn^the printed Massorah by Jacob b. Chayim where as we 
have seen, this Rubric occurs three times, it has .« dif'ei^^t 
heading in each instance. The first heading is «r^^«^%.^°*^^^^ 
able. In Exod. it is V:h^ T, u^h, i. e. nn.b *n five tmes MOel He^ 
the Kametz is called MUel in contradistinction to the f^"'^^ 
a-r^b which accordingly is Milra. Hence in the second instance 

. Comp. Eccl. 1 3; 3 18, 22; 6 H, 12, 12; 8 16. 



K — K § 132a— 138. 



31 



§ 139—141. K 



where this Massorah is repeated in Jeremiah the heading is 
fxap 'n DTK*? and the expression ptsp is used for its equivalent 

rbp - § 132o. 
Sign: In Genesis &c. As the phrase from, man unto beasts, 
occurs in five books only and as the preposition is without the 
prefix Vao in three books and with it in two, this Rubric simply 
specifies the three books in which it is -n? and the two in which 
it is -lyi. This Massorah is far more correctly given in Orient. 
2849, foi. 626, on Exod. ,9 25 where it is as follows : nsTi 'WKia bo 
"CB nm nana in d-iko irron'i mew rhuc '?3i -nana np diko mbnrn 'ro laiaa 
»a U'ar i6 roK -i»i mn opn -jmo' hjk ir 'so'd. The mnemonic sign from 
Numb. 14 11 indicates that just as in this verse the preposition 
without the prefix occurs = first and then the same preposition 
with the prefix, so in the phrase under consideration the instances 
where this preposition is without the prefix come first and those 
with it are second. 

rbp - § 1325. 

From man unto beast occurs four times in combination in the 
Scriptures. Whilst the preceding Rubric simply specifies the books 
in which the two phrases occur, this Massorah fixes the four 
instances where -i? is without the prefix. It, moreover, adds at 
the end that throughout Exodus it is -ipi with the prefix (comp. 
Exod. 9 25; 12 12). With this prefix, however, it also occurs 
once in Jerem. (60 3). Of this Rubric I collated four Lists, three 
in MSS. and one printed: (I) Cambridge Add. 1174 on Gen. 7 23 
which I have printed; (II) Harney 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 2176, on 
Ps. 135 8; (III) Vienna Codex No. 35 on Numb. 3 13 and (IV) 
the printed Massorah on the same passage. 

ybp - § 133. 

ma'TK ground, soil occurs eleven times in the Scriptures. Of 
this Rubric I collated seven Lists, five in MSS. and two printed: 
(I) Harley 5710—11, VoL I, foL 2426, on 2 Kings 5 17 which I have 
printed; (II) the same MS. Vol. II, fol. 11, foL 1646, on 2 Chron. 
26 10; (III) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, § 229; (IV) Cambridge 
Add. 465 on Exod. 20 24 which alone gives the mnemonic sign; 
(V) the same MS. on Isa. 15 9, where the mnemonic sign is 
repeated; (VI) the printed Massorah on Joel 2 21; (VII) the 
same on 2 Chron. 26 1 0. 

T^p = § 134. 
This good land occurs three times. As this phrase is preceded 
by "jyo from off, in all the three instances Arund. Orient. 16, 
foL 17 a, on Josh. 23 13 heads this Rubric 'j riKin naitsn nanKn ^ra 
from off this good land occurs three limes. 

n'''?p - § 135. 

nDTKHI and the land occurs three times. Of this Rubric 
I collated six' Lists, . four in MSS. and two printed: (I) Harley 
6710—11, Vol. I, fol. 32a, on Gen. 47 19 which I have printed; (H) 
Orient 4445, fol. 886, on the same passage; (III) Arund. Orient. 16, 
fol. 121 a, on Isa. 6 11; (IV) Cambridge Add. 4t;5 on Deut. 11 17 
which alone gives the mnemonic sign ; (V) the printed Massorah 
on Gen. 47 19 and (VI) the same on Deut. 11 17. The fact that 
this Rubric occurs in Orient 4445 shows that it is one of the 
oldest portions of the Massorah. 

rhp - § 136. 

Th9 land of the priests occurs twice. This Rubric which does 
not occur in the printed Massorah is from 16,251, fol. 396, on 
Gen. 47 22. 

Vbp - § 137. 
^nO^ my land occurs three tivms in the Scnptures. Of this 
Rubric I collated six Lists, four in MSS. and two printed: 
(I) Harley 5710—11, VoL II, fol. 114a, on Jonah 4 2; (II) the 
same MS., VoL II, foL 2356, on Job 31 38; (III) Arund. Orient 16, 
foL 2615, on 2 Chron. 7 20; (IV) the same MS., foL 232a, on 
Job 31 38; (V) the printed Massorah on Jonah 4 2 and (VI) the 
same on Job 81 88. 

n-bp * § 138. 

W1IST8 % land occurs five times. That iS with Segol under 
the Tav to distinguish it from the seven instances in which it 
has Sheva under the Tav.^ This Rubric which does not occur in 

< Comp. Exod. t^ 19; U 86; Deut SI 28; 28 4, 83, 61; SO 9. 



the printed Massorah is from Harley 5710—11, VoL I, fol. lHJt# 
on Deut 7 13. 

fiS'^p ^ § 130. 
^JTlttHK "«»• ^«'^ (without and with the pi*efix Vavy is 
according to the Sural always defective and nccorrling to the Nehardoi 
always plene (i. e. irnanx). Both the second and the first, are df:f active 
till Ezra cometh. The terms Surai and Nehardai denote two sub- 
ordinate Schools of Massorites so called after the names of the 
cities in Babylon where the respective academies flourished. The 
famous principal School of textual critics in that country is 
quoted by the general name of Madinchai or Easterns. From 
this important Rubric we see that even the Babylonians were 
not unanimous in their readings. The Massorite who compiled 
the Rubric before us declares in favour of the Sarai reading 
which he says is so certain that it could only be altered by 
Ezra the great Scribe himself when he comes again. This Rubric 
which does not occur in the printed Massorah is from Harley 
5710—11, VoL I, foL 325, on Gen. 47 19. 

1 man* occurs foui* times <Gen. 47 19, 19; Neh. 10 36, 38) and "noi»« 
twice (Oen. 47 18, 19). 

O'P = § 140. 
^3te'TK red, ruddy, occurs twice in the Scriptures and is plene. 
Of this Rubric I collated five Lists, four in MSS. and one printed: 
(I) Harley 5710—11, VoL I, foL I84a, on 1 Sam. 16 12, which I have 
printed; (II) Arund. Orient 16, foL 456, on the same passage;- 
(III) Add. 15,250, foL 17a, on Gen. 25 25; (IV) the same MS., 
foL 154 6, on 1 Sam. 16 12, and. (V) the printed Massorah rfn 
Gen. 25 25. Both Add. 15,250 in the second instance and the 
printed Massorah add -^tki 'W\ and once it is toith Vav prefix, i. ©. 

1 Sam. 17 42. In this passage, howevor, it is -sfaTr defective. 

K"Op - § 141. 
iTIl'lJ^ Adonijah, occurs eight tines defective in the Scriptures. 
Of this^ complicated Massorah I collated nine Lists, eight in MSS. 
and one printed: (I) Harley 5710-11, VoL I, foL 198a, on 

2 Sam. 3 4 which I have printed; (II) the same MS., Vol. I, foL 2156, 
on 1 Kings 1 5; (III) the same MS., VoL II, foL 299 a, on Neh. 
10 17; (IV) Arund. Orient 16, foL 586, on 2 Sam. 3 4; (V) the 
same MS., foL 756, on 1 Kings 1 5; (VI) the same MS., foL 239a, 
on 1 Chron. 3 2; (VH) the same MS., foL 386a, on Neh. 10 17; 
(VIII) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, § 46, and (IX) the printed 
Massorah on 1 Kings 1 5. 

To understand this Massorah it is necessary to remark 
that (I) the name Adonijah occurs altogether twenty-seven times, 
that in nineteen instances it has the Vav appended to it or is 
injsTK and in eight only is it hji'tk and that (II) a difference 
obtained in the Massoretic Schools with regard to its ortho- 
graphy in one of the eight passages. The Easterns read it n^ 
defective in 2 Chron. 17 8, whilst the Westerns read it n«?1-i>| plene. 
It is also to be added that in one of the eight instances if not 
in two passages Adonijah has the prefix Vaoj i. e. :^?'tk]. With 
these facts before us we shall be able to explain the various 
headings of the different Lists as well as the apparently divergent 
statements about their contents. 

When List I which I have printed heads this Massofali, 
Adonai iS eight times defective, it is due to its being based 
upon the Eastern recension of the text which does not admit of 
the plene reading in 2 Chron. 17 8. It Will also be seen that 
this List reads n»?T»r th3 shorter form in the first part of this 
verse and omits' Neh. 10 7. This divergence must presumably 
also be due to the Eastern recension. 

List II also states that 2 Chron. 17 8 contains two of the 
eight instances in which the shorter form occurs, L e. that the 
reading here is Tvp^, and not wp^,. It, therefore, also pfoceedfl 
from the Eastern' SohooL Here, ' however, a later editor added 
the instance from Neh. 10 17 so that the Rubric has actually 
nine instances though the heading expressly states that there 
are eight only. The heading of this Rubric, moreover, is rrj-m 
.n-r-s-ttfi, thus recognising the two instances in which this name 
has the prefix Vav according to this recension. 

List III is based upon the Western recension and hence 
omits the phrase la 'a in 2 Chron. 17 8, and gives Neh. 10 17 
as the eighth instance. 

The remaining six Lists uniformly exhibit the eight instances 
of the Western recension. For the origin of the two forms of 
this name see the Introduction to ray edition of the Massoretico* 
Critical Text of the Heb»-«w Bible, p. 386 etc. 



K — K § 142-149. 



— 32 



§ 160—166. t< — K 



3Tp = § 142. 

STfK A« loved occurs four timet in the Scriptures with Pathach 
under the He. Of this Rubric I collated six Lists, five in MSS. 
and one printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, fol. 2266, on 
1 Kings 11 1 which gives the mnemonic sign; (II) the same MS., 
VoL I, fol. 246, on Gen. 37 3 where the heading is npa 'nij 'n aiK 
without the mnemonic sign; (III) Arund. Orient. 16, foL SGa, on 
1 Kings 11 1; (IV) Orient 2349, foL 43a, on Gen. 37 3 which 
giVes the same mnemonic sign; (V) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, 
%Jtl2, and (VI) the printed Massorah on Gen. 37 8 where the 
MasBorah Parva gives the following mnemonic sign vnrwa ^mw 
»obo -ma which I have found nowhere else. 

raj5 = § 1-13. 

3nj< he loved occurs nine times, with TzSrE under the He. 
Of this Rubric I collated thirteen Lists, twelve in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, foL l78o, on 1 Sam. 1 5 which 
I have printed; (II) the same MS., Vol. II, fol. 1766, on Ps. 11 7; 
(HI) the same MS., VoL II, fol. 1876, on Ps. 47 5; (IV) the 
St Petersburg Codex of A. D. 916 on Hosea 12 «; (V) the same 
MS. on Mai, 2 11; (VI) Arund. Orient 16, foL 35a, on 1 Sam. 1 5; 
(VII) the same MS., foL 2026, on Hos. 12 8; (Vni) the same 
MS., foL 223a, on Mai. 2 11; (IX) the same MS., foL 286 a, on 
Ps. 11 7; (X) the same MS. foL 804a, on Ps. 78 68; (XI) the 
same MS. foL 3086, on Ps. 99 4; (XII) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, 
§ 273, and (XIII) the printed Massorah on 1 Sam. 1 6. 

TOp = § 144. 
ISHK he hved him occurs four times. The design of this 
Massorah ^is to distinguish between this Kal preterite third person 
singular masculine with the suffix third person masculine from 
the words consisting of the same four letjters which are pointed 
differently, viz. lanK .larw lanK and isnk. Of this Rubric I have 
collated six Lists, four in MSS. and two printed : (I) Harley 5710— 1 1 , 
VoL I, fol. 30a, on Gen. 44 20; which I have printed; (H) the same 
MS., Vol. I, fol. 188 a, on 1 Sam. 20 17; (III) the same MS., 
VoL P, foL 23a, on Isa. 48 14; (IV) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, 
p. 123a note; ("$) the printed Massorah on (Jen. 44 20, and 
(VI) the same on 1 Sam. 20 17. 

iTOp - § 145. 
rf!in^ he loved her occurs twice. Of this Rubric I collated 
four Lists, Ihree in MSS. and one printed: (I) Arund. Orient. 16, 
foL 316a, on Ps. 119 140 which I have printed; (II) Add. 16,250, 
foL 3426 on the same passage; (III) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah 
Supplement foL 1336 and (IV) the printed Massorah on Ps. 119 140. 



rep - § 146. 

riSiTK thou lovedsi occurs twice, i. e. Kal preterite second 
person feminine. This Rubric which does not occur in the printed 
Massorah is from Arund. Orient 16, foL 143o, on Isa. 57 f. 

Vlip = § 147. 

■'riDHK / hved. Kal preterite first person singular has always 
Pathach under the He except in Ps. 119 48. That is, in all the 
passages where 'rciK is not in pause with Athnach or Soph- Pasuk 
the He has always Pathach except in this single instance where 
it has Kametz with the accent i?«6/a. This Rubric which does not 
occur in the printed Massorah is from Harley 6710 — 11, VoL II, 
foL 2126, on Ps. 119 48 

n-Op - § 148. 
'!|''ri!ir!K I loved thee occurs twice. That is with the suffix 
second person feminine in contradistinction to the single instance 
where it is '^ran^ suffix second person masculine (Isa. 43 4). 
This Rubric which does not occur in the printed Massorah is from 
Arund. Orient 16, foL 30 a, on Judg. 16 15. 

tt*Op - § 149. 
^lar^ thftj love thee occurs three times plene. Of this Rubric 
I collated five Lists, four in MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, 
VoL I, foL 1 866, on i Sam. 18 22 which I have printed; (II) the same 
MS., VoL n, foL 2606, on Cant 1 3 where the heading is more 
correctly given T[^b&\ '3 three times and plene, since it does not occur 
in any other form; (HI) Arund. Orient 16, foL 48a; (IV) the 
same MS., foL 348 a, on the same two passages and (V) the 
printed Massorah on 1 Sam. 18 22. 



rD - § 150. 

13njNt love ye occurs twice in the Scriptures. This Rubric which 
I' have found in the printed Massorah only on Ps. S% 24 is 
incorrect, since lanK with Ckateph-Segol under the He occurs 
only once. In the first instance which this Rubric gives it is 
la-TKi with Vav prefix. This imperative plural, however, without the 
prefix occurs a second time in pause with KaTnetz under the He, 
viz. ^aTij Zech. 8 10. Accordingly the heading should either be 
'3 la-an lanK or fop nn 'a "am and the reference should be to Zech. 

K"3p - § 161. 

3nK*1 nnd he loved occurs six times tn the Scriptures 

and they are unique. Of this Rubric which does not occur in the 
printed Massorah I collated three Lists: (I) Harley 6710 — li, 
Vol. II, foL 1 56a, on 2 Chron. 1121 which I have printed ; (U) Orient 
2349, foL 42a, on Gen. 25 28 and (HI) the same MS., foL 446, 
on Gen. 29 18. Orient 2349, however, not only states in the 
heading of both Lists that it occurs five times only, but enume- 
rates the five passages and omits Gen. 34 3 > which is given in 
List L But this does not solve the difficulty since there are 
nine instances in which a.!ij«;] occurs. List I omits three, viz. 
Gen. 29 30; Judg. 16 4, and Esther 2 17, whilst Lists II -and HI 
omit four, these three and Gen. 34 3. The solution seems to lie 
in the fact that though an^r occurs altogether nine times it is 
in six instances only that it begins a verse and the MassoriSh 
before us, as is often the case, catalogues these alone. This 
seems to derive support from Lists I and n in which lill the 
five instances begin a verse though these Lists omit Esther 2 17 
which is the sixth instance. Accepting this as the explanation of 
the difficulty we have to take the catchword mrjn in List I to 
stand for -itok who is so called in Esther 2 7, 9, which yields the 
sixth passage where anu^i begins a verse. The addition 'vints 'Si 
at the end of the Rubric, the Scribe simply added to fill up 
the line. 

« tHt? -oyam .noSr .spy ;pnv ''oi 'n anm Comp. Orfent 2849, fol. 42*. 

l'3p - § 152. 
^nSj^J^*!! <*"«' *« hved him occurs twice. This Rubric which 
does not occur in the printed Massorah is from Cambridge 
Add. 465 on 1 Sam. 16 21. 

jj'':p - § 163. 

nSriK'l and he hved her occurs twice. Of this Kbbric I 
collatedi four Lists, three in MSS. and one printed: (I) Hac^ey 
6710 — 11, VoL I, foL 2056, on 2 Sam. 13 1 which I have printed) 
(II) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 646, on the same passage; (IH) 
Orient 2348, foL 516, on Gen. 24 67 and (IV) the printed Massorah 
on the same passage. 

T3p - § 164. 
^1K occurs twice in the Scriptures, once with Kametz and once 
with Pathach. That is, once it is Kal future first person 
singular in pause, and once Kal imperative singular masculine. 
It is to be remarked that the Massorah takes no notice of the 
Aleph having Tzere in one instance. .and CAaf«pA-^«<jto2 in the other. 
This Rubric which does not occur in the printed Massorah is 
from Harley 5710-11, VoL II, foL 2466, on Prov. 8 17. 

.T3p - § 155. 
DTlkl occurs ticice. That is, the participle active singular 
masculine with Vav prefix to distinguish it from ankj the future 
first person singular withFav conversive in MaL 1 2. Of this Rubric 
I which does not occur in the printed Massorah I collated two 
Lists: (I) Arund. Orient 16, foL 2866, on Ps. 11 6 and (II) Add. 15,251, 
foL 1106, on Deut 10 18. 

np = § 156. 

^^n^ occtirs four times in the Scriptures. That is, this parti- 
ciple plural construct occurs four times with the prefix Vav to 
distinguish it from the five passages in which it is withoulf this 
prefix.^ Of this Rubric I collated five Lists, four in MSS. and 
one printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, VoL H, foL 115a, on Micah 3 2 
which I have printed; (Ilj the same MS., VoL U, foL 1946, on 
Ps. 69 37; (III) Arund. Orient 16, foL 20()6, on Hos. 3 1; (IV) the 
same MS. foL 301a, on Ps. 69 37 and (V) the printed Massorah 
on Hos. 3 1. 

I Comp. Isa. 56 10; Ps. 5 12; 40 IT; 70 5; 97 10. 



K - « § 157- 



— 33 — 



§ 1C6— 169. K 



np - § 167. 

rOVTK* The Kal participle passive in all its forms whether 
masculine or feminine, with or without the prefix He is with Vav 
plene^ except in one instance where it is defective. This Rubric 
which does not occur in the printed Massorah is from Cambridge 
Add. 1174 on Deut 21 15. 

1 Camp. »nN| Neh. IS 26; nawij Deut. 21 16; nimtfn Deut 81 16, 16. 

n'3p = § 168. 
nSilKD than the love, occurs twice. This Rubric I have 
found only in the printed Massorah qn Prov. 27 6. 

B'3p = § 169 a. 
nriK* Throughout the Minor Prophets it i$ mpiKn, rnriK «?»U Cheth. 
in ihe middle and He at the end, whilst throughout Ezra it is KiriK wUh 
Jffe in the middle and Aleph at the end. To understand this 
artificial Massorah it is necessary to remark that the contrast here 
is between the orthography of two apparent homonyms, since rnnin 
denotes brotherhood whilst ki^tk is the proper name of a river. It 
is also to be remarked that the expression b's throughout, in these 
artificial contrasts, is not to be taken literally, but simply means 
in, since rnnKn occurs only once in the Minor Prophets, viz, 
Zech. 11 14 and rnn»t without the prefix does not occur at all. 
Throughout Ezra, however, where the name of the river occurs, 
it is always with He in the middle and Aleph at the end. This 
Rubric which does not occur in the printed Massorah is from 
Harley 6710—11, Vol. n, fol. 291 a, on Ezra 8 31. The instance 
from Zechariah is incorporated in the List of words which 
severally occur once only with Chetk^ 

> Comp. The Matwrah, letter n, § 14, Vol. I, p. 4T2. 

t'ip - § 1696. 
KIHK Ahnva, occurs three times. The heading ought properly 
to be 'Boai '3 irnM Akava occurs three times and in this book, since 
it does not occur outside Ezra. This Rubric I found only in the 
printed Massorah on Ezra 8 15. 

O'p = § 160. 
nSHKI and the love of , occurs twice. This Rubric which does 
not occur in the printed Massorah is from Add. 15,251, foL 254b, 
on Jerem. 31 3. 

H'Dp = § 161. 

CSTIK love, occurs three times in the Scriptures. This Rubric 
which does not occur in the printed Massorah is from Harley 
6710—11, VoL II, foL 1056, on Hos. 8 9. The heading ought 
properly to be 'vrbn 'i D'a.-iK, since in Prov. 7 18 it is B-anjo with 
the prefix Beth. 

yop = § 162. 

TP oe<mrs twice, once with Pathach under the Yod and once 
with Kam^tz. That is, once it is Piel future third person singular 
masculine and stands for bnK'^ from b^ and once it is Hiphil 
future third person singular masculine from ^St. Of this Rubric 
I collated two Lists: (I) Cambridge Add. 1174, on Job 31 26, 
which I have printed and (II) the printed Massorah on the same 
passaga These two expressions form part of the Alphabetical 
Lists of words which respectively occur twice, once with Pathach 
and once with Kametz.^ They also form part of the Massoretic 
List of words which severally occur once only with He whilst 
in all other passages they are with Cheth.' 

« CJomp. The Mtunn-ah, letter 3, § 600, VoL 11, p. 308. 
» Comp. The Mtutoi-ah, letter n, § si, Vol. I, p. 269. 

yop = § 163. 

TTtK tent, without or with a prefix is always defective. This 
Rubric which does not occur in the printed Massorah is from 
Orient 2349, fol. 636, on Levit 4 18. 

TOp - § 164. 
^"llQ in ihe tent of, occurs eight times with Sheva under the 
Beth. This Rubric which I have found in the printed Massorah 
only on Numb. 19 14 is at first very difficult to understand, 
since briHa with Sheva under the Beth occurs no fewer than 
forty-one times. On examining, however, the thirty-three instances 
which are not included in this Rubric it will be found that 



^nto in all these passages is followed by n^o congregation or 
m^eting^ and that it is in these eight passages alone that it is 
without njio. Accordingly this Massorah ought properly to be 

pnma-T -tyio ^nlqi b'S^ and wherever bnka is folhnoed by -tjio, or where 
the phrase is njio Snto in the tent of meeting the Beth has likewise ■ 
Sheva. 

' Exod. 27 21; 30 .36; 40 22, 24, 26; Levit 4 7, 18; 16 17; 24 3; Numb. 1 1 ; 
3 26; 4 3, 4, 15, 2.% 29, ai, 33, 35, 37, 39, 41, 43, 47; 8 19, 22, 26; 14 lo; 
17 19, 22; 18 31; Deut 31 14, 14. 



iTDp - § 165. 

^HKS in the tent, occurs six times in the Scriptures. Of this 
Rubric I collated six Lists, three in MSS. and three printed: 
(I) Harley 6710—11, Vol. I, foL 223 a, on 1 Kings 8 4, which I have 
printed; (II) Arund. Orient 16, foL 826, on the same passage; 
(HI) the same MS. fol. 2596, on 2 Chron. 5 5; (IV) the printed 
Massorah on Numb. 19 14; (V) the same on Judg. 5 24 and 
(VI) the same on 2 Chron. 6 5 where the mnemonic sign is 
given which I have printed. It is remarkable that this mnemonic 
sign which I have not found in the MSS. Jacob b. Chayim gives 
three times more in the printed Massorah without the catchwords 
for the six passages, viz. once in the Massorah Magna once 
in the Massorah Parva on 1 Kings 8 4 and once in the Massorah 
Finalis letter k, § 203. 

YDp = § 166. 
^riKT^ for the tent, occurs five times in ihe Scriptures. That is 
without being followed by -i?io. Of this Rubric I collated two 
Lists: (I) Add. 15,250, fol. 46a, on Exod. 26 7; which I have printed 
and (II) the printed Massorah on the same passage. Both these Lists 
distinctly state that there are jive such instances and give 
2 Chron. 1 6 as one of tht^five passages; the catchword ryi 
nthv in Jacob b. Chayim's Massorah is manifestly a misprint 
for no'?w br^, as is evident from the MS. which I have printed. 
Moreover the Massorah Parva in Add. 15,2.oO and Add. lft,2.7l, 
on Exod. 36 14, as well as in Add. 15,250 and in Add. 21,160, 
on Numb. 9 16 state that it occurs five (-n) times. Yet it occurs 
four times only without nyio in the present recension of the text, 
since in 2 Chron. 1 6 it is followed by i:rlo and is given as 
such in the next Rubric. Can this be due to a different recension? 
That the import of this Rubric is as stated, viz. bri^ not being 
followed by n^io, is evident from the List in the printed Massorah 
which says 'lan lyia Sik"? bvi. 

rop = § 167. 

^Pltt ^'"^^7 for '^« *««< of meeting, occurs five times in the 
Scriptures. Though britth with Shetxi under the Lamid, occurs nine 
times, it is in five instances only that it is foll^ed by nyio. 
Of this Rubric I collated seven Lists, six in MSS; and one 
printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, VoL II, fol. 1496, on 2 Chron. 1 6 
which I have printed; (H) the same MS. Vol. I, foL 74a, on Levit 
16 6; (III) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 244a, on 1 Chron. 9 21; (IV) the 
same MS. fol. 257a, on 2 Chron. 1 6; (V) Orient 2349, fol., 92a, 
on Levit 16 16; (VI) Add. 15,250, fol. 41 8a, on 2 Chron. 1 6 
and (VII) the printed Massorah on Levit 16 16. All the seven 
Lists include 2 Chron. 1 6 in this Rubric, though it is given in 
the preceding Rubric as. one of the instances where bri^ is not 
followed by ijto and three of the seven Lists are on 2 Chron. 1 6. 
There can, therefore, be no doubt that these different Massoretic 
Lists are based upon Codices which read ipia bri^b in the passage 
in question. 

n'Dp = § 168. 

^"ISp for the tent, occurs three times with Kametz under the 
Lamed. Of this Rubric I collated six Lists, five in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 2446, on 1 Chron. 9 19 which 
I have printed; (H) the ancient Codex Orient 4445, fol. 796, on 
Exod. 36 19; (III) Add. 15,251, foL 62a, on the same passage; 
(IV) Add. 21,160, fol. 128a, on the same passage; (V) Add. 15,250, 
foL 46a, on Exod. 26 14 and (VI) the printed Massorah on the 
same passage. 

B'Dp - § 169. 

T^riKto from the tent, occurs four times in the Scriptures. Of 
this Rubric I collated five Lists, four in MSS. and one printed: 
(I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 189a, on Ps. 62 7; which I have 
printed; (II) Add. 21,160, foL 286, on Gen. 31 33; (III) the same 
MS. fol. 137a, on Levit 1 1; (IV) Add. 15,251, foL 656, on the 
same passage and (V) the printed Massorah on the same passage. 



K — K § 170—177 



— 34 — 



§ 178 — 183. K ~ K 



rp = § 170. 

nSniCT into the tent, occurs eight times. That is with the local 
He Of 'this ^Rubric I collated ten Lists, nine in MSS. and one 
prifited: (I) Harley 5710— 11, Vol. I, fol. lOa, on Gen. 18 fi which 
I have printed; (II) the same MS., Vol. I, fol. 142a, on Josh. 7 22; 

(III) the ancient Codex Orient. 4445, fol. 59 &, on Exod. 18 7; 

(IV) the same Codex fol. 76 a, on Exod. 33 8; (V) the same 
Codex fol. 1305, on Numb. 11 2«; (VI) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 56, 
on Josh. 7 22; (VII) the same MS. fol. 21a, on Judg. 4 18; 
(VIII) Cambridge Add. 465, on Exod. 33 9 which alone has the 
mnemonic sign; (IX) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah U, § 84, and (X) the 
printed Massorah on Judg. 4 18. 

H'Vp = § 171. 
rfbnS his tent, is four times writUn with He and read with 
Vav. That' is, the suffix third person singular masculine exhibits 
the archaic termination He instead of the normal Vav which 
the Keri directs to be substituted for the textual orthography. 
Of this Rubric I collated five Lists, four in MSS. and one printed: 

(I) Orient. 2348, fol. 445, on Gen. 12 8 which I have printed; 

(II) Orient. 2349, fol. 34ft, on the same passage; (III) Add. 15,2.jl, 
fol. 185, on the same passage; (IV) Cambridge Add. 465 on the 
same passage which alone has the mnemonic sign and (V) the 
printed Massorah on Gen. 9 21. It is remarkable that though 
all these Lists state that there are four only of these instances 
which they duly enumerate, yet Jacob b. Chayim in the editio 
princepa of this Rabbinic Bible with the Massorah (Venice 
1524—25) not only reads n"?:?^ with He in Gen. 20 25, but in the 
heading of this Rubric in the Massorah Finalis letter k, § 206 
declares that there are five such instances. This statement is 
confirmed by Harley 5710—11. Though the List itself does not 
occur in it, yet in the Massorah Parva both on Gen. 9 21 and 
13 3 this Model Codox distinctly declares that it is so written 
in five instances.' There can, therefore, be no doubt that some 
Massoretic Schools had preserved more instances of this archaic 
form, 

1 (3 na 'n nSnK Comp. Harley 6710-11, Vol. I, fol*. 66, 86. 

rVp = § 172. 

"rpbriS thy tents, with Chokm on the Aleph, with or without the 
prefix Lamed is always written with Yod except in one instance. 
This Rubric which does not occur in the printed Massorah is from 
the Vienna Codex No. 35, on Numb. 24 5. 

yvp § 173. 

Q'^'^n^S in tents, occurs four times in the Scriptures. Of this 
Rubric I Voliated five Lists, three in MSS. and two printed: 
(I) Harley 5710-11, Vol. II, fol. 56a, on Jerem. 35 7 which I have 
printed; (II) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 24a, on Judg. 8 11; (III) the 
same MS., fol, 1705, on Jerem. 35 7; (IV) the printed Massorah 
on Judg. 8 11 and (V) the same on Hos. 12 10. List II has at 
the end -"•' re: D''?nK2 ki, i. e. Numb. 24 6. 

TVp = § 174. 
?nk3 in thtj tents, occurs twice. This Rubric which does 
not o'c'cur in the Printed Massorah is from Add. 15,251, fol. I24a, 
on Dout. 33 18. 

.TPp - § 175. 
I'^ns'p to hif tents, is twice defective. That is in two instances 
the textual reading is i"?™*? - ibnK^ noun singular with suffix 
third person singular for which the official Keri substitutes fbnk^ 
noun plural. This substitution of the plural for the singular the 
Massorah supports by referring to the parallel passage in 2 Chron. 
25 22. This Rubric I have found in the printed Massorah only 
on 2 Kings 14 12. 

YVP = § 176. 

Tini I'nnSl? Am-on and Hur, occurs twice. This is intended to 
fix the reading of jhnK without the prefix Vav in Exod. 17 10 and 
to safeguard against its being made conformable to verse 12 
where the two names occur in conjunction with the prefix Vav. 
This Rubric which does not occur in the printed Massorah is 
from Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, fol. 60a, on Exod. 24 14. 

rvp - § 177. 
|hnS Anion precedes Moses fre times. That is against the 
normal combination which is Moses and Aaron. Of this Rubric I 



Tj^Sl 



collated five Lists, four in MSS. and one printed: (I) Orient 2348, 
fol. 706, on Exod. 6 26 which I have printed; (II) Orient 2349, 
fol. 606, on the same passage; (HI) Add. 21,160, fol. 73a, on theoame 
passage; (IV) (Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah I, p. 575, margin and (V)the 
printed Massorah on Exod. 6 26. These five Lists exhibit two 
recensions of this Massorah. The one which is given in Lists I 
and II states that there are five such instances, giving the whole 
of the Hagiographa as containing the fifth instance. The other 
recension states in the heading that there are/ottr instances and 
throughout Chronicles il is likewise so.' The two different treat- 
ments of this anomaly is due to the fact that apart from the 
Pentateuch this combination occurs in Chronicles only, viz. 
1 Chron. 5 29; 23 13. Hence the first recension which takes 
Chronicles to represent the Hagiographa counts the whole of 
this division of the Hebrew Bible as exhibiting the fifth instance. 
The second recension counts the four instances from the Penta- 
teuch and adds that throughout Chronicles it is likewise so. The 
Rubric as given in Jacob b. Chayim's printed Massorah List V 
is misleading, since it simply enumerates the four instances 
and omits the qualifying clause with regard to Chronicles. 

n'Vp « § 178. 

V331 finW «"«<' Aaron and his sons, occurs three times. Usually* 
it is Aaron and his sons without the prefix before Aaron. Of this 
Rubric I collated five Lists, three in MSS. and two printed: 

(I) Add. 15,251, fol. 3166, on 1 Chron. 6 34 which I have printed; 

(II) Add. 21,160, foL 1366, on Exod. 40 31; (HI) the same MS., 
fol. 190a, on Numb. 3 38; (IV) the printed Massorah on 
Exod. 40 31 and (V) the printed Massorah Finalis letter m, § 2i6. 

tS^p - § 179- 
1S is 1K» — Nineteen verses which have severally three times 
the conjunction ik or. This Rubric which does not occur in the 
printed Massorah is from Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, fol. 716, on 
Levit. 13 56. There are, however, eighteen such verses since in 
Levit 20 27 ix occurs twice only. 

B-p = § 180. 
IS IS IS 1S» — Eiijht verses have sevei-ally foor times the con- 
junction IK. This Rubric which does not occur in the printed 
Massorah is from Harley 5710-11, Vol. I, fol. 95a, on Nupib. 15 3. 

H-Qp = § 181. 
is IS Is Is 1S» — Three verses have severally jive times ik- 
Of this Rubric which does not occur in the printed Massorah I 
collated two Lists: (I) Orient 2349, fol. 895, on Levit 13 59 and 

(II) the same MS. foL 95o, on Levit 22 22. 

3"Dp = § 182. 
ribs occurs six tim^s defective with the prefixes. It is to be 
remarked that the Massorah in registering the orthography of 
this term takes no notice of the fact that in these six instances 
the expression denotes two different things. In the first two 
passages where it is with the prefix He it denotes familiar spirits, 
necromancers, and though it occurs altogether seven times with 
the prefix He > it is only in these two instances where it is entirely 
defective. In the other four passages it is Oboth, the proper name 
of a station of the Israelites in the desert and in this sense it 
is always defective. Of this Rubric I collated four Lists, three in 
MSS. and one printed: (I) Orient 2349, fol. 936, on Levit 19 31 
which I have printed (II) Add. 15,251, fol. 76a, on the same passage; 

(III) Add. 2ljXC,0, foL 248a, on Numb. 33 43 and (IV) the printed 
Massorah on the same passage. 

« For tho five instances with the second Vav plene see 1 Sam. 28^3, 0; 
2 Kings S3 24; Isa. 8 19; W 8. 

ypp - § 183. 

ri^S because of, on account of, is so written in three instances. 
It occurs altogether nine times and is spelled in two different 
ways; in six instances it is nltH without the first Vav and with 
the second,! whilst in three instances it is nhiK with the first Vav 
and without the second. The Massorah, therefore, registers the 
exceptional orthography. Of this Rubric I collated four Lists, three^ 
in MSS. and one printed: (I) the Vienna Codex No. 35, on Gen.21 li 
which X have printed; (II) the same MS. on Exod. 18 8; (III) Add. 

« Comp. nnk Gen. 21 26; 26 32; Numb. 12 i ; 13 24; Judg. 8 t; Jerem. 3 8- 



K — >C § 184-1910. 



15,250, foL lia, on Gan. 31 11 and (IV^ the printed Massorah 
on the same passage. Jacob b. Chayim's Massorah which states 
that there are /our such instances and gives Gen. 26 32 as one 
of the four is against the MSS. 

TDp = § 184. 
nn^S she desired, occurs three times. Of this Rubri.c I collated 
six Lists; five in MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 5710-11, 
VqI. II, fol. IKJ", on Micah 7 1 which I have printed; (II) the 
St Petersburg Codex of A. D. 91 6 on the same passage; (III) Arund. 
Orient 16, fol. 2l2a, on the same passage; (IV) the same MS., 
foL 3296. on Job. 23 13; (Y) the same MS., fol. 344a, on Prov. 
21 10 and (VI) the printed Massorah FinaUs letter k, § 210. It 
is remarkable that the St. Petersburg Codex distinctly declares 
that there are two instances only and omits Job 23 13. 

.TBp = § 185. 

mSn she desireth, occurs three times. This Rubric which I have' 
found in the printed Massorah Finalis only, letter k, § 220 is 
incorrect since this expression occurs ^w times, 1 Sam. 2 16, 
1 Kings 11 37 being omitted. It is not unfrequently the case that 
a Rubric is imperfect when it is only to be found in the printed 
Massorah. 

rop = § 186. 

D^WJSn they that desireth, or lusteth, occurs twice. Of this Rubric 
which does not occur in the printed Massorah I collated three 
Lists- (I) Harley 5710-11, Vol. II, fol. 3a, on Amos 6 8; which 
I have printed; (U) Add. 15,250, fol. 80&, on Numb, 11 34 and 
(IH) Add. 15,251, fol. 300a, on Amos 6 8. List II has the headmg 

TTp = § 187. 
^ ^«IK woe unto m, occurs twice. This Rubric which does 
not occur in the printed Massorah is from Add. 15,250, fol. 241 a, 
on Jerem. 4 l«. The word -Boa in this hookas is often the case 
has been omitted from the heading, since it also occurs twice 
in 1 Sam. (4 7, 8). The design of this Massorah is to distinguish 
between this phrase and Kb w ^1« woe now unto us which also 
occurs twice, once in the very chapter where the first phrase 
occurs, i. e. Jerem. 4 13 and once Lament 4 6. 

n-Dp = § 188. 
TP ^K v}oe to the city, occurs twice. This Rubric which does 
not occur in the printed Massorah is from Arund. Orient 16, 
foL 1826, on Ezek. 24 6. The headiiig ought properly to be 
•KOI -a twice and in this book since this phrase occurs only m 
EzekieJ. But, as we have seen, the qualifying expressions 'coa 
and 'B0B1 are frequently omitted. 

B"Dp = § 189. 

U'h)'^ fools, occurs Jive times in this form. That is, with the first 
Yod defective. In all other instances where this expression occurs 
whether with or without the prefixes, in the singular or plural 
it has Yod after the Vav. The addition ]iirb:^ in this form is to 
indicate that the instance in Zech. 11 15 is 'Sw the adjective 
siftgular. Of this Rubric I collated five Lists, three in MSS. and 
two printed: (I) Harley 5710-11, Vol H, foL 2086, which I have 
printed; (II) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 1266, on Isa. 19 11; (lU) the 
same MS. foL 342a, on Prov. 16 22; (IV) the printed Massorah 
on Zech. 11 15 ahd (V) the same on Ps. 107 17. 
' rp = § 190. 

^^ it maylbe, unless, is always plene except in one instance 
Khere it is defectiL. This Rubric is from the printed Massorah 
on Gen. 24 5. '^ is one of the alphabetical List of words which 
severally occur once defective.^ 

» Comp. The Ma»$mah, letter \ §§ 129, 131, Vol. 1, p. 419. 

K'Xp = § 191 a. 
D^IK but, neveHheless, occurs three times at the beginning of a 
verse. That is in Job, the qualifying expression 'coa or aria, as is 
often the case, is omitted. The heading ought properly to be 
ario -OB '»m '3 it occurs three times and at the beginning of a verse 
in Job, since it only occurs three times altogether and begins a 
verse in every instance. d>^k without and with the prefix Vav 
occurs altogether ten times in Job and always begins a verse. 



35 § 1916—1936. S K 

As it is in seven instances ob^jr with the prefix Vav^ and in 
three instances only obw without it, this Massorah safeguards the 
exception against being made conformable to tha general rule. 
Of this Massorah I collated four Lists: (I) Arund. Orient 16, 
fol. 3 -2 2 a, on Job 2 5 which I have printed; (II) the same MS. 
fol. 223rt, on Job 6 8; (III) Add. I5,2ni, fol. 3756, on Job 2 5, 
and (IV) Vi3nna Codex No. 35, on Job 5 k. 

> Comp. Job 1 U; 11 5; 12 7; 13 4; 14 18; 17 10; 33 1. 

K«Xp = § 1916. 

obis occurs three times at the beginning of a verse in Job 

and in all the rest of the Scriptures it is likewise so, with the 
exception of five instances where it is with the pi-efix Vav, i. e. d^^ki. 
This is an expansion of the preceding Massorah and its design 
is to registar those instances in the Bible apart from Job, where 
uhm begins a verse. In so doing, however, the Massorah uses 
the "phrase "and in all the rest of the Scriptures d>?k likewise 
begins a verse except in five instances" which would be 
unintelligeable unless it is borne in mind that it is simply an 
artificial expression used to connect Rubrics which bear on the 
same subject In the instancs befote us this is manifest from 
the fact that in all the rest of the Scriptures nb^ does not occur 
at all and hence cannot begin a verse. Of this Massorah I 
collated two Rubrics: (I) Add. 21,160, fol. 3196, on Job 2 5 
which I have printed and (II) the printed Massorah on Joblll. 

3''5Cp = 192. 

D'^X a p<yrch, occurs three times defective and throughout 

the description of the temple it is Ulcewise so except in five instances 
where it is plene. To understand this 'Massorah it is necessary 
to remark (1) that apart from Chronicles, where dS^k without 
and with the prefixes occurs six times and where it is uniformly 
plene,! this expression occurs in Kings and Ezekiel only; (2) that 
even in Ezekiel with one exception, viz. 8 16 the use of eh>» is 
restricted^to the portion technically called nwnmx the description 
of the Tejpple (XL-XLVI), that (3) in these two books its ortho- 
graphy varies being sometimes plene and sometimes defective 
and that (4) the variations in these two books alone form the 
subject of this Rubric. It is, moreover, to be added that this 
Rubric includes d'?w without and with the prefixes and that the 
expression HW^b^ ought property to have been in the headings. In 
KincTs, where it occurs altogether ten times, seven times plene 
and° three times defective, the minority are safeguarded, whilst 
in Ezekiel or rather in the description of the Temple, where it 
occurs fifteen times and where it is ten times defective' and five 
times only plene, the plenes are recorded. It will be seen that 
Ezek. 8 16 whitjh is also plene is excluded from this Rubric 
because it is (iutside the description of the Temple. As ob^Kn 
44 25 is not one of the five plene instances, it must be defective 
according to this Massorah. This Rubric is from Arund. Orient 16, 
fol. 81 a, on 1 Kings 7 7. The printed Massorah on tha same 
passage gives the first part only of this Rubric. 



1 Comp. 1 Chron. 28 11; 2 Chron. 3 4; 8 12; 15 8; 29 7, 17. 

s Comp. 1 Kings 6 3; 7 6, 0, 7, 8, 8, 19. 

» Comp. Ezek. 40 8, 9, 9, 16, 39, 40, 48, 48, 49; 41 25. 

yTtp = 193 a. 
D^IKl occurs five times at the beginning of a verse ....and 
throughout J6b it is liJcewise so except in three instances. This Rubric 
which is from Harley 5710-11, Vol. I, fol. 22l6, on 1 Kings 7 7, 
forms the second part of § 19l6 and shows how these Massorahs 
were originally compiled separately and how they were after- 
wards linked together. 

yitp = § 1936. 

D^IXT occurs five times at the beginning of a verse ....and 
throughout Job it is likewise so except in three instances whe^-e it ts 
D<,.K without the prefix Vav. This Rubric is identical in its 
import with § 1916 and is simply reversed in its order. It is 
important, inasmuch as it shows that the two modes of treatmg 
the same materials must have proceeded from different Schoo^ 
of Massorites. It is both the most ancient in form ^^d the mo^ 
popular in the MSS. Of it I collated seven Lists, six ^^ MSS. and 
one printed: (I) Add. 21,160, fol. 776, on Exod 9 16 which I hive 
printed; (II) Orient 4445, fol. 1326, on Numb. 14 21; (HI) A-nd. 
brient 16. fol. 536, on 1 Sam. 26 34; (IV) the same MS. fol 81a, 
on 1 Kings 7 7; (V) the same MS. fol. 211a, on Micah 3 8; 
(VI) the Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah, Supplement No. 101, foL 131a, 

5b 



K.— K § 194—197, 



- 86 



§ 198— iJOl. 8 — K 



and (VII) the printed Massorah on Exod 9 16. It is remarkable 
that all these Lists as well as the recension of this Rubric given 
in § 190 & include efrmr] the noun i Kings 7 7/i in the five instances 
where this adverb with prefix Vav begins a verse. 

TXp - § 194. 
*^^1 and Omar, oeeurt twice wiih Kametz. According to 
this Massorah which is from the Vienna Codex No. 35, on 
1 Chron. 1 86 n^nci with Vav conjunctive and Kametz under the 
Mem occurs twice. Hence in both passages the identical phrase 
is 11^ i^?Fi Teman and Omar, and not Temnn Omar as it is in 
Gen. 86 11 in the texttu recepttu. That this Rubric refers primarily 
to the Vav copulative and only secondarily to the Kametz under 
the Mem appears certain from the fact that -laiK Omar with 
Kametz also occurs in Gen. % 15 and is excluded from this 
Rubric because it is without the copulative Vav. This conclusion 
is fully confirmed by the recension of this Rubric which is given 
in Jacob b. Chayim's Massorah and which is as follows: larm 
oceura three timet, twice with Kametz and once wUh Pathach, viz. 
Gen. 86 11; 1 Chron. 1 36 and Ezek. 13 15.^ Here too the pre- 
sence of the copulative is emphasised and forms the connecting 
link between the three words which constitute this Massorah. 
The variation in the vowel-points and the fact that it is a verb 
(Kal future first person singular) and defective in the third 
instance are quite subordinate. The Massorites who compiled the 
two recensions of this Rubric must, therefore, hav& worked on 
Standard Codices which read -loiir in Gen. 36 11. When the 
vowel-points and not the presence of the Vav copulative is 
emphasised -i&itt forms the subject of a separate Massorah which 
is also preserved in Jacob b. Chayim's printed Massorah and 
which is as follows: "laiK Omar, oeeure three timet with Kametz, 
vii. Gen. 36 11, 16 and 1 Chron. 1 36.» As there is no question 
here about the copulative, Gen. 36 11 is rightly included and 
no notice is taken of the fact that even in the textue recepttu 
1 Chron. 1 36 it is nam The Massorah Parva in Harley 5710—11, 
VoL I, foL I80<i, and the printed Massorah Parva on i Chron. 1 36 
which remark that Teman and Omar with the copulative does 
not occur again, as well as the List of Variations in the parallel 
passagM which states that in Gen. 36 11 it is naiit and in 
1 Chron. 1 86 n^nr' proceed from Massorites who worked on 
Standard Codices in which this reading was preserved and 
which is followed in the textua reeeptue. 

I ■rpn pic 03^ TOim ,n"n ran .totih p»n tw Tib in prop 'a 'i tdiki Comp. The 
J/mmmA Fhtalit, letter N, | 677. 

» nm nam /ja »mVh nh* .whu »S3 i»m "um jntop 'j tow Comp. The MMtvrah 
ruudU, letter k, | 227. 

* Comp. Th€ Mauorak, letter n, \ 464, Vol. I, fol. 604. 

n-TLp ~ I 19.. 

pK it three time* pfene in this form. The addition •vb'z indicates 
that in Hos. 12 9 it is with the prefix Vav. The design of this 
Massorah is to safeguard this orthography against being made 
conformable to Gen. 41 45; 46 20 where jk is defective. It will 
bo seen that in Hos. \% 9 f» denotes mbetance whilst in the 
other two passages it is a proper name. Of this Rubric I collated 
six Lists, five in MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 6710-11, 
VoL II, fol. 1066, on Hos. it 9 which I have printed; (II) Arund. 
Orient 16, fol. 208«, on the same passage; (III) Add. 21,160, 
fol. 46ft, on Gen. 41 60; (IV) Add. 2348, fol. 62o; (V) Add. 2349, 
foL 62 a, and (VI) the printed Massorah all on Gen. 41 60. 

rxp ' § 196. 
l3k if three timet defective. In the other four instances whero 
thii form occurs it is plene, viz. Job 18 7; 20 10; 21 19; 40 16. 
In the first two passages which constitute this Rubric i:k is a 
noun with suffix third person masculine and denotes hie ttrength, 
whilst in the third instance it is a proper name Ono with Vav 
prefix. Of this Rubric I collated five Usts, three in MSS. and 
two printed: (I) Orient. 2348, foL 146a, on Deut 21 17 which I 
have printed; (II) Add. 15,261, fol. 116*1, on the same passage; 
(III) Harley 6710—11, Vol. II, fol. 296J, on Neh. 7 87; (IV) 
the printed Massorah on Deut 21 17 and (V) the* same on 
Neh. 7 37 

nfp - § 197. 

D"'!)1K force, nothingnett, it three timet plene. This Rubric which 
I have only found in the printed Massorah Finalis m, § 224, is 
wrong, since this expression occurs five times and is always 
plene. Ps. 78 51 and Prov. 11 7 are here omitted. 



n-Xp - § 198. 

*lfi^ Ophir, with Yod defective it vniqite in itt tpelling, and 
in two inttaneet it it tbk with Vav defective. In this Rubric the 
Massorah includes both Ophir as the name of a person and a 
place in all its forma It altogether occurs thirteen times and 
varies in its orthography. Without the prefix and the He local 
it occurs seven times and is doubly plene, i. a -pfik both with 
Vav and Yod in six instances » and is defective of Yod in this 
single instance only. With the prefix Mem it occurs three times 
and is in one instance with Vav defective." The same is the case 
when Ophir has the paragogic He of which there are also three 
instances and one of which is likewise with Vav defective (comp. 
the next Rubric). Hence the Massorah records these two 
exceptional instances which are defective of Vav, i. e. -p^ita and 
rn'^lt. Of this Rubric which does not occur in the printed 
Massorah I collated two Lists: (I) Orient 2348, foL 44a, on 
Gen. 10 29 which I have printed and (II) Orient 2849, foL 84tf, 
on the same passage. 

• Comp. IM. U 12; Pi. 4S 10; Job 21 24; 28 16; 1 Chron. 1 28; 29 4. 
» -TBIKO 1 King! 10 11a; 2 Chron. 9 10 and i'»ko 1 Kings 10 lift. 



0'3«p - § 199 a. 

rn'^fi^ to Ophir, occurt three timet, twice plene and owce 
defective. Of this Rubric I collated six Lists, four in MSS. and two 
printed: (I) Arund. Orient 16, foL 261 o, on 2 Chron. 8 16 which 
I have printed; (II) Add. 15,250, foL 442a, on the same passage; 
(III) Add. 15,251, foL 200 a, on 1 Kings 23 49; (IV) Vienna Codex 
No. 35 on 2 Chron. 8 18; (V) the printed Massorah on 1 Kings 
22 49 and (VI) the same on 2 Chron. 8 18. With the exception 
of the printed Massorah, all the MS. Lists emphatically state 
that two of the instances are plene and that in 1 Kings 22 49 
it is rn'Bk with Vav defective and this is the textual reading in 
these MSS. in accordance with this Massorah. 

C'lCp - § 1996— c. 
ya lie hattened, occurt tix timet with and without the 
prefix Vav. In the four instances where it is without the prefix, 
two are the preterite (Josh. 10 18; 17 15) and two the participle 
(Prov. 21 5; 29 20). Following the example of Jacob b. Chayimi 
in the printed Massorah Finalis, I have erroneously put this 
Massorah under »t instead of pn. Of this Rubric I collated four 
Lists, three in MSS. and one printed: (I) Arund. Orient 16, 
foL 3476, on Prov. 29 20 which I have printed; (11) Harley 5710—11, 
VoL n, foL 261a, on Prov. 19 20; (III) Add. 15,250, foL 368a, 
on Prov. 19 2 and (IV) the printed Massorah on Josh. 17 15. 

B'Xp = § 199^ 
rXI occvrt twice in the Scripturet. Though the two instances 
of pf^ are part of the preceding Rubric they are also recorded 
as a Rubric by themselves. It will be seen that in both passages 
fW] is the participle. This Massorah is from Harley 5710 — II, 
VoL II, foL 256 a, on Prov. 28 20. 

n - § 200. 

ftl^lK* — All theformt of nxiK treature are eonttrued with the 
prepotUion -•?? vpon with ike exception of two inttaneet where they art 
combined toith -"jk. This Rubric which does not occur in the 
printed Massorah is from the Vienna Codex No. 35 on Jerem; 
50 37. It also forms part of the lengthy Massoretic List which 
records the exceptional constructions with -hijt and -by throughout 
the Bible, given below under letter m, § 523, p. 60. 

K"1 = § 201. 
nl"T3ClX3 in treatures, occurt four timet. That is, the plural 
absolute with and without prefixes occurs four times entirely 
plene, L e. with both the Vavs. To understand this Massorah, it 
is necessary to remark that this noun plural absolute occurs 
altogether ten times without and with prefixes, that it is entirely 
plene in these four instances only, that in five other passages 
it is defective of the fiVst Vav^ and that in one instance it is 
defective of the second Vav. The Massorah, therefore, safeguards 
the orthography of the four passages as well as the single 
exception. Hence niixiir 2 Chron. 32 27 which is entirely plene 
in my edition of the Hebrew Bible and which is so in Add. 16,451, 
in the editio prineept of the Hagiographa, Naples 1486 — 87, the 

» Comp. nnjk Joel 1 17; Trov. 21 6; nnskn i Chron. 26 24; W^Jn 
2 Chron. S2 27; nnjtt^i 2 Chron. 8 16. 



8 — K § 202-204. 



37 



-206. K — M 



firBt, third and fourth editions of the entire Bible, Soncino 14 88; 
Brescia 1494, Pesaro 1511—17; the first edition of the Rabbinic 
Bible, Venice 1517 and the editio piineeps of Jacob b. Chayim's 
Rabbinic Bible with the Massorah, Venice 1524—25 must be 
jtraiti without the first Vav in accordance with this Massorah and 
with Harley 5710— 11 ; Arund. Orient. 16; Orient. 2201 ; Add. 9398; 
Add. 16,260; Add. 15,251; the second edition of the Bible, Naples 
1491 — 98 and the Complutensian. Of this Massorah I collated three 
Lists, two in MSS. and one printed: (I) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 291a, 
on Ps. 33 7 which I have printed; (II) Add. 15,451, fol. 4046, on 
Ps. 83 7 and (III) the printed Massorah on Jerem. 51 13. 

an = § 202. 

nnSdK ihe treasures of, is eleven times plene. That is the 
plural construct without and with the prefixes Beth and Vav is 
plene in eleven passages. Of this Rubric I collated nine Lists, 
eight in MSS. and one printed: (I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. lllb, 
on 2 Kings 24 13 which I have printed; (II) the same MS. fol. I38fc, 
on Isa. 46 3; (III) the same MS. fol. 1595, on Jerem. 20 5; (IV) the 
same MS. fol. 2545, on l Chron. 26 20; .(V) the same MS. fol. 3346, 
on Job 38 22; (VI) the same MS. fol. 8395, on Prov. 10 2; 
(VII) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, fol. 2305, on l Kings 14 26; 
(Vni) the Vienna Codex No. 36 on Job 38 22, and (IX) the 
printed Massorah on the same passage. 

The eleven plene instances consist of (a) eight without 
prefixes, (h) one with the prefix Beth and (c) two with the 
prefix Vav. As these three forms also occur fifteen times with the 
first Vav defective, viz._ni"utk nine times, nliatta three times and 
nr q ftn three times,' this Massorah safeguards the minority against 
being made conformable to the orthography of the majority of 
instances. This is all the more necessary, since in several 
passages where this expression occurs twice in one and the 
same verse it is defective in the first part of the verse and 
plene in the second (comp. 1 Kings 14 26; Job 38 22). Though 
this Rubric consist of forms with the prefixes 5e<A and Vav, none of 
the Lists have the expresssion K3W"''?a in the heading. The attempt 
in the printed Massorah to indicate it by stating 'ha «•" 'insrw 'i-iyiKi 
is misleading since the Rubric also contains nl-ixiKa. Moreover, 
KDtt Mm in Jacob b. Chayim's Massorah is a mistake for dvd kxi'i 
2 Kings 24 13. 

» Comp. nmh l Kings 14 26o; Micah « 10; Job S8 22a; 1 Chron. 26 22- 
26; 17,25, 28; 2 Chron. 12 9, 9; nmMs l Kings 7 61; 2 Kings 18 19; 2 Chron. 
S 1; nrisin t Chron. 11 11; SO 18, 18. 

r-l -= § 203. 

DTt/KH r\*^ DllidK the treasures of the house of Ood, occurs 
four times. To distinguish it from the nine passages where this phrase 
is rtrp rv^ irhxlK the treasures of the house of Jrhova comp. 1 Kings 
7 51;' 14 26; 16 18; 2 Kings 12 19; 24 13; 1 Chron. 26 22; 
2 Chron. 12 9; 16 2; 36 18. This Rubric which does not occur 
in the printed Massorah is from Harley 6710—11, Vol. II, 
foL 1865, on 1 Chron. 9 26. 

T"! = § 204. 

^miC^O tn my treasures, in my stores, occurs three tim^s. Of 
this Rubric I collated four Lists, two in MSS. and two printed: 
(I) Harley 6710—11, VoL II, foL 185, on Isa. 39 4 which I have 
printed; (H) the Vienna Codex No. 35 on the same passage; (HI) the 
printed Massorah on Deut 32 34 and (IV) the same on 2 Kings 
20 16. The two MS. Lists say nothing about any one of these 
instances being plene or defective, whilst the two printed Lists 
emphatically state in the- headings that all the three instances 
are defective. This, however, is against some of the best and 
most ancient MSS. as well as against the early printed editions, 
as will be seen from the following analysis. 

In Deut 32 84 the reading is rhpiK^ with the first Vav 
plene in Orient 2201 which is one of the oldest dated MSS.; in 
Harley 6710—11 which is a Model Codex; in Add. 15,250; 
Add. 16,251; Orient 2348; Orient 2349 as well as in the editio 
prineeps of the Pentateuch Bologna 1482, the third edition of 
the Pentateuch Ixar 1490, the fourth edition of the Pentateuch 
Lisbon 1491, the Complutensian and the first edition of the 
Rabbinic Bible Venice 15 1 7. 'nl-ixlK? entirely plene is exhibited 
In the editio prineeps of the Bible, Soncino 1488. The defective 
form T^xto I have only found in Add. 15,451, in the second 
edition of the Pentateuch, Fara 1487, the second edition of the 
Bible, Naples H 9 1—93, the fifth edition of the Pentateuch 
Brescia 1492 and in Jacob b. Chayim's edition of the Rabbinic 
Bible with the Massorah, Venice 1524-25. 



2 Kings 20 15. — With the exception of the Pesaro edition 
of the Earlier Prophets and the fourth edition of the Bible, 
Pesaro I5ii — 17 all the MSS. which I have collated and the early 
editions read here '^^sAts entirely defective. It is important to 
notice that whilst the printed Massorah Magna on this passage 
states that it is so in all the three instances, the printed Massorah 
Parva on this very passage has the conflicting remark that in 
this defective form it is unique ('on '*?) which clearly implies 
that it is plene in the other two instances. 

Isa. 39 4. — Here 'n'nJt^Ka plene is the reading in the St P'eters- 
burg Codex of A. D. 916;' Add. 16,451 ; Add. 15,250; Add. 15,251 ; the 
carefully printed Lisbon edition of Isa. 1492; the Pesaro edition 
of the Latter Prophets 1515; the fourth edition of the Bible, 
Pesaro 1611-17 and the first edition of the Rabbinic Bible 
Venice 1517; whilst Harley 5710-11 and the first edition of the 
Rabbinic Bible with Jacob b. Chayim's Massorah Venice 1524—26, 
exhibit "nnsSo with the first Vav defective and the second plene. 
Jacob b. Chayim's textual reading is, therefore, in conflict here 
with his Massorah. The reading -nnxka defective is exhibited in 
Orient 2201; Arund. Orient 16; Add. 9398; as well as in the 
editio prineeps of the Prophets, Soncino 1485 — 86; the first edition 
of the Bible, Soncino 1488; the second edition of the Bible, Naples 
1491—93; the third edition, Brescia 1494 and the Complutensian. 

From this analysis it is clear that "'riisiio plene is the proper 
orthography in two passages, viz. Deut 32 34 and Isa. 39 4, 
whilst in 2 Kings 20 15 it is 'psto defective as I have given 
them in my edition of the Hebrew Bible. Accordingly the 
heading of the MS. Lists, if it is filled up at all, ought to be 
'on Ki 'bts '3 '3 -nhariKa. The heading -on -3 in Jacob b. Chayim's printed 
Massorah proceeds from a School of Massorites who worked on 
Codices which exhibited a different recension. 

nn = § 205. 

n^ri'TStS her treasures, occurs twice in the first instance 

it is rrn'njat entirely defective in the second it t^j^tnnxlK entirely plene. 
This Rubric which does not occur in the printed Massorah is 
from Orient 1474, fol. 61 5, on Jerem. 49 4. It is not quite correct 
since in the second instance, L e. Jerem. 50 37 it is rrnhxiM plene 
with the first Vav only. This is the orthography not only of 
the best Codices and editions, but in this very MS. Strictly the 
heading ought to be -r-ba 'a, since in one instance (Jerem. 49 4) 
it is .T^Tatto with the prefix Beth. 

VI - § 206. 

^K occurs three times. Of this Rubric I collated three Lists, 
two in MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 57H' — 1 1, Vol. I, foL 182^, 
on 1 Sam. 14 29 which I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient. 16, 
fol. 435, on the same passage and (III) the printed Massorah 
Finalis letter k, § 230. The first and second instances in this 
Rubric are the imperative plural from tt^* to curse, whilst the 
third expression is the preterite third person plural from niM 
to be light, to shine. As usual the Massorah simply records the 
homonyms in the same Rubric without any regard to the different 
roots and significations. Though none of the three Lists states 
whether any of the instances are plene or defective yet the printed 
Massorah Parva on Judg. 6 23 a is perfectly correct in stating that 
of the three instances this one alone is plene and that the other 
two are defective.* This is confirmed by the best MSS. and early 
editions. Thus Judg. 5 23 a is niM plene in Orient 2201; Harley 
6710-11, Add. 9398; Add. 16,461; Add. 16,260; Add. 16,251 as 
well as in the editio prineeps of the Prophets, the first, second 
and third edition of the Bible (1488, 1491—93, 1494) the Pesaro 
edition of the Earlier Prophets; the Complutensian; the first 
edition of the Rabbinic Bible, 1M7 and the first edition of 
Jacob b. Chayim's Rabbinic Bible with the Massorah 1524 — 26. 
rift defective I have found only in Arund. Orient. 16. The same 
is the case with r^ in the second clause of Judg. 6 23. It is 
defective in Orient 2201; Harley 5710—11; Arund. Orient 16; 
Add. 9298; Add. 15,251; as well as in the second and third 
editions of the Bible (1491—93, 1494) and in Jacob b. Chayim's 
edition with the Massorah 1524—25. It is, however, to be stated 
that Add. 16,451; Add. 15,260; as well as the editio prineeps of 
the Prophets 1485—86; the first edition of the Bible, 1488; the 
Pesaro edition of the earlier Prophets 1516; the Complutensian 
and the first Rabbinic Bible 1517 read it r^ plene in the second 
clause too. As regards the third instance, i. e. 1 Sam. 14 29 n^ 
defective is the reading in Orient • 25JO l ; Harley 5710 — 11; 
Arund. Orient 16; Add. 15,451; Add. 15,250; Add. 15,261 and in 

• Comp. "^a f'Ti on 'a '3 »-iU» judg. S 23 o. 



K - K 8 m^ 



-212. 



— 38 — 



§ 213—1218. K ^ K 



ths following early editions; the Bible of 1491—93; the Pesaro ' 
edition of the Earlier Prophets 1515; the Complutensian ; the 
first Rabbinic Bible 1517 and the first edition of Jacob b. 
Chayim's Bible with the Maasorah 1624-25. The plane niK I 
have found only in Add. 9308. as well as in the editio princeps 
of the Prophets and in the first and third editions of the 
Bible 1488. 1494. 

m = § 207. 
TJCIT and cavse to shine, occurs three timeB. That is the 
imperative Hiphil with the Vav prefix, to guard Ps. 80 4 against 
being made conformable to verse 20 of this very Psalm where 
the identical phrase occurs with the prefix Vav. This Rubric 
which does not occur in the priated Massorah is from Harley 
6710— n, V9I. II, foL 1985, on Ps. 8J) 4. 

n.-l = § 208. 
TVTVin cause to shtnf, occurs twice. That is the imperative 
with pai-agogic He to guard the phrase in Ps. 31 17 against 
being made conformable to Ps. 80 20. This Rubric which does 
not occur in the printed Massorah is from Arund. Orient. 16, 
fol. 2866, on P& 13 4. 

B'l = § 209. 

*1K^ occurs twice. The apocapeted future Hiphil occurs twice, 
since in \he five instances where the Hiphil future occurs it is 
-i-^r. Of this Rubric I collated three Lists, one in MS. and two 
printed: (I) Vienna Codex No. 35, on Numb. 6 25 which I have 
printed; (II) the printed Massorah on the same passage and 
(HI) the same on Ps. 67 2. The two instances form part of the 
alphabetical List of words beginning with Yod which respectively 
occur twice.' 

t.Cpmp. The Maforah, letter ', § 11. Vol. I, p. 676. 

v-l = § 210. 
"IK*! and he gave light, occurs twice. Of this Rubric I 
(SoUated^four Lists, three in MSS. and one printed: (I) Arund. 
Orient. 16, fol. 314a, on Ps. 118 27 which I have printed; (H) Harley 
6710—11, Vol. I, fol. 436, on Exod. 14 20; (HI) Vienna Codex 
No. 35, on Ps. 118 27 and (IV) the printed Massorah on the 
same passage. The two instances also form part of the alphabetical 
List of words beginning with Vav Yod^ which respectively 
occur twice. ^ 

» Comp. The MoMorahj letter », % 69, Vol. I, p. 402 
K'n =■ § 211. 

If^lSn UK the morning lujht, occurs six times. Of this Rubric 
I collated six Lists, four in MSS. and two printed: (I) Arund. 
Orient 16, foL 30a, on Judg. 16 2 which I have printed; (II) Vienna 
Codex No. 35 on 1 Sam. 25 36; (DI) Add. 15,250, fol. 161a, on 
the same passage; (IV) Add. 15,251, foL 166a, on the same 
passage; (V) the printed Massorah on Judg. 16 2 and (VI) the 
printed Massorah Finalis letter k, § 232. These six Lists give 
three different headings to this Massorah. List I has it simply 
•l-nK-» unHllight occurs six times. List V has -ipai -iiK T» until the 
morning light occurs six times, whilst Lists U, III and IV have 
^3-,.^ the morning light occurs six times. It will thus be seen 
that the printed Massorah, viz. Lists V and VI, exhibits two of 
the three different headings. But though the heading in the 
majority of the Rubrics is as I have given it, the design of 
this Massorah is unquestionably more apparent if the preposition 
-ip is included in this phrase, i. a n^Sn "nmnf until the morning light, 
since it is intended to include the passage in 1 Sam. 26 22 
where some MSS. and all the early editions with the exception 
of two, viz. the Pesaro edition of the Earlier Prophets 1516 and 
Jacob b. Chayim's first edition of the Rabbinic Bible with the 
Massorah, also read -pan ilinr. The Massorah before us, however, 
is supported by Orient. 2201 second hand, Harley 6710— 11 ; Arund. 
Orient. 16, Add. 9398; Add. 15,451, first hand, Add. 15,250, 
Add. 16,251. 

a-^-l - § 212. 

"llSS in the. light of, occurs seven timet plene. This Rubric 
which does not occur in the printed Massorah is from Add. 16,251, 
foL 364 a, on Ps. 89 16. The heading ••[^six is manifestly a 
clerical error since there are not only seveji 9uch instances, but 
the Rubric itself records seven. In accordance, however, with my 
principle to reproduce the MSS. as they ,are, I have printed the 



Fai>; though I correct if in the translation by giving it seven. 
<?a plene ought properly to be 'bm and plena since there are no 
defective instances. 

rn = § 213. 

"IIKI occu7's twice. It will be seen that the two instances simply 
exhibit homonyms, since in the first passage it is a noun 
denoting light with the prefix Vab and in the second it is the 
Kal preterite third singular signifying and he shineth. Of this 
Rubric I collated four Lists, three in MSS. and one printed: 
(I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 36, on Isa. 5 30 which I have 
printed; (II) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 337 &, on Pro v. 4 18; (III) Add. 
1.^,251, fol. 387a, on the same passage and (iy),the printed Massorah 
Finalis, letter », § 231 which erroneously states that there are 
three such instances. All the MS. List, state that there are two 
only and record two. The catchword '"■' tbK r* which the printed 
Massorah gives for the thft-ci passage is absolutely meaningless. 



■llK7 unto light, occurs thirteen times Raphe, i e. with Sheva 
under the Lamed. Of this Rubric which does not occur in the 
printed Massorah though it is one of the most ancient parts of 
it, I collated four Lists all in the St. Petersburg Codex of A. D. 9 16: 
(I) Isa. 49 6; (H) ibid 60 19; (HI) Jerem. 13 16 and (IV) 
ibid. 31 35. 

ran = § 216. 

"llKT? to the light, occurs s^ven times with Kametz in the Scriptures. 
That is with Kametz under t\i& Lamed in contradistinction to the 
thirteen passages where it has Sheva under the tmned. Of this 
Rubric I collated ten Lists, eight in MSS. and two printed: 
(I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 20 a, on Isa. 42 16 which I have 
printed; (II) the same MS. Vol. H, fol. 119&, on Zeph. 3 6; 
(III) the same MS. Vol. II, fol. 232 &, on Job 24 14; (IV) the 
St. Petersburg Codex of A. D. ,916 on Isa. 42 16; (V) the s4me 
Codex on Micah 7 9; (VI) the Vienna Codex No. 35 on Isa. 42 16; 
(VII) the same Codex on Micah 7 9; (VIII) Halle Ochlah Ve- 
Ochlah II, § 238; (IX) the printed Massorah on Gen. 1 5 and 
(X) the same on Micah 7 9. The mnemonic sign is given with 
Lists VII and X only. It is, however, also given in Cambridge 
Add. 465, both on Isa. 42 16 and Job 12 22, in the printed 
Massorah on the same passage without the List and in the 
printed Massorah Parva on Gen. 15. 

ran = § 21 6. 

PHIH iA«M- light, occurs three times. Of this Rubric which 
does not occur in the printed Massorah I collated three Lists: 

(I) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 150 a, on Jerem. 4 23 which I have printed; 

(II) Harley 571.0—11, Vol. II, fol. 7a, on Isa. 13 10; and (HI) the 
same MS. Vol. II, fol. 34a, on Jerem. 4 23. The heading of 
Lists II and HI •his\ '3 it occurs three times and plene is more 
precise and is better. 

V^^ = § 217. 
"IIS alieays denotes light fire or is an'vs -ft» TJr of the ChaUees 
except in one instance tohere it is the proper name of a man. This 
Rubric which does not occur in the printed Massorah is from 
Harley 5710—11, Vol. H, foL 138a, on 1 Chron. 11 35. 

r'>i = § 217*. 

ffniK3 occurs twice once defective and once plene and it 

is used in two different senses. Of this Rubric which has been 
accidentally omitted in my edition of the Massorah and which 
I printed in Vol. IH, k, § 217* I collated three Lists, one in MS. 
and two printed: (I) Arund. Orient 16, foL 128 &, on Isa. 24 16 
which I have printed; (H) the printed Massorah on 1 Sanu 28 6 
and (in) the same on Isa. 24 15. The two instances form part of 
the alphabetical List of words which respectively occur twice in 
two different senses.^ 

1 Comp. The ila**<»ah, letter 0, § 248, Vol. II, p. 217. 

n-^n = § 218. 

flhlK occurt twice. This Rubric which does not occur in the 
printed Massorah is from Arund. Orient 16, fol. 129a, on Isa. 26 19. 
It occurs a second time in the same MS. fol; 1005, on 2 Kings 4 39 
where the heading properly is -^ivrh nna '3 twice in two different 
senses. These two instances also form part of the same alphabetical 
List as the preceding Rubric 



^ — K § 2l9-223fl. 



39 



§ 2236—227. K "~ H 



a-n = § 219. 

VT'IIK Urijahu, occurs three times. This name which is 
compounded with the Divine name rr jah, occurs altogether no 
fewer than thirty-nine times, and it is in these three instances only 
that the Vav is appended to it. This Massorah, therefore, 
safeguards the peculiar orthography in these exceptional 
instances.! This separate Rubric I have found only in the 
printed Massorah Finalis, letter k,' § 233. As these three instances 
are restricted to one book in the Bible, they form part of the 
List of words which respectively occur in one form in one 
book of the Scriptures, whilst they occur in a different form in 
all other books.* 

< For the cause of this lengthened form of names compounded with n; 
■ee m7 Introdaelum to fhe MaitorUko-OriticaX edition of the Hebrew Bible, Part. II, 
ehap. XI, p. 386 &c. . 

J Comp. The MuttonJi, letter », § 447, Vol. II, pp. 226, 226. 

y-l = § 220. 
nkn the sign, occurs three times defective In the other nine 
instances' where it occurs it is invariably niKn plene. Hence the 
Massorah safeguards the three exceptional instances. Of this 
Rubric I collated four Lists, three in MSS. and one printed: 
(I) Barley 5710-11, Vol. I, foL 396, on Exod. 8 19 which I have 
printed; (U) Orient. 2348, fol. 696, on Exod. 4 8; (IH) Orient 2349, 
foL 6»6, on the same passage and (IV) the printed Massorah Finalis, 
letter x, § 234. 

K'DI.^ § 221. 
nhkn the signs, is defective throughout the Pentateuch except 

tn three passages where it is nink and once it is nillK. This 

Rubric which is from the printed Massorah on Exod. 4 9 is 
inexact and will best be understood from the following analysis. 
rv«n the' plural with the prefix He occurs altogether seven times 
in the Pentateuch. In five instances it is entirely defective and 
in two passages it has the second Vav.^ In one instance where 
this noun plural is with the prefixes ai it -has also the second 
Vav, whilst in another instance where it is without the prefix it 
has the first Vav The, design of this Rubric^ therefore, is to 
safeguard the exceptional plene orthograhy fife the Pentateuch, 
vix. the two instances where it is ninkn, the one nintoi and one 
nnlK. Hence the declaration of the printed Massorah that it is 
always nr*n in the Pentateuch except in three passages where 
it is rmit ' is incorrect, since this plural without prefixes 
occurs once only in the Pentateuch. The two Lists of this 
Rubric in Add. 21,160, viz. (I) fol. 686, on Exod. 4 9 and (II) 
foL 210O, on Numb. 14 11 correctly state the import of this 
Massorah u n iroir k"? dk rrm pn^jo'm p -ra 'a rnrwn [Exod. 4 9], 
Twr run -» [Numb. 14 1 1], D'ncaai mmai '»n [Deut 26 8], nniK '"^ inr ki 
[Dent 6 22]. 

» (Jomp. n^kn Exod. 4 17, 28, 30; Deut. 29 2; 84 11; «'"»«? Exod. 4 9; 
Hnmb. 14 II. 

• 3'3n = § 222. 

VrilTlk hU signs, occurs three times. Of this Rubric I collated 
four Lists, three in MSS. and one printed: (I) Orient 2348, 
fol. 1396, on Deut 11 3 which I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient 16, 
loL 3036, on Ps. 78 43; (III) Add. 15,251, fol. 367a, on Ps. 106 27, 
and (IV) the printed Massorah on the same passage. List II rightly 
has in the heading 'on •» one is defective, List III has at the end 
^ ,P3 ygy^ the first is defective, whilst the printed List adds rnnK wrniK 
www >rw«n a-na **» the Pentateuch it is rnriit defective, whilst in the 
other instances it is vnlrt( with the second Vav plene. 

:"3n = § 223 a. 
'^^ 'D pa '^1151 '^311 'n» ^^^e parallel sentences respectively 
occur twice [in the same book] have in one passage a letter more 
and a word less and in the other, a letter less and a word more. 
This artificial grouping together of parallel passages with 
•light variations in the phraseology will best be understood by 
exhibiting the phrases themselves indicated by the catchwords. 



tyiOBf Kia» h"?! Isa. 28 12 

:nim niifiyiDw >««»» I*"? „ SO » 

II b^trh^p pyt»n '3b hy hbm Ezek. 11 13 

•om prtw 'JB Sv n^BW „ 9 8 



il'r6»j mn' ina ^a Deut 7 6 

mn' ina hm „ 14 2 

najrn inki Deut. 6 13 

131 layn ink „ 10 20 

nc^w "M o'Ty 0^38' Deut. 17 6 

nttf^y «■ Sy w nny *if „ 19 16 



This Rubric is from Harley 571'^— 11, Vol. I, fol. 121a, on 
Deut 14 2. 

TDT = 2236. 

'^T\ 'S '3 "ffi '311 '1* 'S''« parallel sentences &c. This recension 
of the Rubric which is from Orient 2348, fol. HI 6, also on 
Deut 14 2 contains an additional pair, viz. Ezek. 34 7 which is 
_^-p T3TnK irDW D^n p"? and Ezek. 34 9 mn' lan iraw o'?nn p"?. 
It will be seen that in this recension the variations in the 
phrases are given. The recension in the printed Massorah on 
Ezek. 11 13 which gives six instances omits the pair in 
Ezek. 34 7, 9 and substitutes Ps. 24 7, 9. There are also other 
recensions of this Massorah which record the following 
four instances only, viz. Deut 6 13, 10 2o; Deut 17 6, 19 15; 
Isa. 28 12, 30 9; Ezek. 9 81, 11 13, as well as the pair in Deut 7 6, 
14 2 which exhibit a reverse instance. This recension is given 
in (I) Add. 21,160, fol. 2706, on Deut 10 20; (II) the Halle 
Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, § 13 1; (III) the Paris Ochlah Ve-Ochlah 
§§ 234, 235, where however additional instances are given ns 
ouiside the Massorah, and (IV) the printed Massorah on Jerem. 1 1. 
On Deut 14 2 the printed Massorah simply gives the one pair 
exhibited in Deut 7 6; 14 2. On comparing the Lists of variations 
in the parallel passages throughout the Bible given in letter n, 
§§ 452—587, pp. 500—568, it will be seen that the number of 
these pairs might be considerably increased. 

TDI = § 224. 

nVrnXn r^O* The nun^r of letters. This Poem which gives 
the number of times each letter of the alphabet occurs in the Bible 
I have printed from Orient 1379, fol. 2^6-30a. It is also to be 
found in Orient 2348, fol. 35a-37a, and Orient 2349, fol. 216—226, 
which I collated. As I have fully explained it in my edition of 
the Massoreth Ha-Massoreth I must refer to that explanation.* 
The Massoretico-Grammatical Treatise which is prefixed to the 
Yemen MSS. of the Pentateuch and of which this Poem forms 
a part has been ably edited by Professor Derenbourg.^ 

« Comp. The Mtutareth Ha-Mcutvrelh of EUas Levita, pp. 269—278, 
London 1867. 

» Comp. Manuel du Lecteur, pp. 139-148, 234-241, Paris 1871. 

n"3n = § 225. 

nmnStt^ m^njl riVniK* An alphabetical List of the majuscular 
Utters in the Pentateuch Of this separate Rubric which is not in 
the printed Massorah I collated three Lists, two in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Machsor Vitry, Add. 27,200—1, Vol. II, fol. 215a, which 
I have printed; 1 (II) Vienna Codex No. 35, on Deut 6 4 and (III) the 
Paris Ochlah Ve-Ochlah, § 82. In List I the final Caph ("i) is 
not represented which is given in List III; in List II the following 
ten letters only are represented a a t n i ' "? j r and -i whilst in 
List III the two instances which give the second a, viz. arh^hh 
Numb. 1 2 and the second •?, viz. dt/j'?:'? Numb. 1 22 are omitted. 

I Comp. the printed edition, p. 683, edited by S. Hurwitz, and published 
by the Mtkitxe Nirdamim, Berlin 1893. 

r3l = § 226. 

D''DinS'l D''K"'S» mbnj nVniK* An alphabetical List of 
the majuscular letters in the Prophets and Hagiographa This separate 
List which does not occur in the printed Massorah is from the 
Machsor Vitry, Add. 27,200—1, Vol. II, fol. 215ay and in the 
printed edition, p. 683. 

ran = § 227. 

'S^lpStr m'rnJ T\y'T\'\)i^* An alphahetical List of the majuscular 
letters throughout the Scriptures. Of this Rubric I collated ten 
Lists, seven in MSS. and three printed: (I) Add. 15,251 in the 
supplement fol. 4396— 441a which I have printed; (H) the same 
MS. fol. 986, on Numb. 27 5; (III) the same MS. fol. 108a, on 
Deut 6 4; (IV) the same MS. fol. 3136, on 1 Chron. 1 i; 
(V) Add. 15,250, fol. 52a, on Exod. 34 14; (VI) the same MS. 
fol. 100a, on Deut 6 4; (VII) the Vienna Codex No. 35 on 
1 Chron. 1 1; (VIII) the Paris Ochlah Ve-Ochlah § 83; (IX) the 
printed Massorah on Gen. 1 1 ; and (X) the same on 1 Chron. 1 1. 

The following Tables exhibit the contents of the several 
Lists both in the MSS. and the printed editions. The comparison 
is between the Rubric which I have printed and the other nine 
Lists. The numerals show the order in which the words occur 
in the respective Lists. The second Table shows the words which 
exhibit this phenomenon in any of the nine Lists and which 
are not given in the first List 



8-8 



§ 22H. 



40 — 



§ 22JI. K - K 





























Table I 




























X 


IX jVIII 


VII 


VI 


V 


IV 


III 


II 


I 








^ 


IX 


VIII 


VII 


VI 


V 


IV III 


II 


I 










• 


• 






• 








27 


Dr;H?^?> 


b 


Numb 


1 22 








. 












1 


r^f» 


K 


Deut 


33 29 




• 


* 






• 








28 


T?^ 


b 


Dent. 


S4 12 








1 












2 


snH 


it 


1 Chron. 1 1 1 




" 


• 






• 








29 


nsno^ 


b 


Isa. 


9 6 








2 












8 


nn;>>r!9 


a 


Oen. 


1 1 




• 


• 






• 








30 


no 


a 


Kumb. 


U 5 








• 












4 


rn| 


a 


Cant. 


8 14 




13 


13 






13 








31 
32 




a 




ProT. 
Gen. 


1 1 
50 23 








8 












5 
6 






Levit 
Cant 


18 88 
4 12 




U 


* 






14 








33 


-^ 


5 


Exod. 


84 7 








• 












7 


«?^?>^^ 


3 


Numb. 


1 2 












• 








34 


»n3 


3 


Isa. 


40 1 








4 












8 


Ir^ 


n 


Deut 


6 4 




IG 


17 






15 








35 


\^^fP 


I 


Namb. 


27 6 








• 












9 


^^ 


-J 


Eccl. 


1 1 




* 


* 






• 








36 


Om 





„ 


18 80 








5 












10 


fji-rhn 


n 


Deut. 


32 6 




17 


18 






IG 








37 


-llD 


D 


Eccl. 


12 13 








• 












11 


o'p^hr^ 


n 


Ps. 


77 fi 




18 


1» 






17 








88 


re«> 


r 


Deut 


6 4 








• 












12 


vnli 




Exod. 


5 25 




• 


* 














39 


•?:? 


V 


Ps. 


18 50 








• 












18 


ll™ 




Levit 


1142 




• 


* 






• 








40 


^>np, 


B 


DeuL 


32 5 








6 












14 


Knri 




Esther 


9 10 




1<J 


20 






18 








41 


inpnBBto 


B 


Dan. 


6 20 








• 












16 


nji??n 




Oen. 


34 31 




20 


• 






. 








42 
43 




"I 


Oen. 
Exod. 


SO 42 
11 8 








• 








, 




16 
17 




n 


Mai. 
Oen. 


3 22 
49 12 




* 


' 






• 








44 


rv 


r 


„ 


28 36 








7 












18 


•nn 


n 


Eather 


1 6 




• 


' 






• 








45 


IP 


p 


Deut 


12 6 








• 












19 


31B 


B 


Exod. 


2 2 




22 


22 






20 








46 


IP 


p 


Pb. 


84 4 








8 












20 


3113 


» 


Eccl. 


7 1 




23 


23 






21 








47 
48 
49 




-1 

V 


Exod. 
Prov. 
Deut. 


34 14 
8 22 
S 11 




* 




9 












21 
22 
23 


onnSorrn 


a 


Numb. 
Prov. 
Deut 


14 17 
11 2C 

28 68 




24 


24 






22 


22 


22 




50 


>,.t 


V 


Cant 


1 1 








10 












24 


•"■Pi 


a 


Ps. 


80 16 




• 


• 






• • 


• 




51 


trpn 


n 


Deut 


18 13 








• 












26 


^!J 


1 


Deut 


2 S3 




25 


26 




22 


23 


"1 


28 


22 


62 


ateni 


n 


Esther 


» 29 




12 




11 












26 




h 


" 


29 27 



Table II 



X 


IX 


VIII 

IC 
21 


VII 

17 


VI 


V 


IV 


III 


II 




I 








F 


IX 


VIII 


VII 


VI 


V 


IV 


Ill 


II 


' 




=9S 




14 
18 


15 
21 


19 


10 


19 


19 


19 


• 


njBiX 


3 


Ruth. 3 13 
Isa. 56 10 
P*ov. 31 27 




9 


9 
14 
15 


• 


9 


7 
9 


. 


• 


• 




1B3S> 


D 
3 


Esther 9 10 
Job 9 84 
Dan. 7 10 
Ps. 80 16 



The above collation of the ten Lists discloses the following 
facts: (I) That List I is the most complete, it gives no fewer 
than fifty-two majuscular letters, it always has two instances for 
each letter in the alphabet, it sometimes gives three and in one 
instance four words which are thus distinguished. (II) None of 
the remaining alphabetical Lists which record between twenty- 
two and twenty-five of these phenomena, give two words 
exhibiting the same majuscular letter. (Ill) Though these alpha- 
betical Lists record single instances for each majuscular letter 
in the alphabet, yet in some instances they give words thus 
distinguished which are not contained in the extensive List 
No. 1, although the latter, as we have seen, gives two or more 
examples for each majuscular letter. 

It has also to be remarked that List VI has at the end a 
note to the effect that according to some aiB in EccL 7 l has 
a majuscular b and that .twX Prov. 31 27 has a majuscular x.^ 
List VIII originally omitted both the medial and final Nuns 
which have been added by a later hand with the remark o^er 
Codieea have {o"^).* 

1 nn»a na^n n»B« mai i ,310 pwB aw av aio ♦nai a nam n»K. 

» Comp. the Parte Ochlah Ve-Oehlah fi 83, ed. Prwwdortf, Hanover 1864. 

rran - § 228. 

mblM nrmX* Thejlve double or Jinal leUert. This Rubric 
which does not occur in the printed Massorah is from Orient. 2849, 



fol. 466, on Gen. 32 12. It is also to be found in Cambridge 
Add. 1174 on the same passage. 

B-n - § 229. 

m3Dp m^DIK* An alphabetical Litt of the minuecular letter$. 
Of this Rubric I collated nine Lists, six in MSS. and three printed : 
(I) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 1736, on Jerem. 39 13 which I have 
printed; (U) Harley 6710—11, VoL I, foL 1S6, on Gen. 83 2; 
(in) Add. 16,251, fol. 123a, on Deut. 32 18; (IV) the same MS. 
fol. 160 a, on 1 Sam. 17 7; (V) the same MS. supplement 
foL 141a — 142a; (VI) Machsor Vitry Add. 27,200—1, Vol. II, 
fol. 215a and the printed edition p. 684; (VII) Paris Ochlah 
Ve-Ochlah § 84; (VIII) the printed Massorah on Levit 1 1 and 
(IX) the printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 2. The following 
Tables will show at a glance the contents of the several Lists 
both in the MSS. and editions. The comparison is between the 
Rubric which I have printed and which is the most complete, 
occupying the first column, and the other eight Lists. The numerals 
as usual show the order in which the words occur in the 
respective Lists, whilst the asterisk against any word indicates 
that there is a division of opinion in the Massorahs with regard 
to the phenomenon in question. The second Table shows the 
words which exhibit this phenomenon in any of the eight Lists 
and which are not given in the first last 



Table I. 



IX 


VIII 


VII 


VI 


V 


IV 


III 


II 


I 






6 




• 




• 




• 




8 
9 
10 




n 
n 
n 


5 




5 




6 




5 




11 


on^ 


n 


8 




6 




8 




• 




12 


a^bf 


1 


10 

• 




8 




9 




7 




IS 

14 




1 



Levit 14 10 

Numb. 3 14 

Ps. 107 11 

Gen. 2 4 

Numb. 2S 12 

Esther 9 9 

Ps. 77 18 



IX 


VIII 


VII 


VI 


V 


IV 


III 


II 


I 
















1 






, 




•^n 




Levit 1 1 










• 






• 




Wa 




Prov. 30 15 










2 






2 




3!? 




., 15 
Lament 4 2 










8 






3 




8hJ1 




Job 7 5 










4 






4 








Prov. 28 17 
E«el. i 4 



8 ~ 8 § 280-231. 



.— 41 



§ 282—286. K — K 



IX 


VIII 


VII 


VI 


V 


IV 


III 


II 


I 








IX 


VIII 


VII 


VI 


V 


IV 


III 


H 


I 








2ft 
26 

29 
81 


19 
21 
22 

2& 
27 


17 
18 
19 

23 
24 


20 
21 

26 

28 


28 
24 
26 

28 

82 

• 

• 




16 

17 

20 
22 


17 
18 
19 

22 

24 
26 


28 

29 

30 

81 

32 

33 

34 

36 

36 

37 

3/^ 

89 

40 


nioa 
KnB-!B«>s 


D 

e 
r 

B 
1 

X 

P 

"1 
V 

n 

V 

n 


Isa. SO 11 
Ps. 27 6 
Lament S 86 
Dan. 6 20 
Isa. S4 8 
Job 16 14 
If » 9 
Gen. 27 46 
Ps. 119 160 
Esther 9 9 
If » 29 
Prov. 7 6 
Lament 4 22 


11 
12 
13 
14 
16 

16 

28 
21 
22 




9 

10 

11 
12 

13 


8 
9 

10 
11 

. 

17 
18 


10 
11 

12 
13 

14 

21 
19 
20 




8 
9 
10 
11 
12 

13 


8 
9 

10 
11 

12 

14 

16 


15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
26 
26 
27 


111?? 


n 
n 

e 

B 

3 
3 

h 

a 

3 

I 

! 
! 


Esek. SO 21 
Job SS 9 
Lament 2 9 
Neh. IS 80 
Deut S2 18 
Oen. 2S 2 
„ 9 80 
Lament. 1 12 
Ps. 27 6 
Ruth S 18 
Isa. 44 14 
ProY. 16 28 
Jerem. S9 18 





























Table 11. 
























IX 


VIII 


vu 


VI 


V 


IV 


III 


II 


I 








IX 


VIII 


VII 


VI 


V 


IV 


III 


" 


I 




■ 




20 

n 

28 

SO 
• 
82 


28 
24 

26 

• 

28 


20 

21 
22 

26 


22 
23 
24 

26 
27 

29 


26 
27 

29 

.HI 

SO 
33 






18 
19 

21 


20 
21 

23 
23 






"1??5^ 

Brrop,:? 
XC15?>1* 


c 

X 
X 

7 
T 
P 

-I 

-1 
V 

n 


Nah. 1 3 
Jerem. 14 2 
„ 7 17 
Job 16 14 
1 Sam. 17 7 
Exod. 88 25 

1 Sam. 17 7 

2 Sam. 21 19 
Exod. 23 19 
2 Kings 17 81 
Esther 9 7 


18 
19 
20 

24 




7 

7 

* 
16 

16 


6 
12 
6 

14 
16 

16 
19 


7 

6 

6 

16 
17 

18 
22 


6 
6 








b6tt> 

IB^BJI 
^^ 

V3»sr' 

J|l? 


1 
1 
1 
•? 

13 
C 
D 
3 
3 

» 

D 


Oen. 41 16 
Ps. 24 4 
Job 2S 18 

Lament 1 It 
Deut 9 24 
LeYit 6 2 
Neb. IS 80 
Lament 4 14 
Ps. 27 ft 
ProY. 18 8 
Nah. 1 8 



^T - § 230. 

PT1 /H nVniK* Four wordt have respectively a suspended 
Ittter. Of this Rubric I have collated nine Lists, six in MSS. 
and three printed: (I) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 32a, on Judg. 18 30 
which I have printed; (II) the same MS. foL 3346, on Job 38 13; 
(HI) Harley 6710—11, Vol. I, fol. 1696, on Judg. 18 30; (IV) 
the same MS., Vol. II, fol. 239a, on Job 38 13; (V) Add. 16,461, 
foL 1766, on Judg. 18 30; (VI) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah I, § 146; 
(VII) Paris Ochlah Ve-Ochlah § 160; (VIII) the printed Massorah 
on Judg. 18 30 and (IX) the same on Job. 38 1 3. For the import 
of this Massorah see the Introduction to the Massoretico-Critical 
edition of my Hebrew Bible p. 834 &e. 

K'^1 = § 231. 

'pri8 '3 'D |fi D'K* An alphabetical List of biliteral words 
tehich resjtectively occur once only. Of this Rubric which is one of 
the oldest constituent parts of the Massorah I collated eight 
Lists, six in MSS. and two printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, 
foL 2816, on Dan. 6 16 which I have printed; (II) Orient. 4445, 
foL 786, on Exod. 35 22; (in) the same MS. fol. 1106, on 
Levit 16 3; (IV) the St. Petersburg Codex of A. D. 916 on 
Eiek.9 4; (V) the same Codex on Ezek. 30 2; (VI) Halle Ochlah 
Ve-Ochlah I, § 41; (VII) Paris Ochlah Ve-Ochlah § 40 and 
(Vm) the printed Massorah Finalis, letter p, §100. 

A collation of these different Lists discloses the following 
facts: (I) the early recensions strictly confine themselves to 
giying a single instance for each letter and now and then even 
leave a letter unrepresented, whilst the later recensions sometimes 
give several words which exhibit the same peculiarity and 
(II) the design of the early recensions is simply to catalogue 
the biliteral words which occur once only whether they are 
with Kametz or Pathach. The later recensions and notably the List 
in the printed Massorah of Jacob b. Chayim have confused the 
issue by insisting that these biliterals have Kametz^ which is 
incorrect since some of these have Pathach. Thus for instance. 
List n omits y<\ Ps. 74 21, lO Levit 27 8 and «>^ Job 9 9. 
List ni also omits ifn as well as ph Gen. 32 22 and B>y and gives 
^ Exod. 35 24 instead of n^ Isa. 44 18 which the second List 
gives. List IV omits j^ and tif. List V like List I is the most 
oomplete. With List VI begin the later recensions. This List 
has «h 1 Chron. 21 20 for "rp which is also given in List I and 

« Jacob b. Chayim'g heading which is fop sh ">r\» pn tmmn {O s'le is 
iMorreet since the List includes V. and fo and none of the other Lists has 
fBp in the headings. 



which is entirely omitted in Lists II and III. Like List IV it 
omits i^. It moreover, gives two examples for letter o, viz. np 
Isa. 44 18 and b^ Cant 5 2, two for d, viz. 39 Ps. 53 4 and i^f 
Hos. 2 8, two for p, viz. r,7 Isa. 7 16 and ej? Ezek. 16 47 as 
well as two for -1, viz. -n Hos. 12 1 and -in Levit 15 3. List VII 
gives the same two examples for b, for d, for p and for i as List VI 
and gives three for at, viz. a^ Numb. 7 3; pat 2 Kings 4 41 and f^ 
Ezek. 7 10. List VIII gives the same two examples for e, for d 
and for p as Lists VI and VII. It moreover, gives three examples 
for 0, viz. 11a Levit 27 8 ; ja Ps. 61 8 where the catchword should 
be D'n'?« "SB"? oh-w ar" instead of oti'jm -sb'? aiv, and -« Jerem. 4 18 

3'^n = § 232. 

I^riK 'D 'D p nxfc ^yixi wmm 'a "z p pit u in 

nine instances are two biliteral words combined in a unique manner. 
This Rubric which does not occur in the printed Massorah is 
from the St. Petersburg Codex of A. D. 916 on Isa. 57 6. 

y^n = §.233. 
pK ': p jnn I""Tn p rrnshH. An alphabetical List of 
triliteral words which respectively occur tunce. Of this Rubric I 
collated four Lists, two in MSS. and two printed: (I) Harley 
5710—11, Vol. I, fol. 226, on Gen. 34 19 which I have printed; 
(II) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah I, § 42; (III) Paris Ochlah Ve-Ochlah 
§ 41 and (IV) the printed Massorah, letter tt, § 29. Here too 
the design of the Massorah is simply to give a word for each 
pair in the alphabet and not to record all the instances of the 
duplicate triliterals. 

T^l = § 234. 
rfilSC*! JTIS 'J |tt I vtt '!♦ Seven words in which the same 
letter closely follows three times. Of this Rubric which does not 
occur in Jacob b. Chayim's printed Massorah I Collated three 
Lists: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. U, fol. 121 6, on Zech. 2 12 which 
I have printed; (11) A^d. 15,451, foL 363a, on Isa, 48 14 and 
(HI) Paris Ochlah Ve-Ochlah § 267. These three Lists exhibit 
two different recensions. List I gives aaaipnai Ps. 17 7 as the 
sixth instance which accordingly is defective of the Yod and 
hence is so written in this Massorah. Lists 11 and III not only 
omit this instance altogether; but give aopn 2 Chron. 16 6 in its 
place. The 'i in the heading of the printed List should be 't. 

,T^1 = § 235. 
JTIX iC p 'npD '^'?tt '2* Three words in the Scriptures have 
respectively eleven letters. Of this Rubric I collated six Lists, four 
in MSS. and two printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. H, foL 796, 



It — K 8 236a— 6— 241. 



— 42 - 



§ 242-248. H — H 



on Ezek. 16 47 which I have printed; (II) St Petersburg Codex 
of A. D. 916 on the same passage; (III) the same Codex on 
Ezek. 80 44; (IV) Arund. Orient 16, foL 3626, on Esther 9 8; 
(V) Paris Ochlah Ve-Ochlah § 192 and (VI) the printed Massorah 
on Esek. 90 44. 

T*»1 _ § 2360—6. 

1^^ S'J? |0 'nSl WplS^ '2* Three versen are cdike in having 
each repenty-tieo voorda . . .\ yielding the Ineffable Name. That is the 
seventy-two letters in each of these three verses severally 
correspond to the numerical value of the Tetragrammaton when 
the four letters of the Ineffable name are fully written out, viz. 

72^1i-lt-?? — \ : Comp. Ibn Ezra's CJommentary with the 

n m Ti TP 
super Commentary on Exod. 14 19 Ac. Vienna ed. 1859. For the 
important part which these three verses played in Jewish 
mysticism see Ginsburg, The Kabbalah &c., p. 132 &c., and the 
authorities there quoted. This Rubric which does not occur in 
the printed Massorah is from Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, fol 436, 
on Exod. 14 19. 

n-^T - § 287. 

priK I^^ttn p '^pa 'DB 'l* Three verees in the Scriptures 
have retpeetivehj eighty letters. Of this Rubric I collated three 
Lists: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, fol. llOJ, on Numb. 36 8 which 
I have printed; (II) Paris Ochlah Ve-Ochlah § 316 and (HI) the 
printed Massorah Finalis, letter a, § 221. As each of these three 
verses begins with tei Lists n and III have in the heading 
Ssi "<«r-n and it is due to this that the printed Massorah places 
this Rubric under letter a. The printed Massorah, however. 
Incorrectly states that each of these verses has twenty letters 
(r^a -a |b). 

C-^-l » § 238. 

f riK '3 "a P r*tn f bo n pnn lot ^ Six verses have 
severally five words following one another of two letters each, but 
about one of them R. Naehman differs. Of this Rubric I collated 
ten Lists, eight in MSS. and two printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, 
Vol. I, foL 188&, on 1 Sam. 20 29 which I have printed; (II) Arund. 
Orient 16, fol, 49 i, on the same passage; (III) the same MS. 
fol. 8796 on Neh 2 2; (IV) Add. 15,250, fol. 24a, on Gen. 35 17; 
(V) the same MS. fol. 158a, on 1 Sam. 20 29; (VI) Add. 1.%251, 
Supplement foL 448a; (VH) Add, 16,461, fol. 455«, on Neh. 3 2; 
(VIII) Vienna Codex No. 35 on Exod. 17 16; (IX) the printed 
Massorah on 1 Kings S 26; and (X) the same on Neh. 2 2. 

Though all the other Lists state in the heading that there are 
five only of these verses which exhibit this peculiarity, yet List IV 
adds that according to some, Exod. 17 16 is another of these verses.* 
Lists VI and VII too which specify five in the heading enumerate 
six, whilst List VI remarks againat the catchwords for Exod. 
17 16 that there is a difference of opinion about this passage 
among the Massoretio Schools.' The Massorah Parva in the MSS. 
has alternately against some of these verses one of six and one 
ef five. This is due to rrea in Exod. 17 16 which the Westerns 
read rros as one word and the Easterns read it rr ds in two 
words. Those, therefore, who follow the Madindiai recension count 
six such verses, whilst R. Naehman wko disputes the Eastern 
reading and the textual critics who follow the same recension 
count only five such verses. It is remarkable that the printed 
Massorah which as we have seen, gives this Rubric twice and 
which in each case specifies in the heading that there are fiye 
such verses only, without referring to any variation, gives in 
List IX, Gen. 17 16, as one of the five verses and omits 
1 Kings 3 26. 

» n» 03 fjp •!» '3 •cm v*\. 
» -xhn n» 03 ^ T 's. 

E-^l = § 239. 

I^nK rrSI J^O 1 p nflKa TDB 'a. TW verses in the 
PenteUeuch have wverally seven words and twenty-eight letters. I have 
mislaid the reference to the MS. from which this Rubric is taken. 

on - § 240. 
^1??^ tK then sang, occurs twice. Of this Rubric I collated 
two Lists': (I) Vienna Codex No. 85, on Numb. 21 17, which I 
have printed and (U) the printed Massorah on Exod. 15 1. 

K'O-I - § 241. 
TK1 and then, occurs four times. Of this Rubric I collated 
eight Lists, five in MSS. and three printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, 



Vol. I, fol. 137<7, on Josh. 1 8 which I have printed; (II) tiie ram* 
MS. Vol. n, foL 63a, on Jerem. 32 2; (HI) Arund. Orient If, 
foL 16, on Josh. 1 8; (IV) the same Ma foL 1676, on Jerem. 12 2; 
(V) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah, Supplement foL 181a; (VI) the 
printed Massorah on Exod. 12 48; (VU) the same on Josh, 1 8 
and (Vni) the same on Jerem. 82 2. The addition of fo^ in the 
heading of the printed Massorah on Exod. 12 48 is misleading, 
since this expression has always Kamebi with or without the 
prefixes. It does not occur in the MSS, nor in the headings of 
the other two Lists in the printed Massorah, 

rOI - § 242, 

aitM hyssttp, occurs l^ree times plena in the Ihntateuch. That 
is without and with the prefixes this noun occurs eight times in 
the Pentateuch. As it is defective in five instancee ' and plane 
in three only the Massorah saf^^uards the exceptional ortho- 
graphy. Outside the Pentateuch this expression occurs only 
twice (1 Kings 5 13; Ps. 51 9) and is in both instances plene. 

Of this Rubric I collated six Lists, four in MSS. and two 
printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, VoLI, foL 42a, on Exod. 12 22 which 
I have printed; (H) Add. 15,250, foL 886, on the same passage; 
(III) Cambridge Add. 465 on Numb. 19 18; (IV) Vienna Codex 
No. 35 on Exod. 12 22; (V) the printed Massorah on the same 
passage and (VI) the same on Numb. 19 18. The nmemonio ugn 
is given in List III only. 

i Comp. Levlt. 14 4, 6, 49, 51, 52. 

rai = § 243. 

^K then, occurs three times. This Rubric is from Cambridge 
Add. 465, on Ps. 124 4. 

T01 = § 244. 

^^TKn they have heard, occurs three times in the Scriptures. 
That is, this preterite third person plural is to be distinguished 
from WTitn the Imperative plural which though written with the 
same six letters is differently pointed. Of this Rubric I collated 
five Lists, three in MSS. and two printed: (I) Harley 6710—11, 
VoL II, fol. 2986, on Neh. 9 30 which I have printed; (II) Arund. 
Orient 16, fol. 3856; (LU.) Vienna Codex No. 85; (IV) the printed 
Massorah, all on Neh. 9 80 and (V) the printed Massorah Finalis, 
letter M, § 256. 

n-01 = § 245. 

n^^KH give ear, hearken, occurs sixteen times. That is the 
imperative singular masculine with paragogic He. Of this Rubric 
I collated four Lists, two in MSS. and two printed: (I) Harley 
5710—11, VoL I, fol. 1016, on Numb. 23 18 which I have printed; 
(II) Add. 15,451, fol. 3106, on Ps. 54 4; (III) the printed Massorah 
on Ps. 78 1 and (IV) the same on Job 33 1. 

von «= § 246. 
^J^KTT give ye ear, hearJcen ye, occurs eight times, i. e. the 
imperative plural masculine. Of this Rubric I collated seven Lists, 
four in MSS, and three printed: (I) Arund, Orient 16, foL 201a, 
on Hos. 5 1 which I have printed; (U) the same MS., fol. 130a, on 
Isa. 28 23; (IH) the same MS., foL 141a, on Isa. 51 4; (IV) Add. 
15,451, foL 1426, on Deut 32 l; (V) the printed Massorah on 
Isa. 28 23; (VI) the same on Hos. 5 I, and (VII) the same on 
Job 34 2. It is remarkable that though all the Lists state in the 
hiding that there are eight such instances Lists II, III and V, 
enumerate seven only and leave out Hos. 5 I. 

rm = § 247. 

niTKri hearken ye, occurs twice, i. e. the imperative plural 
feminine. Of this Rubric I collated three Lists, two in MSS. and 
one printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, foL 36, on Ctea 4 28 
which I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 132a, on Isa. 82 «, 
and (III) the printed Massorah on Gen. 4 23. These two instances 
form part of the alphabetical List of words beginning with Hs 
Which respectively occur twicb.' 

> Comp. The Matwrah, letter n, g 19, Vol. I, p. 261 ke. 

n-01 = § 248. 

nk the ear, occurs twenty-five times. Of this Rubric which 
does not occur in the printed Massorah I collated two Lists: 
(I) Harley 6710—11, VoL I, foL 72a, on Levit 14 28 which I have 
printed and (H) Orient 4445, foL 99a, on Levit 14 14. The 
latter enumerates twenty-three instances only though it distinctly 



43 — 



J< -.« § 249-255. 

states in the heading that there are twenty-five, the catchwords 
for Job 29 11 and 34 3 are omitted. 

e'ai = § 249. 

^3T« mine ear, occurs eight times in the Scriptures. Of this 
Rubric'^I collated two Lists, one in MS. and one printed: 
(I) Harley 5710-11, Vol. II, fol. 188a, on Ps. 49 5 which I 
have printed and (II) the printed Massorah on Job 13 1. 
jn = § 260. 
•aStK thine ear, is three times effective in the P,-ophets .... and 
it is kieikse so in the Bagiographa except in two instances johere tt 
£,• vUne Though §§ 250, 262 and 263, are given in the MSb. and 
acLdingly are printed here as <!-«-* ^assoraha^yetth^ are 
properly three different forms of the same import and will be 
Lt understood by treating them collectively. They simply 
S. bit different treatment of the orthography of the same noux. 
«« defective as the Massorah calls it, with the suffix second 
^^sof rsculine occurs nine times, eight times without a^d 
Tee with the prefix {vide infra, § 263). These nine instances 
are confined to the Prophets and the Hagiographa. y?!? Plene, 
with and without the prefixes occurs eight times, also m the 
Prophete and in the Hagiographa, viz. six times in the Prophets 
and twice in the Hagiographa.^ As there are three, instances 
only in the Prophets which are defective and six plene, the 
Massorah in Rubric 250 safeguards the exceptional orthography 
In the Hagiographa, however, where there are altogether eight 
instances and where six are defective and two only plene the 
Massorah safeguards the two exceptional passages. This explains 
both § 250 and § 262 since the latter simply ^f ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^;;^^^ 
riving the two exceptions in the Hagiographa first and the three 
fn the Prophets second. In § 263 all the nine defective instances 
4re given without the artificial division into Prophets and 
Hagiographa exhibited in §§ 250, 262. 

Of this Rubric I collated four Lists, three in MSS. and one 
Drinted- (I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 49 a, on 1 Sam. 20 1 2 which I have 
^rinfed; (H) the same MS., foL 1395, on Isa. 48 . ; (HI) Add. 15,451 
ioL 195«, on 1 Sam. 20 12 and (IV) the printed Massorah on the 
same passage. 

. Comp. 1 Sam. 25 24; Isa. »0 21; Jerem. 28 7; Ezek. 3 10; 40 4: 44 5; 
Pb. 180 2; 2 Chron. 6 40. 

K«i1 = § 251. 
*m his ear, occurs seven times. Of this Rubric, which does 
not occur in the printed Massorah, I collated four Lists: 
tt) Harlly 710-llf Vol. I, fol. 48a, on Exod. 21 6 which I have 
iitd (II) Orient: 2348, foL 79^; (III) Orient. 2349, fol. 69^ 
and (IV) Add. 21,160, fol- 98&, all on the same passage. List IV 
states in the heading that it occurs eight times which is manifestly 
alrical error since the Rubric itself carefully gives the seven 
instances. It is remarkable that both in the printed Massorah 
on Exod. 21 6 and in the Massorah Finalis, letter s. § 246, where 
Jacob b. Chayim mentions this Rubric, he states that he has 
given it on Ps. 116, but on referring to this Psalm it will be 
seen tha{ he takes no notice of its existence. 
n"i"i = § 252. 

the printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 247, as I have not 
found it in any MS. 

y:<i = 253. 

tm their ear, occurs eight times. This Rubric which I have 
not found in the MSS. is from the printed Massorah on Job 36 10. 
As is often the case with the Rubrics in Jacob b. Chayim s 
Massorah it is incorrect, since wm occurs ten times. Two instances 
viz. Jerem. 11 8 and 44 5 are omitted. In the printed Massorah 
Finalis, letter k, § 241, where Jacob b. Chayim gives the heading 
of this Rubric and where he refers to Job 36 10 for the 
enumeration of the passages, it is also stated erroneously that it 
occurs eight times only. 

T31 = § 264. 

D^ilK ears, occurs seven times. This Rubric too I have not 
found in 'the MSS. and have, therefore, printed it from the 
printed Massorah on Ps. 116 6. 

,T:n = § 255. 

D''3tX1 and ears, occurs three times. This Rubric which does 
not occitf'in the printed Massorah is from Add. 15,250, foL 1126, 



§ 256— 263. i^ — K 



on Deut. 29 3. It will be seen that Ezok. 12 2 is here given as 
one of the three instances where c-jjk has the prefix Vav, I e. 
D'jmi According to our recension of the Massoretic text, however, 
which is in harmony with the preceding Rubric, the reading in 
the passage before us is d":tk without the prefix. 

r:-) = § 256. 

•'iiKS in the ears of, occurs thiHy-seven times. This Rubric 
which i'liave printed from Jacob b. Chayim's Massorah Finalis, 
letter m § 251, I have since found in the ancient Codex 
Orient. 4445, fol. 35a, on Gen. 44 18. Though the two Lists 
perfectly agree with regard to the number of instances, yet the 
enumeration of the passages follows more strictly the order of 
the Biblical books in the MS. List than in the printed Massorah, 
nor are the catchwords so lengthy. 

ni = § 257. 

mrP ^3183 in the ears of Jehovah, occurs three tim^is. That is 
in conti-adistinction to the phrase nin-jma in mine ears Jehovah, 
which occurs twice (Isa. 6 9; 22 14) where it iB with the suf ix 
first person. This Rubric is fron^ the printed Massorah Finahs, 
letter K, § i20. I have since found it in Add. 15,461, foL 1846, on 
1 Sam. 8 21. 

n«:i = § 258. 

"':TKD1 and in the ears of, occurs three times in the Scriptures. 
Of tiiis Rubric I collated two Lists, one in MS. and o^J^ P""^^ 
(I) Harley 5710-11, Vol. H, fol. 50«, on Jerem. 28 7 which I have 
printed and (II) the printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 248 
The latter states that it occura /our times and gives tiie 
catchword an= Kn«n.nrr^= Ezra 4 7 for the fourth instance. This 
is incorrect, since this expression does not occur in the passage 
in question. 



^"3-1 = § 259. 
••JIKl and the ears of, occurs three times in the Scriptures. Of 
this Rubric K^ollated two Lists, one in MS. and o»« P""^** 
(I) Harley 5710-11, Vol. II, fol. 16a, on Isa. 36 5 which I have 
printed and (II) the printed Massorah on the same passage. 

on * § 260. 
^:1K2 in mine ears, occurs twelve times. This Rubric makes 
no distinction between the eight instances in which it is ^ 
with Kametz under the Nun and the four passages where it is 
,:,K= with Pathach under the Nun. This recension of which I have 
found one List only, is from Harley 5710-.1, Vol. H; J o^ m^ 
on Ezek. 10 13. The four instances in which it is with Pathach 
("Mss) I have indicated by asterisks. 

"" Of the recension which catalogues the eight instances m 
which it is '3TK3 with Kametz I collated two Lists, one m the 
ancient Codex Orient 4445, fol. I33a, on Numb. 14 28, and one 
in the printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 242. 
K«D1 = § 261. 
"31X3 in mine ears, occurs twice with Kametz. That is twice 
with the^ accent rarc;.a or Tipcha as in all the other six instances 
-where the Nun has Kametz it is either with Athnach or Soph- 
t:sl. Of this Rubric which is not in the printed Massorah I 
collated two Lists, boUi in Arund. Orient 16, fols. 1206, 1276, 
on Isa. 6 9 and 22 14. 

3-01 = § 262. 
TPDIK thine ears, is twice plene in the Hagiographa . . . .and 
it is iki^e so in the Prophet, except in three '^^^ZtLZ 
defective. This recension is simply § 250 reversed, V^^^^ 
Hagiographa before the Prophets. Of this recension I col ated 
fwo lists! one in MS. and one printed: (I) Arund. Orient !«, 
flsm, on PS. 130 2 which I have printed and (II) the printed 
Massorah on the same passage. 

yon - § 263. 
•?1D1« thine ear, occurs' nine times. Here the nine defective 
instan es^ of this noun, are catalogued witiiout the arti/icial 
division into Prophets and Hagiographa which is exhibited in 
88 250 and 262. Of this -Ri^ric 1 collated two Lists, one.m MS. 
and one printed: (L) Arund. Orient. 16. fol, 3366, on Prov. i 2 
Thtch ThL printed and (ID.the P^i^^^d Massorah on ^e-^^^^ 
passage. In List I the expression rrnnnm = and tmmeduOely afi^ »*, 
i. e. 1 Sam. 20 13, is manifestly a clerical omission which is 
rightly supplied in List II. ■ . 

6b 



K - K § 264- 



44 



§ 269-274. K — K 



Both these Lists, howevel', are in confliot with the recension 
of this Massorah which is given in §§ 360 and 262. According 
to all the Lists of the latter Rubrics P& 190 2 is one of the 
two plene instances in the Hagiographa, whereas in the Rubric 
before us it is given in both Lists as bne of the nine defectiveck 
There can, therefore, hardly be any doubt that the two recensions, 
as is often the case, emanate from two different Schools of 
Massorites in which different traditions were preserved with 
respect to the orthbgraphy of this expression. 

TD1 - § 264. 
^Jt81 and thine ear$, occur$ three timet. Of this Rubric 
which does not occur in the printed Massorah I collated three 
Lists: (I) Arund. Orient 16, foL 181a, on Isa. 30 21 which 
I have printed; (II) the same MS., foL 261 a, on 2 Chron. 6 40 and 
(III) Add. 15,251, fol. 881, on the same passage. List II, distinctly 
states in the heading that it is plene in two instances and 
defective in one passage (-on '»ei -^o -a 's) and though it does not 
specify in the List itself which of the three instances is defective, 
some of the MSS. and early editions exhibit it beyond the shadow 
of a doubt. Thus Prov. 28 12 is i^t^ in Orient 2201; Harley 
5710—11; Arund. Orient 16, Add. I6,'25l; the second edition of 
the Bible, Naples 1491—93; the Leira edition of the Proverbs 1492; 
the fourth edition of the Bible, Pesaro 1611—17; the Salonica 
edition of the Hagiographa 1616; the Complutensian and the first 
edition of the Rabbinic Bible with the Massorah, Venice 1524—25. 
But XtVT, plene is the reading in the following MSS. and 
editions. Add. 21,161; Add. 16,250; the editio princept of the 
Hagiographa, Naples 1486—87; the fu^t edition of the Bible, 
Soncino 1488; the third edition Brescia 1494; and the first 
edition of the Rabbinic Bible by Felix Pratensis, Venice 1517. 
This variation is again due to the differences which obtained in 
the Standard Codices preserved by the different Massoretic 
Schools and accounts for the conflicting Massorahs. Thus the 
defective reading is against § 263 since it is not included in 
the nine defective instances, whilst the plene reading is against 
§§ 250 and 2g2, according to which there are only two plene 
instances in the Hagiographa and since Prov. 33 12 is not one 
of the two. 

iTDT - § 265. 

ir3T><5 with our eare, oceurt sue times. This Rubric is from 
the printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 248, as I have not found 
it in the MSS. In my edition Ps. 64 2 should be 44 2. 

TD"I = § 266. 
D3^3]K3 in your ears, occurs four times. Of this Rubric 
which does not occur in the printed Massorah I collated two 
Lists: (I) Orient 2348, fol. 136a, ion Deut 6 1 which I have 
printed and (H) Orient 2349, foL 126a, on the same passage. 

rD1*= § 267. 

DiTitS? in their ears, occurs six times. Of this Massorah I 
collated nine Lists, seven in MSS. and two printed: (I) Arund. 
Orient ifi, fol. 1 16a, on 2 Kings 23 i which I have printed: (II) the 
same Ma, foL 1716, on Jerem. 36 15; (lU) Add. 21,100, foL 76, on 
Geii. 20 8; (IV) Add. 16,451, foL 141 6, on Deut 32 11; (V) the 
same MS., fol. 264 a, on 2 Kings 23 2; (VI) the same MS., foL 298a, 
on Jerem. 36 16; (VII) the same MS., fol. 507a, on 2 Chron. 84 30; 
(VIII) the printed Massorah on Exod. 32 3 and (IX) the same on 
2 Kings 33 2. 

Both Lists I and II distinctly state that qtjt^ occurs six 
times and enumerate six passages leaving out 2 Kings 23 2 and 
Jerem. 36 15, whilst the other seven Lists not only state as 
emphatically that it occurs eight times, but catalogue all the 
eight instances. There can, therefore, be no doubt that the omission 
of the two instances in lists I and II is due to a clerical error 
and that the alteration in the heading was made by the Scribe 
who found that the Lists recorded six passages only. This is 
confirmed by the fact that the two Massoretic Lists in this very 
MS. are given on the two passages which are omitted in the 
Lists, thus recognising their existence in the text 

n'Dl = § 268. 

''^*!?8^5 «n<^ <*o« *«*« girded me, occurs twice. This is to 
distinguish it from the third instance (2 Sam. 22 40) where it is 
'rtwi without the Ale^. This Rubric which ^ does not occur in the 
printed Massorah is from Arund. Orient 16, foL 2906, on 
Ps. 30 12. 



CD-I - § 269. 

ITItK^ <u one horn in the country, occurs three times untk 
Knmetz and once with Buhach. That is, in three instances where 
the Caj^ has Sheva the Resh has Kxmetz ot is the absolute and 
once the Besh h&a Pathach or the word is in the construct 
The design of this Massorah is to difttinguish this form from 
rmtj with Kametz under the Caph which also occurs three timea» 
viz. Levit 24 16, 22; Josh. 8 83. 

Of this Rubric I collated five Lists, three in MSa and two 
printed: (I) Harley 6710—11, VoL II, foL 102a, on Ezek. 47 22 
which I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient 16, foL 198a, on the same 
passage; (IH) the same MS., fol. 298a, on Ps. 87 36; (IV) the 
printed Massorah on Levit 19 84 and (V) the printed Massorah 
Finalis, letter tt, § -^67. List III simply gives the three instances 
with Kametz and adds at the end of the Rubric -asa in 'ma in 
'VOa nm one occurs in the PsTUateueh, one in the Prophets and one 
in eAtf Hagiographa. List IV also does not mention the one 
instance with Pat/tach, but has not the supplement of List M, 
whilst List V not only notices the Patkaeh instance^ but gives 
the catchword for it in a separate line. 

m - § 270. 
^)T^T>{n the Esarahite^ occurs twice. This Rubric which I have 
not found in the MSS. is firom ti>e printed Massorah on Ps. 89 I 
and as is frequently the case it is incorrect since this patronymio 
occurs three times, 1 Kings 5 11 is the third passaga 

H'ffl = § 271. 
H^ as brother, occurs twice. This Rubric which does not occur 
in the printed Massorah is from Add. 15,251, foL 3626, on Ps. 85 14. 

ym - § 272. 

K'tt3 TpnK '^Ip hD* Throughout the Scriptures U is ^ny 
with the exception of one instance where it is yrtif, viz. Gen. HO 16 
whilst throughout Samuel it is y"^ ^^ ^' exception of one instance 
where it is xn^, viz. 2 Sam. ii 22. To understand this artificial 
and complicated Massorah At is necessary to remark: (I) that 
yn^ thy brother, with the suffix second person singular masculine, 
without and with the prefixes occurs no fewer than fifty-nine 
times in the Bible, ^ and that (II) one only of the fifty-nine 
instances occurs in Samuel, that (III) yrt^ thy brothei', with the 
suffix second person singular feminine, without and with the 
prefixes occurs four times in the Bible, that (IV) three out of 
the four are in Samuel, and that (V) one instance only occurs 
outside this book.^ Hence the Massorah contrasts the usage in 
all the other books of the Scriptures with that in Samuel In all 
the Bible ap&rt from Samuel ynf is the rule and "xry^ forms a 
solitary exception, whilst in Samuel yn^ is the rule and fr^ the 
solitary exception. 

Of iMa Rubric which do3s not occur in the printed Massorah 

1 collated two Lists: (I) Harley 6710—11, VoL I, foL 1796, on 

2 Sam. 2 22 which I have printed and (II) Arund. Orient 16, 
foL 58 a, on tl^ same passaga 

> Comp. ^>n» Gen. 4 9, 10, II ; 28 20; 27 6, 86, 40, 42, 44, 46; « 7; S« 1; 
88 8; Exod. 4 14; 7 1, 2; tS 1, 2, 4, 41; Levit 1« 2; 18 16, 16; 19 17; 2« 26, 
35, 86, 39, 47; Numb. 20 8, 14; 27 8; Deut IS 7; IS 3, 12; 17 16; 22 1, 2, 2, 
3, 4; SS 8; 2ft 3; S2 60; 2 Sam. 2 22; 1 Kings 8 7, 21; 80 38; Obad. 10, 12; 
Prov. 87 10; V"?? D«ut 1& 9; Pg. M 20; V™^ Gen. 38 8; Deut U 11; 88 Ij 
28 10; Tn»»)» Deut 8S 21 ; I'niea Deut « 7. 

> Comp. rO* 2 Sun. IS 7, 80, 20; V?^ Gen. 80 16. 

JTI = § 273. 
TrnH his brother, occurs four times in the Seripttires. As the 
normal suffix third person singular masculine of n^ is rn^ which 
is of very frequent occurrence, the Massorah here safeguards 
these four abnormal forms?'* Of this Rubric I collated ten Lists, 
nine in MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, VoL IL 
fol. 656, on Jerem. 34 9 which I have printed; (II) the same MS., 
VoL II, foL 168 a, on 2 Chron. 31 12; (HI) the same MS. VoL H, 
foL 2406, on Job 41 9; (IV) the St Petersburg Codex of A. D. 91ft 
on Jerem. 34 9; (V) Arund. Orient 16, foL 1706, on the same 
passage; (VI) the same MS., foL 212a, on Micah 7 2; (VII) the 
same MS., foL 277flr, on 2 Chron. 31 12; (VIII) the same MS., 
foL 8366, on Job 41 9; (IX) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, § 224, 
and (X) the printed Massorah on Jerem. 34 9. 



dlrrW their brother, occurs four times . . . and once it is with 
Vav cohjunetive. That is with Chirek under the Cheth, u e. noun 



K — K § 275- 



— 45 



§ 278-282. K — K 



fiiigular with suffix third person plural in contradistinction to 
term with Diere under the Chetk, i. e. noun plural which occurs 
thirty-seven times without the prefix Vau and sixteen times with 
it. The safeguarding of these five exceptional instances was all 
the more necessary sinca some MSS., all the early editions and 
the Septuagint read arrwi the plural in 1 Chron. 9 17. This is 
the reading in Harley 5710—11 which is a Model Codex, the 
ediUo princeps of the Hagiographa, Naples 1486—87; the first, 
second, third and fourth editions of the Bible, Soncino 1488; 
Naple8l491 — 93; Brescia 1494; Pesaro 151 1— 17; theComplutensian; 
the Rabbinic Bible by Felix Pratensis 1517 and the first edition 
of Jacob b. Chayim's Rabbinic Bible with the Massorah 1 524 — 25. 
The reading Drrrnr the singular, however, is not only enjoined in 
the Rubric before us, but in the long Massoretic List of words 
which respectively occur five times, four times without the prefix 
Vav and once with it' It is moreover, supported by the Chaldee, 
the Syriac and the Vulgate. 

Of this Rubric I collated five Lists, four in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Harley 5710-11, Vol. I, fol. 1 99a, on 2 Sam. 3 30 which 
I have printed; (II) the same MS., Vol. II, fol. 222a, on Job 1 13; 
(HI) Arund. Orient 16, foL 59 a, on 2 Sam. 3 30; (IV) Add. 21,161, 
foL 251a, on 1 Chron. 9 17, and (V) the printed Massorah on 
Jndg. 9 24. 

> Comp. The Mattarah, letter 1, § T6, Vol. I, p. 407 &c. 

iTri - § 275. 

ITUK D''HK we are brethren, occurs twice with Kametz. This 
Rubric which I have only found in the printed Massorah on 
Gen. 42 13 is incorrect, since it is in Gen. 13 8 where this 
phrase occurs, that ui^m is with the pausal Kametz. pop 'n is most 
probably a clerical error for 'pa 'a it occurs twice in the Scriptures. 

m = § 276. 
"Tttjl ]''K*rH^ \ Tea woi'dg are respectively combined once with 
nrn* ime, and they have no parallel This Rubric which is from the 
printed Massorah, as is often the case, is both incorrect and 
misleading: (I) Though the heading distinctly states that there 
are ten such unique combinations with inx, nine only are 
enumerated; (II) the remark -d 'a, i. e. that Numb. 34 18 contains 
two such instances is incorrect, since the second instance nriK rv} 
also occurs in Numb, 7 li, and Josh. 2t 14, and (III) the 
declaration that there are ten such instances only is inaccurate, 
since there are many more unique combinations with nriK, viz.: 



passages (Numb. 16 15a; Ps. 106 11) it is tm the absolute. Of 
this Rubric which does not occur in the printed Massorah I 
collated three Lists: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, fol. 96a; 

(II) Orient 2348, fol. l2o6; (III) Orient 2349, fol. 1106, all on 
Numb. 16 15. 

n-n = § 278. 

^nXrn and the one, occurs four times in the Scriptures. That 
is with the Vav prefix and followed by the He. This Massorah 
is specially designed both to safeguard the two instances where 
nriK is followed by nrsKni (Levit 14 22; 15 15) since the normal 
phrase in all other passages is nnjfj . . . nriK without the He,^ and 
the single instance in i Sam. 14 5 where it is preceded by 
inKn, i. e. nnKrn . . ♦ , -^riKn. Of this Rubric I collated four Lists, three 
in MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 5710-11, VoL I, foL 181 6, 
on 1 Sam. 14 5 which I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient 1 6, foL 43a; 

(III) Vienna Codex No. 35 and (IV) the printed Massorah, all 
on the same passage. 



» Comp. Levit 5 7; 12 8; Numb, 6 11] 
40 26, 49; 2 Chron. 3 17. 



Judg. Ifi29; 2 Sam. 13 1; Esek. 



iriM anr» i Kings 4 19 

trw hnk 2 Kings 7 8 

nn>«-ih Ezek. 8 7 

"vw liW Neh. 5 18 



inw oyntt Gen, 43 19 

IPiM na-iJt Exod. 10 19 

in»r baan Numb. 38 4 

"»7? T, >t 36 30 



This is apart from such passages as inKK3t.«i 2 Kings 4 39, 
■VMrrn Ezek. 37 19 &c. since the design of this Massorah may 
be to register the unique combination with nriK of nouns and 
particles only and not of verbs. 

The incorrectness of this Rubric is due to a later Scribe 
who finding a number of examples of this combination, supplied 
the heading which was not given with the instances in their 
original form. This is evident from the earliest registers in their 
original form. Since printing the above Massorah I found two 
Lists of it in the ancient Codex Orient 4445, both are without 
headings, without fixing the number of instances and without 
the catchwords as is 6ften the case in the earliest recensions of 
Massoretic Rubrics. The first List is on Exod. 10 19, fol. bib. 
It registers eleven instances, containing all of the printed 
Massorah with the exception of the incorrect ia 'a and three new 
ones, viz. Exod. 10 19; Numb, 28 4; 35 30. The second List is 
on Numb. 28 4, fol. 1486. It registers eight instances only, 
omitting Gen. 22 2; 32 23 and Exod. 10 19 which are given in 
the first List The omission of the first two instances is due to 
the fact that in these passages it is not with ihk, but with -spik 
the construct This recension, therefore, strictly confines itself 
to the combination with the absolute. Like the first List, this 
Register omits the vicious ia 'a of Numb. 34 18 which is given in 
Jacob b. Chayim's Massorah and which I have printed. It 
contains Numb. 28 4 and 35 30 which are given in List I, but 
which are omitted from the printed Rubric. 

rPT = § 277. 
QID ^HK one of them, occurs four times .... and twice it is 
BP^inn one from them. That is in four instances in which this 
phrase occurs it is nrw in the construct, whilst in the other two 



B-n = § 279. 

iTlKS as one, together, occurs seven times in the Scriptures. Of 
this Rubric I collated nine Lists, eight in MSS. and one printed: 
(I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 30b, on Isa. 65 25 which I have 
printed; (II) Arund. Orient 16, foL 146a, on the same passage; 
(III) the same MS., fol. 2596, on 2 Chron. 5 13 which also give* 
the mnemonic sign; (IV) the same MS., fol. 355a, on Eccl. 11 6 
with the mnemonic sign; (V) the same MS., fol. 3736, on Ezra 2 64; 
(VI) the same MS., foL 376a, on Ezra 6 20 with the sign; (VII) 
the same MS., fol. 384a, on Neh. 7 66; ^''111) Halle Ochlah Ve- 
Ochlah II, § 17, and (IX) the printed Massorah on Isa. 65 25 
with the sign. 

Besides Lists III, IV, VI and IX which ^Jjpve the mnemonic 
sign with the register of the passages, the following Rubrics 
give the heading alone with the mnemonic sign: (I) Harley 
5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 1516, on 2 Chron. 5 13; (II) the same 
MS., Vol. II, fol. 2676, on Eccl. 11 6; (m) the same MS., VoL II, 
foL 2876, on Ezra 2 64; (IV) the same MS., Vol. II, fol. 288a, on 
Ezra 3 9 arid (V) Arund. Orient 16, fol, 3746, on the same passage. 

B'T = § 280. 
^iriKv* for everji one, occurs twice in the Pentateuch. This 
Massorah is designed to safeguard the vowel-points of these two 
exceptional instances, In all the other eight passages where this 
numeral with the same prefix occurs the Lamed has Sheva, viz. 
inK"?. Of this Rubric I collated three Lists, two in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, VoL I, foL 456, on Exod. 16 22 
which I have printed; (II) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, foL 88a, and 
(III) the printed Massorah on Numb. 15 12. The heading of List I 
which I have printed is not precise. It ought properly to be tot 'a 
it occurs ttvice antl in the Pentateuch, but the Vav, as we have 
seen, is often omitted in such cases. Lists II and III simply 
state that it occurs twice. These two instances form part of the 
alphabetical List of words beginning with Lamed which respectively 
occur twice.* 

J Comp. Tlie Matttyrah, letter \ § 17, Vol. II, p. 109. 

K'BI = § 281. 

*TnK one of, occurs twenty^five times with Pathach in th« 
Scriptures, i. e. is in the construct Of this Rubric I collated 
eleven Lists, nine in MSS. and two printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, 
VoLH, foL 2846, on Dan. 10 13, which I have printed; (II) the same 
MS., VoL I, foL 126, on Gen. 21 15; (III) the same MS., VoL I, 
foL 178a, on 1 Sam. 9 3; (IV) Orient 4445, foL 1356, on Numb.l6l.'V; 
(V) Arund. Orient 16, foL 686, on 2 Sam. 17 22; (VI) the same MS., 
foL 1126, on 2 Kings 18 24; (VII) the same MS., foL 1336, on 
Isa. 36 9; (VIH) the same MS., foL 249a, on 1 Chron. 17 6; 
(IX) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, § 17; (X) the printed Massorah on 
2 Kings 6 12 and (XI) the same on 1 Chron. 17 6. All these 
Lists include thki Gen. 37 9 in the tw6nty-five instances. 

TD1 = § 282. 
Q^fl *1HK one of the people, occurs twice. Of this Rubric I 
collated four Lists, three in MSS. and one printed: (I) Add. 15,261, 
foL 256, on Gen. 26 10 which I have printed; (II) Orient 2848, 
foL 52a, on the same passage; (III) Vienna Codex No. 85 on 
1 Sam. 26 15 and (IV) the printed Massorah on Gen. 26 10. 



t< § 288—287. 



46 - 



§ 288—293. K ■" K 



rOI = § 283. 
it^P ins tdcmn, occurs twice in the Pentateuch The design 
of this Vassorah is to safeguard this exceptional phrase since 
the normal expression for eJ^veu is either -it'y 'naJj (Numb. 7 72; 
29 20; 1 Chron. 12 13; 24 12; 25 18; 27 14) or n-it?! 'Ptf? 
(Erod. 26 7; 36 U; 2 Kings 25 2; Jerem. 1 3; 52 .5; Ezok. 40 49). 
This Rubric which I have found in the printed Massorah only 
on Deut. 1 2 is ambiguous. It ought properly to be rrnnsi '3 it 
occurs twice and in the PentcUeuch, since it occurs nowhero else. 
But the Vav in these cases is often omitted. 

TBI = § 284. 
"inS5 «» one of, occurs ttcehe times tciih Pathach in the 
Scriptures, i. e. in the construct, in contradistinction to iriKS which 
occurs seven times and which is registered in Rubric 279. Of this 
Rubric which is not only one of the oldest constituent parts of 
the Massorah, but is of very frequent occurrence I collated eight 
Lists, six in MSS. and two printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, VoL II, 
foL 103o, on Ezek. 48 8 which I have printed; (II) the same MS., 
VoL I, fol. 33i, on Gen. 49 16; (III) the same MS., Vol. I, 
foL 168a, on Judg. 1§ 7; (IV) the same MS., Vol. I, foL 202a, 
on 2 Sam. 9 11; (V) the 'St Petersburg Code^ of A. D. 916 on 
Ezek. 48 8; (VI) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ocbl^h"*?!, § 17; (VII) the 
printed Massorah on Ezek. 48 8 and (VIII) the same on 
2 Chron. 18 12. 

.TBI = § 285. 

into to one of, occurs six times . . . , and once it is toith the prefix 
Vav. That is the construct in contradistinction to nriKb the absolute 
which occurs twice and which has already been noticed {vide 
tupra, § 280). This Rubric too is one of the most ancient con- 
stituent parts of the Massorah and occurs frequently in the 
MSS. Of it I collated six Lists,,. five in MSS. and one printed: 
(I) Harley 5710—1 1, VoL I, foL 130a, on Deut 28 55 which I have 
printed; (II) the same MS., Vol. U, foL 126, on Isa. 27 12; 

(III) the St Petersburg Codex of A. D. 916 on Ezek. 46 17; 

(IV) the same Codex on Zech. 11 7; (V) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, 
§ 17, and (VI) the printed Massorah on 2 Kings 9 1. 

TB"! = § 286. 
D'nnK a few, occurs fovr times in the Scriptures .... and once 
H is withde prefix Lamed. Of this Rubric I collated four Lists, 
three in MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, 
foL 286a, on Dan. 11 20 which I have printed; (H) Arund. Orient 16, 
foL 191a, on Ezek. 37 17; (HI) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah, Supplement, 
fol. 129fc, and (IV) the printed Massorah on Gen. 11 1. 

rei = § 287. 

nrt< hiis in six passages Pathach and the accent Zakeph 
Katon .... And v^henetjer it is combined with one of the four words 
represented hy the initials hwbn, i. e. n^n ordinance, rno measure, 
nj* year, and rnin hw, it is likewise nnx * with Pathach except in 
one instance where it is nriK ro^ with Segol and Kametz [Deut 24 5]. 
And whenever it has the pausal ^accents Athnach Soph-Pasuk and 
Zakeph it is likewise nriK with Kametz. 

Of this Rubric I collated ten Lists, eight in MSS. and two 
printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, fol. 4 5 6, on Exod. 16 33 which 
I have printed; (II) the same MS., Vol. I, fol. 200&, on 2 Sam. 6 19 
where the mnemonic sign alone is given for the six passages; 
(III) the same MS., Vol. I, fol. 221a, on 1 Kings 7 16; (IV) the 
same MS., Vol. II, fol. 1226, on Zech. 6 7; (V) Orient 4445, 
fol. 586, on Exod. 16 33; (VI) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 54fl, on 
1 Sam. 26 8, which also gives the mnemonic sign; (VII) the 
same MS., fol. 2186, on Zech. 5 7; (VHI) Halle Ochlah Ve- 
Ochlah II, § 16; (IX) the printed Massorah on Exod. 16 33 which 
has the mnemonic sign and (X) the same on Josh. 6 14 which 
also gives tiie mnemonic sign. 

It is important to notice (I) that 'atop is here used to denote 
Pathach or is a clerical error for 'nriB, as is evident from the 
fact that in the headings of all the other nine Lists including 
the three in this very MS. it is 'nno and (II) that Kpin after the 
expression rpk in the last line of this Rubric is manifestly a 
mistake for Kepn, since rirwt does not occur with tiie accent Zarka 

* Conip. riHK npn Numb. • 14; 15 16; nc? "^? Exod. 86 2, 8; 86 9, 16; 
1 Kings 6 25; 7 37; Ezek. 40 tO, 10; 46 22; ""»« "?»' 2 Kings 8 26; Dan. 11 1; 
t Chron. 22 2; nnK n-jia Exod. 18 49; Lovit 7 7; Numb 16 16, 29. In the case 
of th«w combinations the reference Is simply to the vowel-poinu of nri« and 
not to (A« aeeent on it, since in tlieee phrases- it is sometimes with Zakeplt and 
» with another accent 



and Lists VI and VIII have actually itopn and Zakeph. Indeed 
the whole of the last line, viz. 'Op "cn KBpn libit ho^ is a later 
development. This is attested by the fact that six out of the 
ten Lists, viz. II, III, V, VII, IX and X have not got it, and that 
amongst them is Orient 4445 which exhibits the oldest form of 
the Massorah. It will be seen that whilst this Massorah includes 
r\mh '3cm l Kings 3 25 witli the prefix Lamed, it excludes rri>» rmm 
1 Sam. 6 7. 

n"Dn = § 288. 

]T('^$^>{ nnK <yne to another, occurs twice 4n this eonJbinatton. 
That is with Pathach under the second nn>t. As this phrase occurs 
six times, and as it is nrw-'?>«nnK in the other four instances in 
this very chapter (comp.Exod. 36 10, 10, 12, 22), the Massorah 
safeguards the vowel-points of the two exceptional instances. Of 
this Rubric I collated four Lists, three in MSS. and one printed: 

(I) Orient 2349, foL 79a, on Exod. 36 10 which I have printed; 

(II) Orient 234«, fol. 89a; (III) Orient 4445, fol. 796, and 
(IV) the printed Massorah all on the same passage. 

fiS-'BI - § 289. 
fTTKn occurs tv;!ce with the accent Zaleph and Pathneh. In 
the other eleven instances where nn»n has Zakeph it is pointed 
nmcT* Of this Rubric which does not occur in the printed 
Massorah I collated two Lists: (I) Arund. Orient 16, foL 82a, 
on 1 Kings 7 38 which I have printed and (II) the Halle Ochlah 
Ve-Ochlah H, § 17. 

I Comp. Exod. 25 12; 26 4, 10; SC 11; J7 3; 1 Kings 6 24; 7 16, 17, 
27, 42; 2 Chron. 4 13. 

Xn - § 290. 

mK3 as one, occurs ttoice. This Rubric which does not 
occur in the printed Massorah is from Arund. Orient 16, foL 76, 
on Josh. 10 2. 

N'^CI = § 291. 

nnXn </*« one, occurs three times with Kametz and 

wherever V is with the pausal accents Athnach and Soph-Pasuk it is 
likewise with Kametz except in two instances. Of this Rubric I 
collated four Lists, three in MSS and one printed: (I) Harley 
5710—11, Vol. I, fol. 51 6, on Exod. 26 5 which I have printed; 
(II) Orient 4445, fol. 676; (HI) Orient 2348, fol. 82a, and 
(IV) the printed Massorah, all on the same passage. 

To understand this Massorah as well as the various 
Massoretic remarks which accompany the several recensions of 
it, it is necessary to state that rnnn which occurs altogether 
thirty-one times, has in these three instances only the none- 
pausal accents Segol (Exod. 26 5; 36 12) and lieUa (i Kings 7 18), 
whilst in all the other twenty-eight passages it is with the 
pausal accents. Thus in eleven instances it has Zakeph (vide 
supra, % 2tt9, note); in twelve it is with Athnach^ and in five it is 
with Soph-Pasuk.'^ Accordingly the last line of this Rubric ought 
to be 303 "13T fpki 'opT "^si and wherever it is with ZaJceph etc. List II 
which exhibits the oldest form of the Massorah rightly has it so. 
Still more indistinct is the heading in List III, viz. nnKKnp-flte 
jMnmn wherever it has the accent Zarka it is nriKn nrw eascept in 
these three passages where it is with Kametz, i. e. nriKn, since this 
implies that the three passages in question are by way of 
exception nnxn, with ZarAa instead of nriKn (oide supra, §§ 287, 289). 

« Comp. nnt«n Exod. 36 2, 8, 24; 28 10; 86 9, 16, 29; Levit 14 6, 60; 

1 Kings 7 :^4; l6"l7; 2 Chron. 9 16. 

J Comp. nnKn Exod. 87 9; S6 31; Levit 24 5; 1 Kings 1« 16; 

2 Chron. 19 16. 

n-TCI = § 292. 
DT'ITX their hindei- parts, occurs three times in the Scriptures 
and is^ defective. In the singular and without the suffix -iinx, 
without and with the prefixes is always plene. Of this Rubric 
I collated six Lists, four in MSS. and two printed: (I) Harley 
5710—11, Vol. II, foL 746, on Ezek. 8 16 which I have printed; 
(II) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 81 6, on 1 Kings 7 25; (III) the same 
MS. fol. 269 a, on 2. Chron. 4 4; (IV) Vienna Codex No. 35 on 
1 Kings 7 25; (V) the printed Massorah on the same passage, 
and (VI) the same on Ezek. 8 16. 

a'X-l = § 293. 
ninK a siefer, occurs three times. That is with Kametz under 
the Aleph as some of the Lists have it - the i^bsolate to distinguish 
it from mnif the construct Of this Rubric I oolUted seven Lists, 



8 ~ H § 294-298. 



— 47 



-304. K "" H 



five in MSS. and two printed: (I) Harley 5710-11, Vol. I, 
foL 2045, on 2 Sam. 13 I which I have printed; (II) the same MS., 
VoL II. fol. 2626, on Cant. 8 8; (ni) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 66a, 
on 2 Sam. 13 1 which adds nlnK> -rm; (IV) the same MS., foL 1606, 
on Jerem. 22 8, with the heading -arap S nirw; (V) Orient 2349, 
foL 60a, on Exod. 6 28 with the heading nin^JMriinit rmp ««; 
(VI) the printed Maasorah on 2 Sam. 13 l and (VII) the same 
on Cant. 8 8. 

Tltl = § 294. 
TrtTK my tister, oeews three time* pUne. This noun with the 
gulfix 'first person singular occurs altogether eighteen times. 
It is defective in fifteen instances ^ and plene in these three 
instances only. Hence the Massorah safeguards the exceptional 
passages. Of this Rubric I collated three Lists, two in MSS. and 
one printed: (I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 65a, on 2 Sam. 13 5 
which I have printed; (11) Add. I5,25i, fol 746, and (IH) the 
printed Massorah all on the same passage. 

1 Comp. Gen. It 18. 19; 20 2. 6, 12; 2« 7, 9; W 8; 2 Sam. 1» 6; 
ProT. 7 4; Cant 4 9, 10, 12; S 1, 2. 

,T3fi - § 295. 
ITK ''IThK thou art my titter, oeeura twice in thi$ combination 
in the Scriptt^et. Of this Rubric I collated three Lists, two in 
MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 5710-11, VoL II, foL 245a, 
on Prov. 7 4 which I have printed; (II) Orient 2349, fol. 346, 
on Gen. 12 13 and (IH) the printed Massorah on Prov. 7 4. 

rx"i = § 296. 
13''rihK our titter, occurt three timet, twice defective and once 
plene, . . . . «« the three inttancet are in the Pentateuch ....and 
once it it wir^. That is, in two instances it is without the Vav 
and in one iistance it has the Vav. In the passage where it is 
with the prefix Lamed it has also the Vav and in all the four 
instances it is without the Yod after the Tz^i Of this Rubric 
I ooUated six Lists, four in MSS. and two printed: (I) Orient 2348, 
foL 575 on Gen. 34 14 which I have printed; (H) Orient 2349, 
foL475, on the same passage; an) Add. 21,160, foL 156, on Gen. 
24 60- (IV) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah, Supplement, foL 1306; (V) the 
print^ Massorah on Gen. 34 60 and (VI) the printed Massorah 
Finalis, letter m, § 265. List HI has at the end of the Rubric 
•omwrw'wifl'Vo'nra the httt inttanee [Gen. 34 31] hat Vav 
pUne and all the othert are entirely defective, i. e. are defective of 
both Vav and Yod. The heading of the printed List VI -non ki •'?o a 'J 
is incorrect as is attested, not only by all the MSS., but by the 
printed List V. 

rXI = § 297. 
TDtTK thy titteri, occurt three timet. The word 'Strba »« thit 
form as "is often the case is here omitted from the heading, since 
in one of the three instances it is with the prefix Vav. Of this 
Rubric I collated three Lists, two in MSS. and one printed: (I) Halle 
Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, § 288, which I have printed; (II) Hariey 
5710-11, VoL n, foL 795, on Eaok. 16 56 and (III) the printed 
Massorah on the same passage. All these Lists give the official 
reading or the Keri yn^m in Ezek. 16 51 as one of the three 
instances. These three instances form part of the alphabetical 
Lists of words which respectively occiy: three times, twice without 
the prefix' Fa» and once with it^ 

J CJomp. The MMtorah, letter », § 70, Vol. I, p. 403 &c. 

n'Jtl » § 298. 
^nlTK tittert,- occurt five timet in thit form. That is, the plural 
of n^n^ or "the form n'riK, as the Massorah expresses it, occurs five 
times. The term 'vbii'ia thit form embraces the one instance in 
which it has the prefix Tar and covers the fact that it is with 
different suffixes. It, however, does not notice that it is with Vav 
plene after the Yod in two instances (Josh. 2 13; Ezek. 16 52). 
Of this Rubric I collated eight Lists, five in MSS. and three 
printed: (I) Arund. Orient 16, foL 2a, on Josh. 2 13 which I have 
printed; (II) the same MS. foL 1766, on Ezek. 16 52; (HI) the 
same MS., foL 238a, on l Chron. 2 16; (IV) the same MS., 
fol 886a, on Job 42 11; (V) Add. 15,250, foL 847a, on Jpb 1 4; 
(VI) the printed Massorah on Josh. 2 13; (VII) the same on 
Esek. 16 62 and (VIII) the same on Job 1 4. The heading in 
printed Massorah on Josh. 2 13 or in List VI, viz. TVKnp^ il^ rn -n 
H it five timet defective of Yod is manifestly a corruption of 'n 
Mnpa IwSa. 



B«X"i - § 299. 
mnX* For the import of this Rubric see, § 159. 



^rilHSCf the Ahohite, occurt four timet, three timet plene and 

once defecive and once it it without the prefix He. I have 

mislaid the reference to the MS. where this Rubric ia to be fonnd* 
It does not occur in the printed Massorah. 

H'Vf - § 301. 

riK occurt three timet and once with the prefix Vav. Of 

this Rubric I collated seven Lists, four in MSS. and three printed: 
(I) Harley 5710—11, VoL I, foL 217a, on 1 Kings 1' 61 which I 
have printed; (II) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 77a, on the same passage; 
(HI) Add. 16,250, foL 181a, on the same passage; (IV) Orient 2849, 
foL 666, on Exod. 16 14; (V) the printed Massorah on the same 
passage; (VI) the same on 1 Kings 1 51 and (VII) the same on 
Job 28 9. Though the Rubric which I have printed simply states 
that this word occurs three times, yet it belongs to two different 
roots and has two different meanings. In Exod. 15 14 and 
1 Kings 1 61 it is the preterite third person singular fromvm 
to teize, with the accent on the ultimate, whilst in Job 23 9 it is 
the apocapated future first person singular from rrtn to tee, with 
the accent on the penultimate. This explains the different 
headings of this Rubric in the MSS. and in the printed Massorah. 
Thus Lists II and IV have it 'pijo 'ki n'ja -a -a it occurt three timet 
twice Milra and once Milel; List V has -a it occurt twice, counting the 
two instances only in which it is the preterite, whilst List HI 
like List I only notices the fact that the Cheth has B,thaeh in 
contradistinction to the instances whes-J this triliteral has Knmeta 
under the Cheth and where it is a proper name. Hence also the 
addition in List VII rn«?m psp -^ DW bm. As the three instances 
occur respectively in each of the three divisions of the Scriptures, 
List III has at the end of the Rubric Mvoa •» "raa it ."wa it 
The addition at the end of the Rubric which I have printed is 
either a clerical error since it also occurs in Job 21 6, or is 
due to a recension of the text where it ocurred only once. 

2'}ff = § 302. 
fPlKI and lay hold, occurt twice. That is, to distinguish this 

imperative singular with the prefix Vav from the same quadri- 

literal which is pointed :ni(i Judg. 20 6 and m»n 1 Chron. 24 6. 

Of this Rubric I collated two Lists: (I) Arund. Orient 16, fol 68«, 

on 2 Sam. 2 21 which I have printed and (II) the printed 

Massorah on Exod. 4 4. 

yiff = § 303. 
tnK'n and he thaU Uy hold, occurt twice. To distinguish it from 

the same quadriliteral which is pointed trWi 2 Sam. 6 6 and ihjr 

Judg. 6 13; 1 Kings 6 10. 

rV = § 304. 

T!A occurt four timet in the Scripturet and once it it 

with tKe'Vav prefix. Of this Rubric I collated seven Lists, six in 
MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 5710-11, VoL II, fol. 2706, 
on Esther 1 6 which I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient 16, 
fol 253a, on 1 Chron. 24 6; (HI) tixe same MS., foL 3586, on 
Estiier 1 6; (IV) Add. 21,160, foL 243a, on Numb. 31 30; (V) Vienna 
Codex No. 35 on Numb. 31 30 ; (VI) the same Codex on 1 Chron. 24 6 
and (Vn) the printed Massorah on Numb. 31 30. 

The conflicting Massorahs on this expression are due to the 
different ways in which the several Schools of Massorites treated 
this Rubric. Thus Lists I, II, III and IV simply catalogue the 
four passages in which thk without any prefix occurs. They make 
no reference to its being plene or defective. List V which states 
in the heading that it occurs four times, mentions that it is plene 
in one instance and defective in three passages. It however, 
enumerates the three defectives only, viz. Numb. 31 10; 1 Chron. 
24 6, 6 finishing the enumeration with 'on p^n thete are the defecttvet. 
List VI states that it occurs five times, four times defective (Numb. 
31 30; 1 Chron. 24 6, 66) and once plene (Esther 1 6), thus including 
the instance in which it has the prefix Vav; whilst List VH 
which also states in the heading that it occurs four times 
defective and once plene, obtains the four defectives by including 
man Numb. 31 47 and excludes fi-om this Number the one wiUi 
the prefix Vav which it adds at the end as tw -irr. This Rubric 



K § 300—311. 



— 48 



§ 312—316. 8 — K 



forms part of the alphabetical List of words which respectively 
occur five times, four times without the prefix Vav and once with it» 

» CoBjp. The UMsm-Ah, letter 1, § 75, Vol. I, p. 407 Ac 
n«r - § 305. 

ItnXiTl ««<^ y« «^^^ t^^ 'possession, occurs twice. This Rubric 
which does not occur in the printed Massorah is from Harley 
5710—11, VoL I, foL 226, on Gen. 34 10. 

yV = § 306. 
nfnK possession of, is alivays combined tdth >«'•? with the exception 
of one instance where it is Kn. This Rubric which does not occur 
in the printed Massorah is from Orient 2349, foL 975, on 
Levit 25 34. It is very artificial and implies that apart from 
the passage in question whk occurs often with rn, whereas 
Ezek. 46 16 is tha only instance where it is followed by rn and 
even here it is with the suffix third person pl^ral, viz. anjriK. 

^VD = § 307. 
n^THK Ahaajah, without and tcith the prefix Vav, occurs seven 
times. That is, to distinguish it from the lengthier form irnrt^ 
Ahazjahu which occurs no fewer than thirty times. For the reason 
which underlies this duplicate form see my Introduction to the 
Massoretico' Critical edition of the Hebrew Bible, Part II, chap. XI, 
p. 387 &c. Of this Rubric I collated seven Lists, six in MSS. and 
one printed: (I) Harlex 5710—11, VoL I, fol. 2446, on 2 Kings 9 16 
which I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient 1 6, fol. 976, on 2^Kings 1 2; 
(III) the same MS., fol. 1046, on 2 Kings 9 23; (IV) the same 
MS., fol. 2695, on 2 Chron. 20 55; (V) Vienna Codex No. 35, on 
2 Kings 1 2; Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah H, § 47, and (VU) the 
printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 299. 

n"r = § 308. 
in^PIK Ahljahl, without and with the prefix Vav, occurs five 
times. That is, in this lengthened form it is the exception, its 
normal form is rem Ahijah, which occurs no fewer than nineteen 
times.* Of this Rubric I collated five Lists, three in MSS. and 
two printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, VoL I, foL*2296, on 1 Kings 
14 5, which I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient 16, foL 2636, on 
2 Chron. 10 15; (lU) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, § 252; (IV) the 
printed Massorah on 1 Kings 14 5, and (V) the same on 
2 Chron. 10 15. 

' For the import of this duplicate form see my Jntrodvelion to the 
MoMtorelicL-Ctitical edition of the Hebrew Bible Fart II, chap. XI, p. 387 Ac. 

O'ttr = § 309. 

SllSnti? Ahittib, occurs three timss defective. This proper name 
which occurs fifteen times, thirteen times without the prefix Vav 
and twice with it, is in these three instances exceptionally written 
without the Yod after the Cheth. Hence the Massorah safeguards 
the abnormal orthography. Of this Rubric I collated five Lists, 
four in MSS. and one printed: (I) Arund. Orient 16, foL 43a, on 
1 Sam. 14 3 which I have printed; (II) the same MS., foL 50 5, 
on 1 Sam. 22 9; (III) Add. 15,261, foL 158 a, on 1 Sam. 14 3; 
(IV) Add. 15,451, foL 1966, on the same passage and (V) the 
printed Massorah Finalis, letter x, § 281. The printed Massorah 
Parya on 1 Sam. 14 3 which states that this name occurs four 
times defective ('on 'i) must be based upon a different recension 
in which there was another defective instance. 

^Ttr = § 310. 
"'^'riK Ah'ilai, or Achlai, occurs twice. This Massorah is 
designed to safeguard this proper name, since the adverb which 
consists of the same four letters, but differently pointed also 
occurs twice, once it is -briK Ps. 119 5 and once "hm 2 Kings 5 3. 
This Rubric which does not occur in the printed Massorah is 
from Cambridge Add. 4C5 on l Chron. 2 31. 

H-^V = § 311. 
inSiri thou shaU delay or she shall delay, occurs fowt times. 
That is the Piel future second person singular masculine or 
third person feminine, occurs four times with Tzerg under the 
Cheth. It will be seen that the Massorah catalogues the expression 
with the same vowel-points under the same Rubric irrespective 
of the fact that it is both second person masculine and third 
person feminine. Of this Rubric I collated eight Lists, five in MSS. 
and three printed: (I) Harley 5710- 11, VoL I, foL49a,onExod.2228 
which I have printed; (II) the same MS., VoL II, foL 226, on laa. 



46 13; (III) the 3am6 MS., VoL II, foL 265a, on EccL 5 3; (IV) 
Arund. Orient 16, foL 139 a, on Isa. 46 13; (V) the same MS., 
foL 3526, on EccL 5 3; (VI) the printed Massorah Exod. 22 88; 
(VII) the same on Isa. 46 13 and (VIII) the same on EccL 6 8. 

^'W = § 312. 
*lHKri thou shaU delay, occurs three times in the Seripturet. 
That is the Piel future second person singular masculine with 
Pathach under the Cheth in contradistinction to the former which 
has Tzere. Of this Rubric I collated five Lists, four in MSS. and 
one printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, VoL II, foL 1856, on Ps. 40 18 
which I have printed; (H) the same MS., Vol. II, foL 1945, on Ps. 70 6 ; 
(III) Add. 15,260, foL 3316; (IV) Vienna Codex No. 35, both on 
the same passage and (V) the printed Massorah on P& 10 18.. 

r»» - § 313. 
■'"TTKP occurs twipe in the Setiptures. That is with Sheva 
under the Mem or the Piel' participle plural construct in contra- 
distinction to nrjKO with Tzere under the Mem or the preposition 
which occurs twenty-six times. Of this Rubric I collated two 
Lists: (I) Harley 5710—11, VoL II, foL 2l6a, on Pa 127 2 which 
I have printed, and (II) the printed Massorah on 2 Sam. 15 1. It la 
remarkable that the printed Massorah both in the heading and 
in the Massorah Parva states that it occurs three times and 
gives 2 Sam. 15 1 as one of the three instances. As it is pointed 
-nriKO in the received text and is so even in Jacob b. Chayim's 
edition, the Rubric in the printed Massorah is either based upon 
a recension which reads nriKa in 2 Sam. 16 1 or, which is more 
probable, the Scribe confused the two expressions. These two 
expressions form part of the alphabetical Lists of words be- 
ginning with Mem which respectively occur twice. ^ 

» Comp. Ths Mattorah, letter », § 14, Vol. II, p. 166 Sao. 

rW = § 314. 

n?Kn D''"l!D'irT "IHK after these things, occurs three times at 
the beginning of a verse. Of this Rubric I collated six Lists, five 
in MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, VoL II, foL 271a, 
on Esther 2 1 which I have printed; (II) the same MS., VoL II, 
foL 272a, on Esther 3 i ; (IH) Orient 2349, foL 356, on Gen. 16 1; 
(IV) Arund. Orient 16, foL 359 a, on Esther 2 1; (V) the same 
MS,, foL 3596, on Esther 3 l and (VI) the printed Massorah on 
Gen. 15 l. The expression 'ob 'm '3 ** occurs three times at the 
heginning of the verse which also occurs in List III and in the 
printed Massorah Parva on Gen. 15 1 is inexact, inasmuch as it 
might imply that it occurs in othw passages where it does not 
begin a verse, whereas this phrase only occurs three times 
altogether and at the beginning of a verse. Properly therefore, 
it ought to be db '»m 'a three times and, at the beginning of a verse, 
but the Vav, as is frequently the case, is omitted. Lists II, IV, V 
and VI rightly omit 'oe 'jn altogether. The Massorah Parva on 
Esther 3 l in Harley 5710—11 adds n'?>a D-nati -immm and once 
it is and after these things with the prefix Vav (Ezra 7 1). The 
design of this Massorah is to distingfuish this phrase from the 
five instances where it is preceded by -rn and it came to pass. 
Comp. Gen. 22 1; 39 7; 40 1; 1 Kings 17 17; 21 1. 

rcttr = § 315. 

T?TT^ IHK aft&r Jehovah, occurs twice. This Rubric which does 
not occur in the printed Massorah is from Arund. Orient 16, 
foL 116a, on 2 Kings 23 3. As the normal phrase is nirr -imt which 
occurs no fewca: than ten times* the Massorah safeguards the 
two abnormal passages. 

> Comp. Numb. S3 12; Deut 1 36; 13 6; Josh. 14 8, 9, 14; 1 Sam. 7 «; 
1 Kings 11 6; Hos. 11 10; 2 Chron. 34 31. 

rOttr = § 316. 

?3 THK) and aflei'ward, occurs twice. The normal phrase is 
p-^-inir which occurs twenty-two times.* Of this Rubric I collated 
four Lists, three in MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, 
VoL L foL 725, on Levit 14 36 which I have printed; (II) Add. 15,250, 
foL 636; (III) Add. 15,251, foL 73o, and (IV) the printed Massorah, 
all on the same passage. List III states in the heading that this 
phrase occurs three times and gives 1 Sam. 10 5 as the third passagek 
The Rubric, therefore, in this recension of the Massorah must have 
been based upon Codices which read here iriKi with the prefix Vav. 

1 Comp. Oen. 15 14; 2S 19; 33 26; 3S 21; 45 15; Exod. 3 20; 11 8; 
.V4 82; Levit. 16 26, 28;. Numb. 4 16; 8 16, 22; 9 17; Josh. 8 34; Jerem. tt 16; 
21 7; 46 26; 49 6; Ezra S 6; 2 Chron. SO 86; S3 14. 



K — i< § 317-323. 



— 49 



§ 324-329. S — K 



P» = § 317. 

"*?■? "^^T!^* "^^^ expression nn« without and loith svffixes is 
always construed with blf except in two instances -where it is with b^. 
Of this Rubric I collated two Lists: (I) Arund. Orient. 16, 
foL »94ff, on Ezek. 41 15 which 1 have printed and (II) the 
printed Massorah on the same passage. 

n-'e^ - § 318. 

T*TrtK» In two passages of the Scriptures the textual reading or 
the Kethiu is nnK after, and the official reading or Keri is v^m after 
him. Of this Rubric I collated two Lists: (I) Harley 5710—11, 
Vol II, fol. 294&, on Neh. 3 80 which I have printed and (II) the 
printed Massorah on the same passage. The recension of this 
Rubric printed by Jacob b. Chayim is somewhat lengthier, but 
not quite exact, since the statement in the heading is kj'jps 'a 
twice in this section which ought to be Kj'jrai 'a it occurs twice and 
in this section for it occurs nowhere else in the Scriptures. The 
Vav, as is frequently the case, is omitted. It moreover, concludes 
with npT 3'ro mnx jtikwi .nn p itp'jk r-iriK npi nrw a-na "pxiowa nm and 
onee in Samuel, the Kethio is nrw and the Keri v-jnx (2 Sam. 23 9) 
and in all tha other passages innx it both the Kethio and the Keri. 
This is contradicted both by Jacob b. Chayim's own text and 
Massorah, since he has i-idki as the Kethiv also in 2 Sam. 33 1 1 
and gives the Massoretic Keri r-irw) in the margin. 

tD">» = § 319. 
fl^ nVl^ TP!!^ °f^ J^^^ovah my God, occurs twice. That is 
to distinguish it from verse 14 of this very chapter (i. e. 14) where 
it is !?jnir ribK njrr nrjK after Jehovah the God of Israel, as well as 
from the normal phrase which is simply n\rri nnx (comp. Numb, 
as 12; Deut 1 36; 1 Sam. 7 2; 1 Kings' 11 6; Hos. 11 10; 
2 Chron. 84 81). This Rubric, which does not occur in the printed 
Massorah, is from Arund. Orient 16, fol. 10 5, on Josh. 14 8. 

yV = § 320. 
|5"^*THR after that, occurs three times in the middle of the 
verse. This Rubric which I have found in the printed Massorah 
only on Gen. 6 4 is absolutely incorrect^ since this phrase 
occurs no fewer than six times in the middle of the verse. 
Besides the three passages given in Jacob b. Chayim's Massorah 
it also occurs in the middle of the verse in Gen. 41 31 ; Josh. 10 26 
and Isa. 1 26. Altogether this phrase occurs twenty-four times 
in the Bible and the position of the remaining eighteen instances 
in the respective verses is as follows: once it is at the 
beginning of the verse, thirteen times it is preceded by \n'i, 
once by rrrn, once by d|5Ji and once by laitf^, always at the be- 
ginning of the verse and once it stands at the end of the verse. ' 

1 Comp. B"i ??"'!"»» Job 3 1; b't !?■'>:?*' '?i,'3 Judg. 16 4; 1 Sam. 94, 6; 
X Bun. 2 1; 8 1; 10 1; IS I; 21 18; 2 Kings 6 24; 1 Chron. 18 1; 19 1; 20 4; 
t Ghron. tO 1; 24 4; f^ rmq*? njni Joel 8 1; O't rPTinK l}^ ngji i Sam. 24 8; 
■^ly^™ W'"J5 Jerem. 84 11; B'o {?-'"inR 2 Sam. 21 14. ' 

»'DV = § 321. 
nto ^^nS after the death, occurs three times in this conjunction 
toitk the accent. That is, in these three instances it is with Munach 
and Zakeph Katon. In the other six instances where this phrase 
occurs it has different accents.^ Of this Rubric I collated three 
Lists, two in MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 6710—11, VoL t, 
foL 2485, on 2 Kings 14 17 which I have printed; (II) Add. 15,251, 
foL 2086, on the same passage and (III) the printed Massorah 
on Levit 16 l. 

» Comp. monnK Gen. 25 11; Judg. 1 1; nip '-ihr, Gen. 26 18; Ruth 2 11; 
ma nrw Jo«h. 1 l; 2 Chron. 22 4; ma nnK 2 Kings 11. 

r2V = § 322. 

^"THKI and after, occurs seven times at the beginning of a verse 
in the Scriptures. That is -*jnKi without being followed by p, since 
with this combination, i. e. p-^RKi it also begins a verse eleven 
times, viz. Gen. 23 19; 25 26; Levit. 34 32; Numb. 8 15, 22; 
Josh. 8 34; Jerem. 21 7; 49 6; Ezra 3 5; 2 Chron. 20 35; 33 14. 
This Rubric which does not occur in the printed Massorah is 
from Harley 6710—11, Vol. II, fol. 2846, on Dan. 9 26. 

y^V = § 323. 

fllD Tff!|Wn and after the death of, occurs twice in the Scriptures 

tn this combination. In the other ten passages where this combination 

occurs it is without the prefix Vav. Of this Rubric which does 

not occur in the printed Massorah I collated four Lists: 



(I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 163a, on 2 Chron. 24 17 which 
I have printed; (II) Orient. 2348, fol. 1326, on Numb. 35 28; (III) 
Orient. 2349, fol. 1226, on the same passage and (IV) Vienna 
Codex No. 35 on 2 ChrOn. 24 17. 

T3e> = § 324. 

P ''1l!!'8tt «A«^ '^i«> occurs three times. As the normal phrase 
is r?-'-)rm (vide supra, § 320), the Massorah safeguards these three 
exceptional instances with the prefix Mem. Of this Rubric I 
collated two Lists: (I) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 666, on 2 Sam. 15 1 
which I have printed and (II) the printed Massorah Finalis, 
letter k, § 287. 

iT3t£> = § 325. 

''^'^0^1 ^""^ ^f^''' ^^^> occttr* ttoice in this section. In the part 
of the memorial which extends from Neh. 3 16 to 31 the successive 
individuals who took part in the building are introduced with the 
expression rnnx after him. It occurs in this connection no fewer 
than sixteen times. As it is without the prefix Vav fourteen 
times (comp. Neh. 3 16, 17, 18, 20, 21, 23, 23, 24, 256, 27, 29a, 
30, 30, 31) and with the prefix Vav twice "(3 22, 296), the Massorah 
safeguards the exceptional use of the conjunctive. Of this Rubric 
I collated four Lists, three in MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 
5710—11, Vol. n, fol. 2946, on Neh. 3 22 which I have printed; (II) 
the same MS., Vol. II, fol. 2946, on Neh. 3 29; (III) Arund. Orient 16, 
fol. 3806, and (IV) the printed Massorah, both on the same 
passage. The heading in the printed Massorah (List IV) ba jO'd 
viriKi a'oa b'i Kin r-inK Krsy X'nn sign; throughout tJiis section r-iPiK begins 
the verse with the exception of two instances where it is mmr, 
is incorrect, since in the Second instance, viz. 3 29 r-imn 
is in the middle of the verse. The MS. Lists have not the 
objectionable en. 

VDV = § 326. 

"TriKn the next, the other, occurs three times. Of this Rubric 
I collated three Lists, two in MSS. and one printed: (I) Arund. 
Orient 16, fol. 2586, on 2 Chron. 3 11 which I have printed; 
(II) Vienna Codex No. 35 and (III) the printed Massorah, both 
on the same passage. 

nr = § 327. 

D^JTinKil the last, is seven times .plene in the Scriptures. The 
heading ought properly to be 'wba 'cn 't seven times plene in this 
form, since two only are without the prefix Fav (Eccl. 4 16; 1 Chron. 
23 27), whilst the other five instances have the prefix Vav, but 
this term is often omitted in such cases. Apart from the two 
instances, viz. the one in 2 Sam. 23 1 where it is defective and in 
Eccl. 4 16 where it is plene, D-jmrtKn occurs ten times. These are 
all in Chronicles where it is defective in four passages (1 Chron. 
29 29; 2 Chron. 20 34; 26 22; 35 27) and plene in six. It will 
be seen that in this Rubric, the Massorah safeguards the majority 
which is very unusual Of this Rubric I collated five Lists, four 
in MSS. and .one printed: (I) Harley 5710 — 11, Vol. II, fol. 1566, 
on 2 Chron. 12 15 which I have printed; (II) the same MS., Vol. II, 
fol. 164a, on 2 Chron. 25 26; (HI) the same MS., Vol. II, fol. 166a, 
on 2 Chron. 28 26; (IV) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 2746, on the 
same passage find (V) the printed Massorah Finalis, letter m, 
§ 290. In the printed Massorah, four out of the seven catchwords 
are wrong: (1) nan -in"! = 2 Chron. 9 29 ought to be '-on iK«n; 
(2) nan "irvn = 2 Chron. 12 15 should be nam; (3) nan -urn =? 
2 Chron. 16 11 should be nan ram and (4) mx nan nnn « 2 Chron. 
28 26 should be inan nnn. 

n-DV = § 328. 
n3l*lHK3 in the latter, is twice plene. This feminine adjective 
with the prefix Beth occurs six times, and once with the prefixes 
Vav Caph. It is defective in five instances (Deut 13 10; 17 7; 
1 Sam. 29 2; 1 Kings 17 13; Dan. 8 3) and plene in these two 
passages only. Hence the Massorah safeguards the exceptional 
orthography. This Rubric, which does not occur in the printed 
Massorah, is from Arund. Orient 16, fol. 58a, on 2 Sam. 2 26. 
As it is .nsmriKai in Dan. 11 29, the heading of this Rubric ought 
properly to be 'sr-^a '^a 'a. 

63"3r - § 329. 
Hi iHXT' at the last, occurs twice in the Scriptures .... onee in 
the Pentatiuch and once in the Hagiographa. Of this Rubric I collated 
five Lists, four in MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, 
VoL II, foL 263a, on EccL 1 11 which I have printed; (II) Arund. 
Orient 16, fol. 351a, on the same passage; (III) Add. 21,160, 



K — K § 830—836. 



50 



§ 837-841. M 



foL 188o, on Numb. 2 81; (IV) the same MS., foL 302o, on 
EccL 1 11 and (V) the printed Massorah on Numb. 2 81. These 
two instances form part of the alphabetical Li^t of words beginning 
with Lamed which respectively occur twice. ^ 

> Ctomp. The Matwrah, letter h, § 17, Vol. II, p. 109. 

^•tr - § 330. 

n"'5'inK haekvcard, occurs seven timet. Of this Rubric I collated 
seven Lists, six in MSS. and one printed: Arund. Orient. Hi, 
fol. 876, on 1 Sam. 4 18 which I have printed; (11) the same MS., 
fol. 98a, on 1 Kings 18 37; (III) the same MS., fol. 114 a, on 
2 Kings 20 10; (IV) the same MS., fol. 135 a, on Isa. 38 H; 
(V) Add. 15,251, fol. 153a, on 1 Sam. 4 18; (VI) Halle Ochlah 
Ve-Ochlah, Supplement, foL 1296, and (VII) the printed Massorah 
on t Kings 20 10. 

H'bV = § 331. 
tt^"!tt^nK Ahaahverosk, is four times so written according to 
the Westerns ... and ones it is ft^rtvi Ahashrosh. That is, this 
name which occurs thirty times, is in these four instances without 
the second Vav according to the Palestinians and once entirely 
defective, whilst according to the Babylonians they form no 
exception, but are plene as in all the other passages. Of this 
Rubric I collated five Lists, four in MSS. and one printed: 
(I) Harley 6710—11, VoL II, foL 2726, on Esther 3 12 which I have 
printed; (II) Arimd. Orient 16, fol. 862a, on Esther 8 7; (III) 
Add. 21,160, foL 8106, on Esther 3 12; (IV) Add. 16,251, foL 408a, 
on Esther 10 1 and (V) the printed Mas.»orah on Esther 2 21. 

a-tr = § 332. 
D^UnntS^nXn the muUs, occurs twice in this hook. That is, in 
Esther. As it occurs no where else in the Bible, the heading 
ought properly to be xoai 'a tivice and in this hook. But the Vav, 
as we have seen, is frequently omitted in these cases. This 
Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, is from 
Harley 5710— U, VoL II, foL 2746, on Esther 8 10. 

ybV - § 883. 
ISK7 quiHily, occurs times. That is, this adverb with the prefix 
TMmed. This Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, 
is from Arund. Orient 16, foL 122a, on Isa. 8 6. These two 
instances form part of the alphabetical List of words beginning with 
Lamed which respectively occur twice with Sheva under the Lamed. ' 

> Comp. Ths MMtorah, letter h, § 18, Vol. II, p. 109. 

rbv - § 334. 

*TteK shut up, impeded, occurs twice. Of this Rubric I collated 
four Lists, three in MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 6710—11, 
YoL I, foL 171a, on Judg. 20 16 which I have printed; (II) Arund. 
Orient 16, fol. 20a, on Judg. 3 15; (IH) Add. 15,251, foL 150o, 
on Judg. 20 16 and (IV) the printed Massorah on the same passage. 
It is remarkable that all the four Lists omit from the heading 
'B031 twice and in this hook, though the two instances are restricted 
to Judges. 

n'bv = § 335. 

''K where, occurs three times in the Pentateuch. In all other 
passages it is n*x with paragogic He. The interest which attaches 
to this Rubric is due to the fact that it shows how the Massorites 
elaborated the Massorah. They began to register the peculiarities 
of the text by counting at first the expressions in the separate 
books and divisions of the Bible. Hence in the Rubric before 
us we have the first attempt to register the instances in the 
Pentateuch alone, whilst in the following Rubric which contains 
the full development we have the catalogue of this adverb in the 
whole Bible. This Rubric, which does not occur in the printed 
Massorah, is from Harley 5710—11, VoL I, foL 184o, on Deut 32 87. 

riv - § 836. 

^ where, occurs thirty-one times in the Scriptures. The heading 
ought more properly to be tfh '^^ "k, i, e. this adverb without and 
with the prefix Vao occurs thirty-one times, since in six instances 
it is '>r (1 Sam. 30 13; Isa. 66 1; Jonah 1 8; Job 28 12, 20; 
Esther 7 h). It will be seen that this Rubric does not recognise 
the Kethiv in Prov. 31 4 which is in, but includes the official 
reading or Keri in this Rubric. This Rubric, which does not occur 
in the printed Massorah, is from Harley 5710—11, foL 806, on 
Isa. 6<> 1. 



vbiff - § 337. 

^K occurs Jive times and wherever it is combined with nt or 

unth rm it is likewise "k. This complicated Massorah is a later 
development of the preceding Rubric and it purports to catalogue 
those passages only where "k is not followed by rn or rro. Hence 
the thirteen instances, where it is nT"i*, the four rn'Ki, the seven 
rwa-K and the two rwa-ir are excluded,' whilst the combination 
r»^b "H is strangly included. As is usually the case, this artificial 
development is the more popular one. Whilst I have found one 
List only of the simple catalogue, I have collated no fewer than 
six Lists of this intricate Massorah, five in MSS. and one printed : 
(I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 54a, on 1 Sam. 26 16 which I have 
printed; (II) Add. 15,250, foL 12a, on Gen. 16 8; (III) the same 
MS., foL 162a, on 1 Sam. 26 16; (IV) the same MS., foL 367a, 
on Prov. 31 4; (V) Add. 15,251, foL 2416, on Jerem. 5 7, and 
(VI) the printed Massorah on Gen. 4 9. mito in the heading is 
a mistake, since this combination does not occur in the Bible. It 
is manifestly intended for nja 'st. The mistakes to which these 
complicated and artificial Massorahs have given rise are, morever, 
to be seen in Lists II and V.* 

J Comp. np« 1 Sam. » 18; 1 Kings 18 12; 28 24; 2 Kings S «; Isa. M 1 ; 
56 1; Jerem. 6 16; Job 88 19, 19, 24; Ecd. 2 3; 11 6; 2 Chron. 18 23; npitt 
see § 839; ms-iK Oen. 16 8; Judg. IS 6; 1 Sam. 25 11; 2 Sam. 1 3, 13; 16 2; 
Job 2 2; nra 'Ki 1 Sam. 80 18; Jonah 1 8. 

I List II is as follows: 'K n'svn »nri' sh "lOK'i Tn» S»n '» tin»»3i "npa 'n «H 
nsb w ,VBJ ma 'H rhn ■>» ,nir »»a "ia»«rn »3^n nam nita nm which is hopelessly 
corrupt 

List V which is ^^ "nna nn Tsr 'H r^DH nmb m .ynm .hzn »» pnaa'Oi 'i m 
lainsa in ,''ic:33 is inexplicable. 

n'^PV = § 338. 
JCton n?0 ^ from whence earnest thou, occurs twice. This 
Rubric, whifeh does not occur in the printed MassOrah, is from 
Arund. Orient 16, fol. 57 «, on 2 Sam. 1 3. It is designed to 
distinguish this phrase from the one in 2 Sam. 1 13; 15 2 which 
also occurs twice. 

tD'^ttr - § 889. 

nt ^1 and where, occurs* four times, i. e. in contradistinction 
to !Ti "K without the prefix Vav which occurs thirteen times (vida 
supra, § 337). Of this Rubric I collated three Lists, two in MSS. 
and one printed: (I) Arund. Orient 16, foL 1466, on Isa. 66 I 
which I have printed; (II) the same MS. 361a on Esther 7 5 
and (III) the printed Massorah on Job 28 12. 

O'W = § 310. 
iTKI and where, occurs three times at the* heg inning of a verse. 
In all the other five instances where this interrogative begins a 
verse it is without the' prefix Vav (comp. 2 Kings 18 34; Isa. 36 19; 
37 13; Nah. 2 12; Ps. 89 50). It will be seen that the Massorah 
includes here the Keri in Jerem. 37 19 and ignores the Kethiv. 
Of this Rubric I collated six Lists, four in MSS. and two printed: 
(I) Harley 5710— U, VoL II, foL 326, on Jerem. 2 28 which I have 
printed; (II) thp same MSS., VoL II, foL 586, on Jerem. 37 19; 
(III) the same kS., Vol. II, foL 2296, on Job 17 15; (IV) Arund. 
Orient 16, foL 3276, on the same passage; (V) the printed 
Massorah ^ Jerem. 37 19 and (VI) the same on Job 17 15. 
These thr^e instances form part of the List of twelve words 
beginning with Vav which respectively begin a versa^ 

» Comp. The Mattorah, letter \ % 12, Vol. I, p. 405. 

vtrnv = § 311. 

1'K where is he, occurs Jive times in the Scriptures without and 
with the prejix Vav. Of this Rubric I collated six Lists, five in 
MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, VoL I, foL 256, ou 
Exod. 2 20 which I have printed; (II) the same MS., VoL I, foL 253rt, 
on 2 Kings 19 13; (III) the same MS., VoL H, foL 1166, on 
Micah 7 10 where the mnemonic sign alone is given; (IV) Arund. 
Orient 16, foL 113^/, on 2 Kings 19 13 where both the List and 
the sign are given;' (V) the same MS., foL 328a, on Job 20 7 
also with the sign and (VI) the printed Massorah on Exod. t 20 
also with the sign. The sign by itself is also given in the printed 
Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 297. 

The earlier Massorahs have a separate catalogue for the two 
out of the five passages where it is iw with the prefix Vav. Thus 
Orient 4445, fol. 67a, on Exod. 2 20 has a Rubric consisting of 
these two instances alone. It is remarkable that Arund. Orient 16, 
fol. 326 a, on Job 14 10 which has also a separate Rubric fov 
l»|ii states that it occurs three times and gives Job 20 7 as wio 



K — H § 842-^860. 



— 51 — 



§ 851 -856. K — K 



of the three passages. All the Lists exclude the Kethiv i»»r 
Jorem. 37 19 from this Rubric. 

ror = § 342. 

O'K where are they, occurs hoice in the Scriptures once 

at the beginning of a verse and once at the end of a verse. This 
Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, is from 
Arund. Orient 16, foL 1266, on Isa. 19 12. These two words 
form part of the List of words which respectively occur twice, 
oooe at the beginning and once at the end of the verse.^ 

1 Ck>mp. The Meutvrah, letter t3, ;§ 264, Vol. II, pi 216 iu>. 

yOr = § 343. 

*Tl35 ''K T-chahod, occurs twice. Of this Rubric, which does not 
occur in tie printed Massorah, I collated three Lists: (I) Arund. 
Orient 16, foL 376, on 1 Sam. 4 21 which I have printed; (II) the 
same MS., fol. 43a, on 1 Sam. U 3 and (in) Add. 16,251, foL 1536, 
on 1 Sam. 4 21. 

TCr «= § 344. 

tr^Kb to the islands, occurs twice, i. e. to distinguish it from 
B<^ Dan. il 18 with Sheva under the Lamed. Of this Rubric, which 
do«B not occur in the printed Massorah, I collated two Lists: 
(D Arund. Orient 16, fol. 141 6, on Isa. 59 18 which I have printed, 
and (II) Add. 15,251, fol. 2366, on the same passag*.- List II has 
in the heading 'Dp 'a it occurs twice with Kametz, i. e. under the 
Lamed to distinguish it from the one instance where it is with 
Bkna. 

iTOr - § 845. 

S"^ enemy, occurs three times defective in this form. That is 
with and without prefixes, but without suffixes. Of this Rubric 
I collated five Lists, four in MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 
5710—11, Vol I, fol. 187a, on 1 Sam. 18 29 which I have printed; 
(n) the same MS., Vol II, foL 41a,. on JerenL 16 11; (HI) Arund. 
Orient 16, foL 48 o, on l Sam. 18 29; (IV) the same MS., 
toL 152a, on Jerem. 6 25 and (V) the printed Massorah on 
1 Sam. 18 29. 

riyo = § 346. 

flpjnp^ 3*^ the enemy and the avenger, occurs twice. This 
Rubric I have found in the printed Massorah only on Ps. 44 17. 

rer - § 347. 

S^^KH the enemy, ocmirs five times . . . .four times plene and 
once defective. Normally it is y^H without the article. Of this 
Rubric I collated eight Lists, seven in MSS. and one printed: 
(I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, fol 244a, on 1 Kings 8 46 which I 
have printed; (11) the same MS., Vol. II, fol. 93a, on Ezek. 36 2; 
(m) the same MS., Vol. n, foL 1646, on 2 Chron. 26 13; (IV) the 
Mme MS., Vol. II, fol. 1756, on Ps. 9 7; (V) Arund. Orient 16, 
fol 83tf, on 1 Kings 8 46; (VI) the same MS., fol. 1896, on 
Esek. 36 2; (VU) the same MS., fol 2736, on 2 Chron. 26 13 
and (Vni) the printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 303. The 
instance in which it is defective (Jerem. 16 11) is one of the 
three passages catalogued in § 345. 

n"Or = § 348. 
^^J( iiMne enemy, occurs seven times. Of this Rubric I collated 
seven Lists, six in MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, 
Vol n, fol 1766, on Ps. 13 3 which I have printed; (H) Arund. 
Orient 16, fol 48a, on 1 Sam. 19 17; (III) the same MS., fol 96a, 
on 1 Kings 21 20; (IV) the same MS., fol 380 «, on Job 27 7; 
(V) the same MS., fol 357a, on Lament 2 22; (VI) Vienna Codex 
No. 86 on 1 Kings 21 20 and (VII) the printed Massorah on 
Ps. 18 8. None of these Lists state that there is a plene instance 
among the seven passages. This shows that 1 Kings 21 20 is 
Meetive as all the others are. 

tD'Sr = § 349. 
flp^ thine enemy, occurs seven times. This Rubric, which does 
not occur in the printed Massorah, is from Harley 5710 — 11, 
Vol I, fol 191a, on 1 Sam. 24 5. It will be seen that this List 
indttdes two Keiis, viz. 1 Sam 26 8 and Pro v. 24 17. 

Z'V = § 350. 
TO^ thine enemies, is twice defective. That is the Yod is 
t after the Betii. This Rubric, which does not occur in the 
printed Massorah, is from Cambridge Add. li74, on Deut 20 1. 



H'W =■ § 351. 

^S^ his enemy, occurs four times in the Scriptures. Of this 
Rubric I collated four Lists, three in MSS. and one printed: 
(I) Harley 5710-tll, Vol II, fol 636, on Jerem. 44 30 which I have 
printed; (II) Arund. Orient 16, fol 52 6, on 1 Sam. 24 20; (HI) Add. 
15,250, fol 265a, on Jerem. 44 30 and (IV) the printed Massorah 
on 1 Sam. 24 20. 

2'W = § 862a. 

135?^^ <*«*' «nerny, is twice so written. That is with Vav plene 
after the Aleph. This simple Rubric, which does not occur in 
the printed Mdssorah, is from Arund. Orient 16, fol 80a, on 
Judg. 16 23. 

2':v - § 3526. 

135?^K our enemy is in two instances so terUten cmd 

throughout Ezra it is also «'5;ilK except in one instance "[Neh. 6 1 J 
where it is n-3i« and in all the other Scriptures it is also wait This 
complicated Massorah is a development of the preceding simple 
Rubric and records the plene and defective orthography of this 
expression both in the simgular and plural ^d^k the singular, 
as we have seen, is twice 'written with Vav after the Aleph. To 
this is artificially added the plural form which occurs three 
times plene in Ezra-Nehemiah (Neh. 4 9; 5 9; 6 16) and once 
defective (Neh. 6 l). Hence the remark "and throughout Ezra &c.". 
Outside Ezra-Nehemiah where it also occurs four .times it is 
invariably written irai« without the Vav (I Sam. 4 3; 12 10; 
2 Sam. 19 10; Lament. 3 46), This explains the remark in the 
last line of this Rubric. Of this Rubric I collated three Lists, 
two in MSS. and one printe^^: (I) Vienna Codex No. 35 on 
Judg. 16 23, which I have printed; (II) Add. 16,251, fol 148a, 
on the same passage and (III) -the printed Massorah Finalis, 
letter k, § 806. In the heading of List I which I printed, the MS. 
states p TO '3 "sa-K as I have given it, but this is manifestly 
a clerical mistake for "asrm with Vav. 

r:w - § 353. 
D'^S'^S enemies, occurs four times, twice defective and twice 
plene. Three of these four instances are with the prefixes Landed 
and Mem. Of this Rubric I collated three Lists, two in MSS. and 
one printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol II,. fol 1936, on Ps. 68 24 
which I have printed; (H) Arund. Orient 16, fol 31 7a, on Ps. 127 6 
and (III) the printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 807. Lists I 
and II neither indicate that three out of the four have prefixes nor 
show which two are defective. List III is more explicit, it not only 
states in the heading ha 'a r''?a n cra-nw, but adds at the -on inna 'a 
the two last instances, viz. Ps. 139 22 ; Lament 1 2 are defective. 

r:iD = § 354. 

"D^K enemies of, occurs itoiee. That is with Tar after the 
Aleph. As this plural construct occurs nine times and is defective 
in two instances only, the Massorah safeguards the exceptional 
orthography. This Rubric, which does not occur in the printed 
Massorah, is from Arund. Orient 16, fol 295a, on Ps. 46 6. In 
our editions 2 Chron. 20 29 and not Micah 7 6 is one of the 
two plene instances. 

n'w - § 355. 

''5'''I8 mine enemies, is eleven times plene. That is, this plural 
with the suffix first person singular, whereas in all the other 
twenty-two instances where it occurs it is defective.* Of this Rubric 
I collated ten Lists, eight in MSS. and two printed: (I) Arund. 
Orient 16, fol 556, on 1 Sam. 2 1 which I have printed; (II) the 
same MS., fol 119a, on Isa. 1 24; (HI) the same MS., fol 2476, 
on 1 Chron. 14 11; (IV) the same MS., fol 2856, on Ps. 9 4; 
(V) the same MS., fol 2876, on Ps. 18 88; (VI) the same MS., 
fol 294a, on Ps. 41 6; (VII) the same MS., fol 2976, on Ps. 66 10; 
(VIII) Add. 15,251, fol 3596, on Ps. 71 10; (IX) the printed 
Massorah, on Sam. 2 l and (X) the same on Ps. 9 4. In the List 
which I have printed, ten instances only are catalogued, though 
the heading distinctly says that there are eleven such instances. 
The Scribe by mistake omitted Ps. 71 10. This is evident from the 
fact that the other Lists include it, and that List VIII has 
this Massorah on this very passage. As these eleven instances 
include 'a^iKO (Isa. 1 24) with the prefix Mem, List tl rightly 
heads it 'r-'ja 'bo k". 

» Comp. 'ajh Numb. 28 11; 24 10; 2 Sam. 5 20; 28 S8; Ps. 3 8; 17 0; 
18 4; 26 19; 27 6; 30 2; 36 19; 69 5, 10; 138 7; Lament 1 21; 3 62; '3;«»0 
1 Sam. 14 24; 2 Sam. 23 49; Ps. 18 40; 69 2; 119 98; 148 9. 



7b 



K ~ K § 356—863. 



52 



§ 364—869 a—c K -" iC 



rVD = § 366. 

'rt'^S'^lK thine enemies, is seven times plene in the Scriptures. In 
all the other thirty-one passages where it occurs, it is y^'^k 
without the Vav. Hence the Massorah safeguards the exceptional 
orthography. Of this Rubric I collated six Lists, five in MSS. and 
one printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, VoL I, fol. 159a, on Judg. 6 31 
which I have printed; (II) the same MSS., VoL II, fol. 1416, 
on I Chron. 17 10; (III) Arund. Orient. IB, fol. 30 5 o, on Ps. 83 3; 
(IV) the same MS., fol. 307 a, on Ps. 89 52; (V) Add. 15,251, 
fol. 3G4rt, on the same passage and (VI) the printed Massorah 
on Ps. 83 3. 

r'j^ = § 367. 

TS'^lK his enemies, is Jive times plene in the Scriptures. In all the 
other nineteen passages where it occurs it is vrk defective. The 
Massorah, therefore, guards these exceptions. Of this Rubric I 
collated five Lists, three in MSS. and two printed: (I) Harley 
5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 193flr, on Ps. 68 2 which I have printed; 
(II) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 2996, on the same passage; (III) 
Vienna Codex No. 35 on Ps. 133 18; (IV) the printed Massorah 
on Ps. 68 2 and (V) the same on Prov. 16 7. 

n-ZV = § 368. 

n^lIJ^K her enemief, occurs ttoiee and is defective. Of this Rubric 
I collated three Lists: (I) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 3556, on 
Lament. 1 5 which I have printed; (II) Add. 21,160, foL 315<r, on 
the same passage, and (III) the printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, 
§ 208. 

^"ZV = § 359. 

Dn''5!'*'^ ^heir enemies, is seven times plene. In the other 
twenty-nine passages where it occurs it is defective.^ Of this Rubric 
I collated four Lists, three in MS. and one printed: (I) Harley 
5710 — 11, Vol. I, fol. 1566, on Judg. 2 14 which I have printed; 
(II) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 3116, on Ps. 106 42; (III) Vienna 
Codex No. 35 on the same passage and (IV) the printed Massorah 
on Ps. 81 15. It will be seen that according to List I which I 
have printed, Ezek. 39 27 is one of the seven plene instances. 
According to the other three Lists, however, there are only six 
plene instances and Ezek. 39 27 is omitted. There can, therefore, 
hardly be any doubt that the two conflicting Massorahs proceed 
from two different Schools ol^assorites who worked on different 
recensions of the text Though all the Lists include Dn-ai^KO with 
the prefix Mem, none of the headings have the expression 'w^a. 

> Comp. Dn'3|i« Levit. 26 36, 41, 44; Josh. 7 12, 12; 21 42, 42; 23 1; 
Judg. 2 18; 8 34; 2 Sam. % 18; 1 Kings 8 48; 2 Kings 21 14, 14; Jerem. 1& 9: 
19 7, 9; 20 4, ,6; 21 7; U 20, 21; 49 37; Amos 9 4; Esther 9 6; Neb. 9 28; 
on'=*0 Esther 8 13; 9 16, i2. 

Ot^ = § 3G0. 
Dn^5*K iheir enemies, occurs three times in this Section. That 
is, in Pericope -npna - Levit 26 3—27 34 it occurs three times 
and is defective in all the three passages. This Rubric, which 
does not occur in the printed Massorah, is from Harley 5710 — ii. 
Vol. I, fol. 82a, on Levit 26 36. 

K'Or = § 361. 

''riS!^^ w**'"^ enemy, occurs twice. This Rubric, which does not 
occur in the printed Massorah, is from Arund. Orient 16, foL 2l2a, 
on Mich. 7 8. 

yZV = § 362. 
05^ hatred of, occurs twice. Of thia Rubric I collated three 
Lists, two in MSS. and one printed: (I) Arund. Orient 16, 
fol 1836, on Ezek. 25 15 which I have printed; (II) the same MS., 
fol. 189 a, on Ezek. 35 5 and (III) the printed Massorah on the 
same passage. List III heads it more precisely me'Dai 'a it ocevrs 
twice and in the same hook. 

row - § 363. 
TK1 occurs twice. Of this Rubric I collated three Lists, two 
in MSS. and one printed: (I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 3276, oh Job 
18 12 which I have printed; (II) Harley 5710-11, Vol. I, fol. 26, 
on Gen. 2 6 and (III) the printed Massorah on the same passage. 
The heading in List II is far more correct, viz. 'tr"? 'aai 'a it occurs 
twice and in two different senses, since it denotes mist in the first 
instance and calamity in the second. At the end of this List the 
Massorite, moreover^ adds 'cn oip it U defective in the Jint passage. 



This pair form part of the alphabetical List of words which 
respectively occur twice in two different senses.* 

» Gomp. The Mcutmah, letter 3, g 428, Vol. II, p. 217 &o. 

rOr =» § 364. 
SVK1 and Joh, ocevrs four times. That is, the name of this 
patriarch has in four instances the prefix Faw. Of this Rubric 
I collated six Lists, four in MSS. and two printed: (I) Harley 
5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 78o, on Ezek. 14 20 which I have printed; 
(II) the same MS., Vol. II, fol. 241 a, on Job 42 8; (III) Arund. 
Orient 16, fbl. 3336, on Job 35 16; (IV) the same MS., foL 336a, 
on Job 42 8; (V) the printed Massorah on Job 35 16 and 
(VI) the same on Job 42 8. 

iTDt^ - § 365. 
'^J'^KI and how, ocevrs three times at the hginning of a verse. In 
all the other fourteen instances where this interrogative adverb 
begins a verse it is without the prefix Vav.^ Of thia Rubric I 
collated six Lists, five in MSS. and one printed : (I) Harley 57 lO — 1 1 , 
Vol. II, foL 166, on Isa. 36 9 which I printed; (II) the same 
MS., Vol. II, foL 2316, on Job 21 34; (III) Arund. Orient 16, 
fol. 1126, on 2 Kings 18 24; (IV) the s*ne MS., foL 1336, on 
Isa. 36 9; (V) the same MS., fol. 8286, on Job 21 34 and (VI) the 
printed Massorah on the same passage. 

1 Comp. 2 Sam. 1 26, 27; Isa. 14 12; Jerem. 2 28; 47 7; 48 14, 39; 49 25; 
SO 23; 61 41; Hos. 11 8; Obad. 6; Ps. 7S 19; 137 4. 

rOSr = § 366. 

n3*X how, occurs seventeen times. That is to safeguard this 
interrogative adverb against the shorter form ^K which occurs 
no fewer than forty-three times.* Of this Rubric I collated 
eleven Lists, ten in MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, 
Vol II, fol. 37a, on Jerem. 8 8 which I have printed; (H) Arund. 
Orient 16, foL 336, on Judg. 20 3; (HI) the same MS. fol. 109a, 
on Isa. 1 21; (IV) the same MS., fol. 3486, on Cant 1 7; (V) the 
same MS., fol. 3556, on Lament 1 1; (VI) Add. 21,160 fol. 254a, 
on Deut 1 12; (VII) Vienna Codex No. 35 on 2 Kings 6 15; 
(VIII) the same Codex on Isa. 1 21; (IX) the same Codex on 
Cant 1 1; (X) Halla Ochlah Ve-Ochlah, Supplement, fol. 1*316, 
and (XI) the printed Massorah pn Lament 1 1. 

» Comp. Gen. 41 34; Judg. 16 16; 1 Sam 16 2^ 2 Sam. 1 6, 14, 19, 26, 
27: 6 9; 1 Kings 13 i; 2 Kings 17 28; Isa. 14 4 12; 19 11; 48 It; Jerem. 2 23f 
3 19; 9 6, 18; 36 17; 47 7; 48 14, 39, 39; 49 26; 50 23, 23; 51 41, 41; Ezek. 
26 17; Hos. 11 8, 8; Obad. 6, 6; Micah 2 4; Zeph. 2 16; Ps. 11 1; 73 19; 137 4; 
Prov. & 12; Ruth S 18; Eccl. 4 11; 2 Chron. 10 6. 

rOtr = § 367. 
n^D^K how, occurs four times, tvnce with the accent on the 
penultimate and tvnce on the ultimate. It is Milel in Canticles and 
Milra in Esther. In the fourth instance (Esther 8 66) it is with 
the prefix Vav. Of this Rubric I collated six Lists, five in MSS. 
and one printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol.11, fol. 262a, on Cant 5 3 
which I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 360a, on the same 
passage; (III) the same MS. fol. 362a, on Esther 8 «; (IV) Add. 
15,251, fol. 3976, on Cant 6 3; (V) Add. 21,160, foL 313a, on 
Esther 8 6 and (VI) the printed Massorah on Cant 5 3. 

n'Or = § 36J». 

'^nij^ ^"l^l o"*^ one ram, occurs twice in this section ..... the 
sign thereof is I'nttocetit. That is, in the Section teating on the 
sacrifices to be offered on the respective festivals (Numb. 28 1 &c.) 
the phrase in question occurs twice, once with the sacrifices for 
the New Moon and once with the Passover. Hence the mnemonic 
sign tp innocent in which n is the initial of vnn and b of ncB. 
This Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, is 
from Orient 2349, foL 1176, on Numb. 28 11. 

B'Dttr = § 369 a— c. 

fi'*?''?!^ rams, is throughout the Pentateuch written without the 

second Yod, except in four instances where t< is entirely plene 

In t&« Prophets and in the Hagiographa it is also entirely plene 
except in six passages where it is defective of the first Yod, and in 

three where it is defective of the second Yod and in one 

instance it is entirely defective, i. e. it is without both Yods. 

To understand the import of these three Massorahs which 
simply exhibit three different recensions of the same Rubric, it 
is necessary to remark that the plural wb'H, without and with 
the prefixes occurs altogether seventy-five times in the Bible 



K ~ 8 § n70— 37-2. 



53 



§ 373— 376a 



-H 



and that it is defective in fifty, instances and plene in twenty- 
five. In the Pentateudi, wliere it occurs forty-three times, it is 
defective in no fewer than thirty-nine times and plene in four 
passages only.' Hence the Massorah safeguards the exceptional 
or plene orthography. In the Prophets and the Hagiographa, 
however, where it occurs thirty-one times, it is plene in twenty 
instances and defective in eleven.* Here, therefore, the Massorah 
safeguards the defective spelling which is the minority. It is 
also necessary to notice that the Massorah includes in the 
defectives in which the Yod is absent after the Aleph, five 
instances where according to our recension it is the plural of 
% Qod. 

Of Rubric 3G9a I collated three Lists: (I) Harley 5710—11, 
Vol. I, fol. 67a, on Levit. 8 2; (II) Add. 21,160, fol. 30fe, on Gen. 33 15 
and (III) the same MS., fol. I98flr, on Numb. 7 17. Of Rubric 3696 

1 collated two Lists: (I) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 257a, on 1 Chron. 
29 21 which I have printed and (II) the same MS., fol. 266a, on 

2 Chron. 13 9. Rubric 369a I have printed from Harley 5710 — 11, 
Vol. I, fol. 89 &, on Numb. 7 17. 

These three recensions, however, exhibit a later development 
in which the originally separate and simple Rubrics are 
artificially combined. There is no doubt that at first the ex- 
ceptional orthography in the Pentateuch formed a Rubric by 
itself. In this form of it we have four Lists, three in MSS. and 
one printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, fol. ila, on Gen. 32 15; 
(II) Add. 15,251, fol. 966, on Numb. 23 1; (III) Add. 21,160, 
foL 2286, on the same passage and (IV) the printed Massorah on 
Gen. 32 15. We have also the following six Lists which catalogue 
the exceptional orthography in the Prophets and Hagiographa: 
(I) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 290a, on Ps. 29 1; (II) Add. 15,251, 
fol. 3636, on Ps. 89 7; (III) Vienna Codex No. 35 on I Chron. 
29 21; (IV) the printed Massorah on Ps. 29 1; (V) the same on 
Ps. 89 7 and (VI) the same on Job 41 17. 

« For the defeelivet comp. Exod. 15 11; 25 6; 26 14; 29 1, .'J; 85 7, 2.3; 
M 19; S9 34; Levit. 23 18; Numb. 7 17, Z:% 29, 35, 41, 47, 63, 69, 66, 71, 77, 
88, 87, 88; 23 29; 29 13, 14, 17, 18, 20, 21, 23, 24, 26, 27, 29, 30, 82, 33. 

) For the twenty plme* gee 1 Sam. 15 22; 2 Kings 3 4; Isa. t 11; 
S4 «; Jerem. 51 40; Ezek. 84 17; 39 18; 40 14, 38, 49; 41 1; 45 23; Micah 6 7; 
PH. C6 16; 114 4, 6; Ezra 8 36; 1 Chron. 15 26; 2 Chron. 17 11; 29 62. It is 
to be remarked that though recensions § 3ti3a and § SG'Sh omit. Ezek. 40 10 
from the defectives it is not only included in § 363 c, but is '^ven in § 370 
u one of die two instances where it is without the second Yod. I have, therefore, 
ezdnded it from the number of plenes. 



rr - § 370. 

Dy^K t» ttcice loritten d^'K without the second Yod in the 
Prophets. This Rubric, which does not occur in the printed 
Massorah, is from Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 1926, on Ezek, 40 10. 
In the ancient Codex Orient. 4445 this Rubric occurs twice, 
once foL 91o, on Levit. 8 2, and once fol. I43a, on Numb. 23 1. 
Here it is in both instances connected with the catalogue of 
the four plene passages in the Pentateuch and records all the 
three instances in which dS'm is without the second Yod. 

H-W = § 371. 

U?K3 among the gods, occurs ttoice once plene and once defective. 
That is in Exod. 15 11 it is without the Yod. Of this Rubric which 
does not occur in the printed Massorah, I collated two Lists: 
(I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 143a, on Isa. 57 5 which I have 
printed and (II) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 27a, on the same 
passage. These two expressions form part of the alphabetical 
List of words which respectively occur twice in two different 



> Comp. The Mattorah, letter S, § 428, Vol. II, p. 217 etc. 

3Tr = § 372. 

D V^l <*"<^ rauM, occurs seven times [four are] plene. That is 
with the prefix Vav and preceding the numeral to distinguish 
it from the instances where it is preceded by the numeral 
and is without the Vav (comp. 2 Chron. 29 21 with 1 Chron. 
15 26). Of this Rubric I collated seven Lists, six in MSS. 
and one printed: (I) Harley 5710-11, VoL II, fol. 157a, on 
2 Chron. 13 9 which I have printed; (II) the same MS., Vol. II, 
foL 1666, on 2 Chron. 29 21; (III) Orient 4445, fol. 71 a, on 
Exod- 29 1; (IV) Add. 15,251, fol. 78a, on Levit 23 18; (V) the 
same MS., fol. 342a, on 2 Chron. 29 21; (VI) Add. 21,160, 
foL\118a, on Exod. 29 1 and (VII) the printed Massorah on 
Gen. S2 ifi. < 



rrr = § 373. 

nl^'XS like hinds, occurs three times. Of this Rubric I 
collated three Lists, two in MSS. and one printed: (I) Arund. 
Orient 16, fol. 3146, on Habak. 3 19, which I have printed; (II) 
Add. 15,251, fol. 306a, on the same passage and (III) the printed 
Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 319. 

TrW = § 374. 

rii7^K3 by the hinds of, occurs twice and is plene. This Rubric, 
which does not occur in the printed Massorah, is from Add. 15,250, 
fol. 372a, on Cant 3 5. 

iTrr - § 875. 
|l7'K Ajahn, occurs nine times in the whole Scriptures. That 
is without and with the prefixes, since it is in two instances 
]h^ (Judg. 1 35; 12 12) and in one passage ji't'ki (Josh. 19 42). 
The word 'Br^a is as usual omitted in the heading? Of this Rubric 
I collated eight Lists, seven in MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 
57l0-T-.n, Vol. II, fol. 1346, on 1 Chron. 6 54 which I have printed; 
(II) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 14 a, on Josh. 19 42; (III) the same 
MS., fol. 15a, on Josh. 21 24; (IV) the same MS., fol. 28a, on 
Judg. 12 12; (V) the same MS., fol. 264a, on 2 Chron. 11 10; 
(VI) the same MS., fol. 2746, on .2 Chron. 28 18; (VII) Halle 
Ochlah Ve-Ochlah, Supplement, fol. 1336, and (VIII) the printed 
Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 316. 



rvm - § 376a— c. 



P*?*? 



•K Elon, plain, oak, is four times so written in the Prophets ., 

and throughout the Pentateuch it is likewise so except in two instances .... 
and in the other Scriptures it is fihi^. That is, in .tijke Prophets it 
is in four instances without the Yod after the Aleph, in the 
Pentateuch it has Yod after the Aleph, but is without Vav after 
the Lamed, whilst in the other Scriptures it is entirely plene, 
having both Yod after the Aleph and Fau after the Lamed. The 
difficulty in explaining the import of these three recensions of 
the samo Rubric is due to the fact that the Massorah in fixing 
the orthography of this expression, groups together the proper 
name ^ton with the noun denoting oaff, and that it ignores 
the prefixes. It will, therefore, facilitate the deciphering of the 
several forms of this Rubric if we state that ji^'k in its three 
different spellings without and with the prefixes, occurs altogether 
fourteen times in the Bible. i In the Pentateuch, where it occurs 
five times, it is once ji^'x entirely plene (Gen. 36 2), three times 
pbK without the Yod after the Lamed (Gen. 12 6; 46 14; Numb. 
26 26) and once i^'k with the Yod, but without the Vav (Gen. 26 34). 
In the Prophets, however, where it occurs nine times, it is four 
times jib'K entirely plene (Josh. 1943; Judg. 12 11, 12; 2 Kings 4 9) 
and five times pbn without the Yod (Josh. 19 33;' Judg. °4 li; 
9 6, 37; 1 Sam. 10 3). In the Hagiographa the expression does 
not occur at all. 

Accordingly § 376a of which I collated two Lists: (I) Harley 
5710—11, Vol. I, fol. 1626, on Judg. 9 6 which I have printed 
and (II) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 25 a, on the same passage wrongly 
omit Judg. 4 11. This omission is both against the orthography 
in the text of these very MSS. and against the early editions, as 
may be seen from the notes on this passage in my edition of 
the Hebrew Bible. Moreover the remark s'oa Tia 'iik tei is not 
quite correct, since one of the two instances in the Pentateuch 
is ib-H with Vav defective (Gen. 26 34) and the other is {I^k 
entirely plene. The last line which states that it is entirely plene 
refers to Josh. 19 43; Judg. 12 U, 12; 2 Kings 4 9. 

Rubric 3766 is from Add. 15,250, fol. 137a. The -3 = 2 in the 
heading is a mistake for -t = 4. It simply catalogues the ortho- 
graphy ot pbif in the Prophets and also omits Judg. 4 11. 

Of § 376c I collated two Lists: (I) Oriant 2348, foL 586, 
on Gen. 36 2 which I have printed, and (II) Orient 2849, fol. .486, 
on the same passage. It will be seen that this List, too, omits 
Judg. 4 11. The last line a-oa -fo fi^K -airoi -ras -kw is incorrect, 
since this expression does not occur in the Hagiographa. 
Judg. 9 66 should be 9 6. There are still two recensions of this 
Rubric to be noticed, inasmuch as they show most conclusively 
that the Massorah is not uniform, but that the different Schools 
of Massorites elaborated the same materials differently. The 
first List is from Add. 21,160, fol. 196, on Gen. 36 34 and is as 
follows : 

> Comp. Gen. 12 6; 26 34; S6 2; 46 14; Numb. 86 26; Jo«h. 1» 88, 43; 
Judg. 4 11; 9 6, 37; 12 11, 12; 1 Sam. 10 3; 1 Kings 4 9. 



K — K § 377- 880. 



— 54 



§ 381—386. K — H 






Josh. 19 33 

Jnf'g. 9 6 

4 11 

1 Sam. 10 3 



^^^ p"?'*? n»ip i 



^'ijai 'na pS>« fhn 



It will be seen that this List includes Judg. ill and omits 
Judg. 9*37, which is given in the three recensions which I have 
printed. The omission of either the one or the other instance 
is undoubtedly due to the similarity of the catchwords D'JWJO- 
Judg. 4 11 and D'jsiro = Judg. 9 37. The second List is from the 
printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 315, and is as follows: 
prraa'D 'oni '^a pb'vt 
Gen. 26 34 'ro fr* naw a'ya'w {a wy *m 
Josh. S4 15 "* P'''* '■•* 

Gen. 86 2 '701 'hs ">n2 ffVx inpa m np"? iiry 
Josh. 19 33 1'?"° ""Tiaa ^nn 

Judg. 9 6 a»D pSi* 

37 B'saipo \<h» 

\ Sara. 10 3 ""3" P^» 

-mh '' 'on fana \h» 
•cm on '»n3 f?R ''aai "'tik 'wn 

This Rubric, which is manifestly a recension of the former 
one, is very corrupt as is often the case in Jacob b. Chayim's 
printed Massorah: (1) The catchwords nKtpS'KnK which can only 
refer to Josh. 24 24 or to 1 Chron. 6 54 are incorrect, since the 
reading here is jI'jjk and not \\b^ and these passages are duly 
given in § 375 as exhibiting two of the nine instances where 
the Massoretic text reads jiSjk; (2) from the instances which 
are pS'K entirely plene, are omitted Josh. 19 43; Judg. 13 11, 12; 
2 Kings 4 9; (3) from those where it is fl^K and where the Yod 
alone is absent Judg. 4 11 is omitted and (4) the concluding 
words -cm 'on "ro j'?K "231 'niK twpi are hopelessly corrupt, for not 
only does this expression not occur in the Prophets, but f?K 
entirely defective is not to be found in the whole Bible. 

I'W - § 377. 
Httb^K Elim, ia twice wriUen to wUk Yod after the Aleph. In 
this form with the local He this proper name only occurs twice, 
but it is not quit^ correct as far as the Yod after the Aleph is 
concerned, since this is the orthography pf D^i< without and with 
the prefixes in all the other four passages where it occurs (comp. 
Exod. 16 1, 1; Numb. 33 9, 10) and it is only in the compound 
B'^ -TK? Beer-Elini (Isa. 15 8) that it Is without the Yod after the" 
Aleph. " This Rubric I have found only in the printed Massorah 
on Numb. 33 9. 

n'W - § 378. 
rh'^Vi Eluth, occurs four times in this form. That is without 
and with the prefix it is four times with Fathack under the 
Lamed in contradistinction to ni«?'K Eloth which also occurs four 
time? (1 Kings 9 26; 2 Kings 16 6; 2 Chron. 8 17; 26 2) and 
which according to the primitive orthography was originally 
written n'3'K with Cholem over the Lamed. Of this Rubric I eoUated 
three Lists, two in MSS. and one printed; (I) Orient 2348, 
fol. 134a, on Deut 2 8 which I have printed; (II) Orient 2349, 
foL l24o, on the same passage and (III) the printed Massorah 
Finalis, letter k, § 818. 

t^'VV - § 379. 

fiS'H! hind, occurs three timet in the Scriptures. Of this Rubric 
I collated eight Lists, six in MSS. and two printed: (I) Harley 
6710—11, VoL II, foL 40^ on Jerem. 14 5 which I have printed; 
(II) the same MS., Vol. U, foL 17'Ja, on Ps. 23 l ; (III) the same 
MS., Vol. II, fol. 244a, on Pro v. 6 19; (IV) Arund. Orient 16, 
fol. 156a, on Jerem. 14 5; (V) the same M^., foL 338a, on 
Prov. 5 19; (VI) Add. 15,2M, foL 350</, on Ps. 22 1; (VH) the 
printed Massorah on the same passage and (VIII) the same on 
Prov. 5 19. 

t'V =- § 380. 

ntt''K /error, t» tn four instances defective of Yod in ihisform. 
That is' this noun with and without prefixes, but with suffixes 
is in four passages without the radical Yod. This Rubric I have 
found only in the printed Masstirah on Job 9 34. It is remarkable 
that rw Job 20 26 which is also defective is here omitted. For 



the variations in the orthography of this expression see the 
notes to my edition of the Hebrew Bible. 

K"Dttr = § 381. 
D^P'^Sn is twice plene. This Rubric which I have found in 
the printed Massorah only on Gen. 14 5 mixes up two different 
expressions, viz. d'O'k Em.im the proper name of an ancient people 
and D'B'KS which denotes terror. As the design of this Massorah 
is to fix the presence of the two Yods so as to guard it against 
the instances where it has one Yod only (comp. Deut 2 10, 11) 
irrespective of the signification, the heading ought properly to 
be •w'ja '"jo '3, since in one instance it is n-a'Kn and in the other 
B'O'KSi, but as we have seen, 'ttrba is often omitted. The printed 
Massorah has also another Rubric on this expression which is 
apparently in conflict with this Rubric. On Deut 2 10 it states 
'■jo 'ki 'on pn 'a o'DKn that it occurs twice, that it is here defective 
apd that the other instance is plene. Here however, the Massorah 
is strictly confined to the expression with the prefix He which 
really occurs twice, once with the two Yods or entirely plene 
(Gen. 14 5) and once without the first Yod or defective (Deut 2 10) 
and which this Rubric catalogues. 

a"Dr = § 382. 

TK nothing, occurs twice once with Kametz and once with 
Pathach .... and wherever it has the pausal accent Athnach or Soph- 
PasvJe it is likewise with Pathach [= KametzJ. This Rubric which only 
occurs in Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, foL 264a, on Eccl.3 19, 1 cannot 
explain. From the last line it manifestly refers to the exceptional 
vowel-point Kanietz in pK without its having the pausal accent 
Athnach or Soph-Pasuk. With this, however, neither the heading 
nor the expression -no after the first catchword agrees, and 
indeed there is no second instance in the present Massoretic 
text where the adverb in question has Kanietz without the pausal 
accent. Even if we took it to refer to the accent it would not 
explain the difficulty, since ^,^a^ which occurs five times has 
Tipcha in two passages (ptrDKi Gen. 30 l; 2 Kings 2 10) and 
Sakeph'Gadolin three (i:K-D»r Exod. 32 32; Judg. 9 15, 20), whereas 
the companion accent in Eccl. 3 19 is I'i with Sakeph-Katoa. 
I must, therefore, leave the explanation of this Rubric to other 
Massoretic experts. 

rer - § 383. 

r8 V^ ^^' "<*• '^^'^ verses respectively begin with no and thii 
adverb is repeated in thh middle of the verse. That is, the adverb 
is repeated without the prefix Vav. Of this Rubric, which does 
not occur in the printed Massorah, I collated two Lists: (I) Harley 
6710—11 on Levit 13 31 which I have printed and (II) the 
Paris Ochlah Ve-Ochlah § 327. 

Vor - § 384. 

TK TK no, no. Sixteen verses in which this adverb occurs twice 
in the middle of the verse. This distinguishes this Rubric from the 
former one where the first pK begins the verse. Of this Rubric 
I collated ten Lists, seven in MSS. and three printed: (I) Harley 
5710—11, Vol. I, fol. 71a, on Levit. 13 31 which I have printed; 
(II) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 152 a, on Jerem. 8 19; (III) the same 
MS,, fol. 2866, on Ps. 14 1; (IV) the same MS., foL 2965, on 
Ps 63 2; (V) the same MS., fol. 8246, on Job 9 10; (VI) the 
same MS., foL 3466, on Prov. 25 28; (VII) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah, 
Supplement, foL 134a; (VIII) Paris Ochlah Ve-Ochlah § 320; 
(IX) the printed Massorah on Isa. 40 16 and (X) the same on 
Jerem. 8 19. 

It is remarkable that List I which I have printed omits 
Levit 13 31, the very passage on which this Massorah is recorded 
and wrongly states in the heading that there are seventeen such 
instances. But r^ = 17 is manifestly a clerical error for r- = 16. The 
last Une of this Rubric catalogues the two instances which form 
a separate Rubric and constitute § 883. List II omits Ps. 53 4; 
List VI omits Ps. 14 3; List VH omits Jerem. 8 22, and Pb. 14 1, 
and List IX omits n-am = Ps. 63 2. 

iTDt^ =- § 385. 

Y^ TK TK no, no, no. In one verse this adverb occurs thre^ 

times. Of this Rubric, which does not occur in the printed 

Massorah, I collated two Lists: (I) Arund. Orient 16, foL 98a, 

on 1 Kings 18 26 and (II) the Paris Ochlah Ve-Ochlah § 880. 

rev - § 886. 

1^ 1^ r^ "**' ^°' "^^ ""• ^^ *^"* *'*^*' **^ a^eerb occurs 
three U^, ^ ji'tt and second time U it without the pr^ Ym onJ 



K - K § 887- 



55 — 



§ 891— 89a. H — II 



7ia$ it the thli-d time. Of this Rubric, which does not occur in the 
printed Massorah, I collated three Lists: (I) Arund. Orient. 16, 
£oL Vila, on Isa. 42 22 which I have printed; (II) the same MS., 
foL 146&, on Isa. 63 6 and (III) Paris Ochlah Ve-Ochlah § 320. 

reer - § 387. 

n<1 1^ no, and no. In ten verses this adverb occurs first in 
the middle of the verse without the jrrefix Vav (pK) and then again 

with it (pKi) and wherever it begins a verse it is lilcewise so. 

Of this Rubric I collated five Lists, three in MSS. and two 
printed: (I) Orient 2349, fol. 766, on Exod. 32 18 which I have 
printed; (II) Orient 2343, fol. 86&, on the same passage; (HI) 
Orient 4445, fol. 75fl, on the same passage; (IV) Paris Ochlah 
Ve-Ochlah § 32.^ and (V) the printed Massorah on Exod. 32 18. 
As is often the c&se, the printed Massorah is incorrect It leaves 
ont 2 Sam. 7 22 and erroneously gives as the ninth instance 
arm 'onp ni'?nj rwr = Job 5 9 where it is pK p»r which forms one 
of the passages in § 390. The remark at the end of this Rubric 
that it exclusively refers to the passages where the two adverbs 
occur in the middle of the verse and that in the passages where 
P9 begins a verse and is followed by this adverb it is also pKi is 
important since there are no fewer than six such instances; 
comp. Isa. 5 27; 61 18; 69 4; Ps. 19 4; 86 8; Job 34 22. The 
two exceptional instances here referred to constitute § 883. 

n«D» = § 388a. 
TK^ Five words respectively occur only once preceded by pK not. 
Tkat is, with this negative without the prefix Vav; in all other 
Mssages where words are combined with this negative it has 
not only the prefix Vav, but they occur more than once in this 
combination. Hence this Rubric excludes those words which 
respectively occur twice, once, with pK and once only with p»r. 
These are registered in the next Rubric. This Rubric I have 
only found in the printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 321, and 
as usual it is incorrect, since it includes nxh pK, as rwh occurs once 
only with pir l Sam. 26 12 and, therefore, belongs to the List 
of words which severally occur twice, once combined with pK and 
once with pjti. Accordingly there are four such instances only and 
the heading of this Rubric ought properly to be 'Trr n pK. The 
position of the. fifth instance which is contrary t9 the order of 
the booksj confirms the view that.it is an addition by a later 
Nakdan who mistook the import of this Massorah and altered 
the number in the heading. 

n*DK^ = § 8886. 
rKI pK not, and not. Thirteen words are severally preceded 
once by pK and once by pKi. This Rubric I have only found in 
the printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 324 and it is as usual 
corrupt: (l) -oiy pKi precedes -cr jit; (2) a^ pKi precedes a*? pn 
though the catchwords are correct; (3) imbw biaamrnjian rir is 
hopelessly confused, roian pn is omitted though the catchword is 
given, whilst roian pKi has no catchword, and (4) Dn"? pK l Kings 22 17 
ought to be in^pK 2 Chron. 18 IG. With the exception of the 
last mistake I corrected the text Since I printed it I found this 
Rubric fti the ancient Codex Orient 4445, fol. 29 a, on Gen. 39 23. 
In this early form the same thirteen pairs are given, biltt without 
any heading, without catchwords and without fixing the number 
<rf the pairs. Though the .mistakes in the order which areiound 
in the printed Massorah do not occur in this List, yet anb is 
here too a clerical' error for fh, and the pair ra^ pK Expd. 22 9 
«nd rajh pici 1 Sam. 26 1 2 which are wanted in Jacob b. Chayim's 
Rubric are omitted. 

C'DttT = § 389. 

njn is there notf occurs three times. This Rubric, which does 
not occur in the printed Massorah, and which is from Add. 15,250, 
foL 1406, on Judg. 14 8 is incorrect This interrogative adverb 
occurs five times, and 2 Kings 3 il; Jerem. 49 7 are omitted. 

i'Vf - § 390. 
rK rKl and not, no*. Six verses wherein p»n with the prefix 
Vav occurs first and then p|t without this prefix. As the reverse is 
.normally the case {vide supra, § 387) the Massorah safeguards 
the exceptional instances. Of this Rubric I collated five Lists, 
three in MSS. and two printed: (I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 1386, 
on Isa. 46 5 which I have printed; (II) the same MS., fol. 3196, on 
Ps. 142 5; (III) Orient 4445, foL 76a, on Exod. 32 18 where it 
is contrasted with the normal passages in § 387; (IV) Paris 
Oehlah Ve-Ochlah § 333 and (V) the printed Massorah on 
J«dg. 18 28. In my printed text Judg. 8 7 should be 18 7. 



X'sr = § 391. 

|*KT TK TKI and not, not and not. In one verse where this 
adverb occurs tliree times it is first with the prefix Vav, , then 
without it and then again with it This Rubric, which does not 
occur in the printed Massorah, is from Arund. Orient 16, fol. 93 a, 
on 1 Kings 18 26. 

a'SfSr = § 392. 

TKI TKI and not, and not. ThiHeen verses in which pKi with 
the prefix Vav occurs twice. Of this Rubric I collated eight Lists, 
six in MSS. and two printed: (I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 6o6, on 
1 Sam, 22 8 which I have printed; (II) the same MS., fol. 98a, on 
1 Kings 18 26; (III) the ^ame MS., fol. 137a, on Isa. 42 22; 
(IV) the same MS, fol. 1456, on Isa. 63 5; (V) Add. 15,251, 
fol. 1966, on 1 Kings 18 26; (VI) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah, 
Supplement fol. 131 «; (VII) Paris Ochlah Ve-Ochlah § 328 and 
(VIII) the printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 327. 

r^fr = § 393. 
TK TKI TKI and not, and not, not. In one verse where this 
negative occurs three times it is with the prefix Vav the first 
and second time and without it the third time. Of this Rubric, 
which does not occur in the printed Massorah, I collated two 
Lists: (I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 98a, on 1 Kings 18 26 which 
I have printed and (II) Paris Ochlah Ve-Ochlah § 331. 

TTff = § 394. 
r^l ]^K1 pKV and not, and not, and not. Three verses in 
which this negative with the prefix Vav occurs three times. Of 
this Rubric I collated eight Lists, six in MSS. and two printed: 

(I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 506, on 1 Sam. 22 « which I have printed; 

(II) the same MS., fol. 54a, on 1 Sam. 26 12; (III) the same MS., 
fol. 93o, on 1 Kings 18 29; (IV) Harley .5710—11, Vol. I, fol. 193a, 
on 1 Sam. 26 12; (V) the same MS., Vol. I, fol. 233a, on 
1 Kings 18 29; (VI) the same MS., Vol. II; fol. 120a, on' Hag. 1 6; 
(VII) Paris Ochlah Ve-Ochlah § 332 and (VUI) the printed 
Massorah on i Sam. 26 12. 

n've' - § 395. 

I"^"] and not. Eight toords respectively occur only once preceded 
by p>r. That is, with this negative with the prefix Vav; in all 
other passages where they occur and are preceded by this 
negative it is pK without the prefix Vav. This MassQrah, therefore, 
differs from § 388 and registers the reverse instances of those 
catalogued in § 387. This Rubric I have only found in the 
printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 322, and as usual it is incorrect 
"b pKi which is unique (Ps. 142 5) and which in all other passages 
is combined with pit (comp. 1 Sam. 28 1 ; 2 Sam. 18 18; 21 4; 
Isa. 27 4; Mai. 1 10; Eccl. 12 l) is omitted, whilst nnilin (Hos. 4 l) 
is inserted, though n?n pK without the prefix Vav does not occur. 

VXr = § 396. 

TKI. and not. Sixteen words are severally always preceded by 
pio and never by pK. The design of this Rubric is to tabulate those 
words only which respectively occur more than once in combination 
with this negative with the prefix Vav, but never with this 
negative withct^t the Vav. This is evident from the fact that 
there are no fewer than seventy-one words which severally occur 
once preceded by p»<i, and though they are never in combination 
with pK they are excluded from this Rubric. 

This Rubric I have only found in the printed Massorah 
Finalis, letter k, § 331, and as usual it is corrupt: (1) It states 
in the heading that there are seventeen (v) such instances and 
only enumerates sixteen; (2) it includes bp pKi contrary to the 
definition in the heading, since b^p pK occurs in Exod. 33 1»; 
(3) it omits five instances which belong to it, viz. bijh \^ Deut 
28 32; Neh. 6 5; p?;?? p>r Isa. 13 14; Jerem. 49 5; Nah. 3 18; 
nnbpKi Isa. 23 22; Jerem. 13 19; nix p»r l Sam. 2 2; Isa. 44 8, 
and nxi? pKi Isa. 2 7, 7; Nah. 2 10; 3 4, 9 which never occur in 
combination with ^ and (4) it includes three instances which 
do not belong to this Rubric, viz. lenja n«i Jerem. 9 21; .-9x9 iT. 
Hos. 3 4, and laisa pw Jerem. 14 16 which severally occur once 
only and hence are against the import of this Massorah. 
Accordingly if the four incorrect instances are cancelled and 
the five right passages are substituted, we obtain sixtaen such 
combinations which undoubtedly was stated in the original 
heading and before an ignorant scribe who found that this 
Rubric wanted five instances inserted passages which are in 
conflict with the import of this Massorah. 



K — K § 397—405. 



56 



406—413. >< — K 



?'3f» = § 397. 

tSTK TKI and no man, occurs seven times. That is to distinguish 
it from ipn< j-k without the prefix Vav which occurs six times 
(comp. Gen. 31 50; Exod. 2 12; Isa. 69 16; 63 3; Jerem. 8 6; 
12 11). Of this Rubric I collated six Lists, four in MSS. and two 
printed: (I) Harley 5710 — 11, Vol.1, fol. 170o, which Ihave printed; 
(II) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 326, on the same passage; (III) the 
same MS., fol. 140&, on Isa. 50 '2; (IV) Add. 21,160, fol. 4i5, on 
Gen. 39 1 1 ; (V) the printed Massorah on the same passage and 
(VI) the printed Massorah Finalis, letter^, § 356, which omits 
Isa. 57 1. In the heading i is a misprint for 't in the Rubric 
which I have printed. 

n'Tt^D - § 398. 

7S7 TKI and there is no power, occurs twice. This Rubric, 
which does not occur in the printed Massorah, is from Add. 15,251, 
fol. 423 a, on Neh. 5 5. 

CD'Xr = § 399. 

D\*l7S TKI and no God, occurs three times. That is, with the 
Vav prefix before the negative to distinguish it from the other 
nine passages where this combination occurs and where the 
negative is without the prefix Vav (comp. 2 Kings 1 3, 6, 16; 
5 16; Isa. 44 6; 45 5; Ps. 10 4; 14 1; 53 2). Of this Rubric I 
collated six Lists, five in MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 
5710-11, Vol.1, fol. ia4o, on Deut. 32 39 which I have printed; 
(II) the same MS., Vol. n, fol. 14 16, on 1 Chron. 17 20; (III) 
Arund. Orient. Ifi, fol. 6 16, on 2 Sam. 7 22; (IV) Add. 15,251, 
foL 1237>, on Deut. 32 39; (V) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah I, § 153, 
and (VI) the printed Massorah Finalis, letter m, § 44G. 

'fl = § 400. 
DHS TKI and not in them, occurs itcice. In the other seven 
passages where this combination occurs, the negative is without 
the prefix Vav (comp. l Sam. 30 4; Jerem. 5 13; Ezek. 37 8; 
Prov. 8 8; Cant. 4 2; 6 6; Dan. 1 4). Of this Rubric I collated 
two Lists: (I) Add. 15,451, fol. 298o, on Jerem. 42 2 which I have 
printed and (II) the printed Massorah on Jerem. 44 2. 

K"n = § 401. 
7S 1^1 and not all or and nothing at all, occurs tvnce in this 
combination in the Scriptures. In the other two instances where it 
occurs, the negative is without the prefix Vav (comp. Numb. 11 6 ; 
2 Sam. 12 3). Of this Rubric, which does not occur in the printed 
Massorah, I collated two Lists: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 263 or, 
on Eccl. 1 9 and (II) Add. 21,160, fol. 302a, on the same passage. 

2'n *. § 402. 

D^D2) I^KI and no covering, occurs twice. This is one of the 
expressions which severally are combined with pxi and never 
with j'K (vide supra, § 396). The Rubric, which does not occur in 
the printed Massorah, is from Add. 15,251, fol. 381 6, on Job 26 6. 

yn = § 403. 
w I^KI and not to Mm, occurs tvnce. That is to distinguish it 
from the twenty-one instances where this combination occurs 
and where the negative is without the prefix Vav (comp. Exod. 
22 1, 2; Levit 11 10, 12; Numb. 27 4, 8, 9, 10; 35 27; Deut. 12 12; 
14 10, 27, 29; 26 5; Judg. 11 34; Isa. 8 20; 55 1; Jerem. 49 1; 
Hos. 8 7; Amos 3 4; Eccl. 4 8). This Rubric I have only found 
in the printed Massorah on Dan. 9 26. 

m = § 404. 
' rKI and not for us, occurs twice. In the third passage 
where this combination occurs, the negative is without the prefix 
V»v (comp, 2 Sam. 20 1). This Rubric, which does not occur in 
the printed Massorah, is from Arund. Orient 16, fol. 7 it, on 
2 Sam. 21 4. 

n'n = § 405. 

Dn7 1"^ and not to them, occurs three times in this combination 
in the Sci'iptures. In the other eleven passages where this 
cbmbination occurs, the negative is without the prefix Vav (comp. 
Levit 25 31; Numb. 27 17; Judg. 18 7, 28; 1 Kings 22 17; 
Jerem. 8 17; 39 10; Ezek. 88 11; Lament 4 4; EccL 9 6; 
2 Chron. 35 15). Of this Rubric I collated five Lists, four in MSS. 
arid one printed: (I) Harley 6710— 11, Vol. II, fol. 636, on 
Jerem. 46 23 which I have printed; (II) Add. 15,251, fol. 3996, on 
EooL 1 1; (III) Add. 21,160, fol. 3036, on the same passage; 



^] 



(IV) Vienna Codex No. 35 on the same passage and ,(V) the 
printed Massorah on Jerem. 46 23. 

rn = § 406. 

*1Bptt y^*] and no number, occurs four times. In the other 
eleven passages where this combination occurs the negative is 
without the prefix Vav (comp. Gen. 41 49; Judg. 6 5; 7 12; 
Jerem. 2 32; Ps. 40 13; 147 5; Job 6 9; 9 10; 21 33; Cant 6 8; 
1 Chron. 22 16). Of this Rubric I collated seven Lists, five in 
MSS. and two printed: (I) Harley 5710-11, Vol. II, foL 107 6, on 
Joel 1 6 which I have printed; (H) the same MS., Vol. II, fol. 2076, 
on Ps. 105 34; (III) Add. 15,251, foL 2976, on Joel 1 6; (IV) 
Vienna Codex No. 35 on Pa 104 25; (V) the same Codex on 
Ps. 105 34; (VI) the printed Massorah on Joel 1 6 and (VII) the 
same on Ps. 105 34. 

?'n = § 407. 

Tip TKI and no more, occurs twice . . . and throughout Isaiah it 
is likewise so. The design of this Rubric is twofold. It records 
the fact that this combination is to be found twice only in the 
Scriptures outside Isaiah, and to safeguard it against the six 
instances in the Bible where this combination occurs without 
the prefix Vav (comp, Deut 4 35, 39; 1 Kings 8 60; 2 Kings 4 6; 
Jerem. 48 2; Ps. 74 9). The remark at the end of this Rubric 
that it occurs likewise throughout Isaiah is due to the artificial 
construction of this Massorah and must not be understood that 
the instances in question are to be found in sundry parts of 
this book. This combination, which occurs seven times in Isaiah, 
is restricted to the narrow limit of two chapters (comp. 45 5, 
6, 14, 18, 21, 22; 46 9). This Rubric only occurs in the printed 
Massorah Finalis, letter r, § 66. 

n"n = § 408. 

"I?.^ r^l ""'^ '*" helper, occurs six times in the Scriptures. That 
is with the prefix FaU;, the only other instance where this 
combination occurs it is without the prefix (comp. Ps. 22 12). 
Of this Rubric I collated four Lists, three in MSS. and one 
printed; (I) Harley 5710—11, fol. 268rt, on Lament 1 7 which 
I have printed: (II) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 1086, on 2 Kings 14 26; 
(in) Add. 15,251, fol. 402a, on Lament 1 7 and (IV) the printed 
Massorah on 2 Kings 14 26. 

Cn = § 409. 
nilP pKI and none ansvjered, occurs five times. As this com- 
bination does not occur without the prefix Vav it is part of 
§ 396 which catalogues the words which are always preceded 
by I'Ki and never by pn. This Rubric I have only found in the 
printed Massorah Finalis, letter v, § 288. 

'"n = § 410. 

niSCp pKI and no end, occurs five times in this comhination in 
the Scriptures. As it never occurs without the prefix Vav, this 
combination should be part of § 396 which enumerates the words 
which are always preceded by pKi and never by j"k. Of this Rubric 
I collated three List two in MSS. and one printed:, (I) Harley 
5710— 11, Vol. n, fol. 1176, on Nah. 2 10 which I have printed; 

(II) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 213 a, on the same passage and 

(III) the printed Massorah on, Isa. 2 7. 

N'Tl = § 411. 
Dl^y pKI and no peace, occurs five times in fJie Scriptures. 
In the other six passages where this combination occurs the 
negative has the prefix Vav (corap. Isa. 48 22 ; 57 2 1 ; Jerem. 12 1 2 ; 
Zech. 8 10; Ps. 38 4; 2 Chron. 15 5). Of this Rubric I collated 
five Lists, four in MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, 
Vol. II, fol. 356, on Jerem. 6 14 which I have printed; (II) Arund. 
Orient 16, fol, 151 a, on the same passage; (HI) the same MS., 
fol. 1526, on Jerem. 8 11; (IV) the same MS., fol. 166a, on 
Jerem. 30 5 and (V) the printed Massorah on Jerem. 8 11. 

y^D = § 412. 
to no, occurs eight times. Of this Rubric I collated three 
Lists, two in MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, VoL II, 
fol. 144a, on 1 Chron, 22 4 which I have printed; (II) Halle Ochlah 
Ve-Ochlah, Supplement, foL 134a, and (III) the printed Massorah 
Finalis, letter m, § 332. 

yn = § 413. 

■'Si^KI and I am not, occurs three times. In the other nine 
passages where this adverb with the suffix first person singular 



n?'? 



K — K § 414—417. 



— 57 



418 — 424. K 



occurs it is without the prefix Vav (comp. Exod. 5 10; Deut. 1 42; 
i 22; Isa. 1 15; Jerem. 7 16; 11 14; 12 12, 12; 37 14). The 
Massorah, therefore, safeguards the exceptions. Of this Rubric 

1 collated three Lists, two in MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 
5710—11, Vol. 185a, on Ps. 39 14 which I have printed; (II) Arund. 
Orient 16, foL 324a, on Job 7 21 and (III) the printed Massorah 
on the same passage. 

TT) = § 414. 

133^81 and he is not, occurs twelve times. As this negative with 
the suffix third person singular occurs no fewer than thirty-six times 
without the prefix Vav,^ the Massorah here safeguards the instances 
in which it is with the prefix. Of this Rubric I collated ten 
Lists, nine in MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 5710 — ii, Vol. I, 
fol. 46, on Gen. 5 24 which I have priJited; (II) the same MS., Vol. II, 
foL 66a, on Jerem. 50 20; (III) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 126 a, on 
Isa. 19 7; (IV) the same MS., fol. 3226, on Job 3 21; (V) the 
same MS., fol. 329 a, on Job 23 8; (VI) the same MS., fol. 3446, 
on Prov. 23 6; (VII) Add. 15,'<J51, fol. 2226, on Isa. 19 7; 
(Vm) Add. 21,160, fol. 327a, on Job 23 8; (IX) Halle Ochlah 
Ve-Ochlah, Supplement, fol. 1316, and (X) the printed Massorah 
on Job 27 19. List I which I have printed omits Ps. 103 16 though 
it distinctly states in the heading that it occurs twelve times. 
List II, however, which is in the same MS. correctly gives all 
tiie twelve instances and this is confirmed by all the other Lists 
of this Rubric. 

" Comp. Gen. SO 33; 31 2, 6; 87 30; S9 9; 42 13, 32, 36, 36; 44 26, 30, 34; 
Ezod. S 2; Levit 11 4; 13 34; Deut 21 18, 20; 29 14; Judg. 3 26; 1 Sam. 11 7; 

2 Sun. S 22; 1 Kings 20 40; Isa. 17 14; Jerem. 31 16; 38 4; 44 16; Ps. 37 36; 
Job g 22; Eccl. 1 7; 6 11; 8 7, 13, 16; 9 2; Esther 5 13; 2 Chron. 18 7. 

ren = § 415. 

rKD^ and from xohence, occuva five times. Of this Rubric I 
collated four Lists, three in MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 
6710—11, Vol. I, fol. 1436, on Josh. 9 8 which I have printed; (II) 
Arund. Orient I6, fol. 7a, on the same passage; (III) the same 
MS., foL 1146, on 2 Kings 20 14 and (IV) the printed Massorah 
on Josh. 9 8. 

rxn = § 416. 

nBKH the Ephah, is twice defective. This expression which 
occurs fifteen times is defective in these two instances only. 
Hence the Massorah here safeguards the abnormal orthography. 
Of this Rubric I collated five Lists, four in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Add. 21,160, fol. 1426, on Levit 6 U; (II) Vienna 
Codex No. 35 on the same passage; (III) the same Codex on 
Levit 6 13; (IV) Cambridge Add. 465 on Levit 5 11 and (V) the 
printed Massorah on the same passage. 

rn = § 417. 

.nfe*K where, what or how, is ten times so written. That is, 
according to the Massorah with He at the end. Of this Rubric 

1 collated sixteen Lists, thirteen in MSS. and three printed: 
(I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, fol. 1876, on l Sam. 19 22 which I 
have printed; (II) the same MS., Vol. II, fol. 2596, on Ruth 2 19; 
(HI) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 246, on Judg. 8 18; (IV) the same 
MS., foL 486, on 1 Sara. 19 22; (V) the same MS., fol. 62a, on 

2 Sam. 9 4; (VI) the same MS., fol. 171 6, on Jerem. 36 19; 
(VH) the same MS., fol. 28 3 o, on Ruth 2 19; (VIII) the same 
MS., fol. 334a, on Job 38 4; (IX) Add. 15,251, fol. 326, on Gen. 
17 16; (X) the same MS., fol. 1626, on 1 Sam. 19 22; (XI) the 
same MS., fol. I73a, on 2 Sam. 9 4; (XII) Add. 21,160, fol. 38a, 
on Gen. 37 1 6 ; (XIII) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah, Supplement, fol. 1 306; 
(XIV) the printed Massorah on Gen. 37 16; (XV) the same on 
2 Sam. 9 4 and (XVI) the same on Job 38 4. 

To understand this Rubric both in its simple form and in 
its developments which some of the Lists disclose, it is necessary 
to remark that later Massorites grouped together nfv: the interro- 
gative and KICK the adverb with its defective spelling ibk. Hence 
the sixteen Lists exhibit two recensions of this Massorah. Lists I, 
II, VII, XIII and XV give the original recension which simply 
catalogues the ten passages where the interrogative nfc-H occurs, 
whilst Lists III, IV, V, VI, VIII, IX, XI and XIV not only append 
to it the four passages in which the adverb ibk is defective and 
which in some MSS. rightly form a separate Rubric {vide infra, 
§ 1033), but add that in all the other parts of the Scriptures it 
is spelled micm with an Al^iph at the end. 

In Jacob b. Chayim's Massorah List XVI, only three passages 
are given where it is lex; Job 34 25 is omitted though the 
heading correctly states that there are four such instances. 



n-'n = § 418. 

tS^K a man, begins a verse twelve times in the Scriptures, 
twice in Job and ten times in the Pentateuch. To understand this 
Rubric, which I have found in the printed Massorah only on 
Job 1 1, it is necessary to remark that where this expression 
begins a verse it has in the majority of cases the prefix Vav. In 
the Pentateuch, where it occurs thirty -nine times, it is with Vav in 
twenty-nine instances* and in ten only is it without this prefix. 
Hence the Massorah safeguards the minority. Joshua, Isaiah, 
Ecclesiastes and Esther wherein it severally occurs once at the 
beginning of a verse, as well as the Psalter in which it occurs twice 
and Proverbs where it occurs eleven times at the beginning of a 
verse, require no safeguarding since b^^ki nevei* begins a verse 
in these books. In Job, however, where it occurs five times, it is 
twice only without the prefix and three times with it Hence 
the minority is recorded. The heading of this Rubric in my 
edition should be "jts"! ai"«ai rnina pi~i a" w^k as it is in the editio 
princeps. The two instances in Job are given in a separate Rubric 
in Arund. Orient 16, fol. 335 6, on Job 41 9. 

» Comp. C'Ki at the beginning a verse in Exod. S4 3; Levit IS 29, 88, 40; 
15 6, 16; 17 10, 13; 19 20; 20 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 20, 21, 27; 23 14,21; 
24 17, 19; 25 2G, 29; 27 14; Numb. 6 10; 19 20. The instances in which B'*!* 
begins a verse apart from the Pentateuch and Job are Josh. 23 10; Isa. 4t C; 
Jerem. 9 3; Ps. 92 7; 140 12; Prov. 15 18; 16 27, 28, 2»; 18 24; 21 17; 28 20; 
29 1, H, 9, 22; Eccl. 6 2; Esther 2 5. 

C3"'n - § 419. 

tr^K is in two instances in Jthe Pentateuch rendered by -qj. This 
Rubric, which is from Cambridge' Add. 1174, on Gen. 13 16 I 
cannot explain. 

yn = § 420. 

ttTS a man. Five loords respectively occur twice followed by vhft 
a man. Of this Rubric I collated four Lists, one in MSS. and 
three printed: (I) HaUe Ochlah Oe-Ochlah II, § 31, which I have 
printed; (II) Paris Ochlah Ve-Ochlah, § 243; (HI) the printed 
Massorah on Exod. 34 3 and (IV) the printed Massorah Finalis, 
letter », § 344. The printed Massorah as usual is corrupt and 
misleading. List III states in the heading that there are six such 
pairs and enumerates four and a half. It omits the fellow to the 
second pair, viz. b^^^ d31 Jerem. 26 20 and places the fellow of 
the first pair, viz. t^K "^b^ Ruth 1 I after the half of the second 
pair. List IV contains three additional pairs by a later Massorite 
which are against the scope of this Rubric. The first pair are 
tf'K B>'tr which occurs twice (Levit 17 10, 13), but as xhK] is the 
same as n^vt it cannot properly be reckoned among the words 
which are followed by v^tfu The second pair which consist of 
B?'»r/i^i Prov. 22 24 and t^'itrrnKi Deut 22 24 cannot be admitted 
as a proper pair, since the fellow is sJ-'Kn with the article, whilst 
the third pair which consist of i^jrnw Deut 20 6, 7 is against 
the import of this Rubric, the design of which is to tabulate t^ 
with the article. Lists I and II, therefore, exhibit the original 
and correct form of this Massorah. 

H'jn = § 421. 

VHi^ tr^K a man's brothei', occurs times and once ii it 

with the prefix Vav. This Rubric I have found in the printed 
Massorah only, on Gen. 9 5. 

TDn - § 422. 

VHK3 tS^^K a man as his brother [or one as the other], occurs 
tioice. Of this Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, 
I collated two Lists: (I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 198ct, on Ezek. 47 14 
which I have printed and (II) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 102 o, 
on the same passage. 

T2T\ = § 423. 

tT'^KI tS^^K a man and a man, occurs twice. That is, b>"K followed 
by this expression with the prefix Vav. In 2 Sam. 10 6 the 
Authorised Version takes w'ki as part of a proper name, L a 
Ish fob, whilst the Revised Version renders it and the man of 2'o6. 
Of this Rubric I collated two Lists: (I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. «26, 
on 2 Sam. 10 6 which I have printed and (II) the printed 
Massorah on the same passage. 

TDH = § 424. 

D^ JT'K ty^S a man of God, occurs six times in this comhination 
in the Scriptures [the mnemonic sign for these six passages is] 
and an honourable man came from Judah and he the holy one answered 



K "~ K § «5a— 430. 



58 



I 4$1— 484. M 



truthfuUy. As normally or.^ has tho article in this combination, 
which occurs no fewer than sixty-one times, ^ the Massorah here 
safeguards the six abnormal passages. The necessity for safe- 
guarding these abnormal passages is due to the variations yrhich 
obtained in the different Codices as will be seen from the notes 
on 1 Sam. 2 27; 1 Kings 13 14 &c. in my edition of the Bible. 
The sign is as usual made up of six words which severally occur 
in the respective six passages where this phrase is to be found. 
The unusual part about it is that it is in Hebrew. These signs 
as a rule are in Chaldee. Of this Rubric I collated six Lists, five 
in MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 6710-11, VoL I, fol. 174a, 
on 1 Sam. 2 27 which I have printed; (H) Arund. Orient 16, 
foL 88o, on 1 Kings 18 i ; (HI) Add. 15,251, foL Uba, on 1 Sam.9(5; 
(IV) the same MS., foL 1935, on 1 Kings 13 i; (V) Halle 
Ochlah VeOchlah I, § 163, and (VI) the printed Massorah 
Finab's, letter k, § :^38. 

> Comp. 0<ih»n B'«M Deat M 1; Josh 14 ft; Judg IS 6, S; 1 Sam. 9 10; 
1 King* It 22; IS 4,^ 6, 6, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 14, 14, 21, 26, 29, 31; 17 l8; 80 28; 
t Kingi 19, II, 1?, 13; 4 16, 21, 22, 2a, 27, 27, 40; S 8, 14, 16, 20; 6 6, 9, 
10, 16; 7 2, 17, 18, 19; 8 2, 4, 7, 8, 11 ; IS 19; S3 16, 17; Jerem. S6 4; Ps. M 1; 
lira S 2; Neb. 12 24, M; 1 Chron. 2S 14; 2 Chron. 8 14; 11 ?; S5 9; 30 16. 
Onee crlf^n ■''in i Chron. ti T, md five times orlSjin B^i*^ 1 Sam. » 7 8; 2 Kings 
4 t, it; 2 Chron. » 9. 

.Tan - § 425 «. 

D^rt^Kn tJ^K Eltven persons are respectively cnlhd man of 
Ood. With Uie exception of about twenty passages where the 
mame of the person thus distinguished is not quite certain, all 
the instances in which thi^ appellation occurs are distributed 
rerj unevenly between the elevMi patriarchs and prophets specified 
in this Rubric Of this Rubric I collated five Lists, three in MSS. 
and two printed: (I) Harley 5710-11, Vol. I, foL 2-29a, on 
1 Kings 13 21 which I have printed; (II) Add. 15,451, fol. 500i, 
on 2 Chron. 25 7; (IH) HaUe Ochlah Ve-Ochlah I, § 152, foL 62a; 
(IV) the printed Massorah on 1 Kings 13 22 and (V) Yalkut 
Shimoni on l Sam. 2 27, § r-s Vol H, fol. 14 J, Frankfurt 1709. 
List V is the only^ one which gives some catchwords to the 
passages where they are so designated. 

n"3n = § 425?^. 

D^1t!?K^ tri* Eight men ar*t eaVed men of God.. This Rubric, 
which does not occur in the printed Massorah, is from Arund. 
Orient 16, foL »07a, on Ps. 90 1. It is another recension of the 
preceding Rubric and evidently proceeds from a Massoretic 
School which registered eight such honoured men, omitting Elijah, 
Eliaha and Micah. 

Tan - § 426. 

1ZT21 t£rK every man and hin htnuehoUd, oecvrs three times 
Of this Rubric I collated three Lists, two in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Arund. Orient 16, toL bio, on 1 Sam. 27 8 which I 
have printed; (U) Orient 2348, fc^ 68a, on Bxod. 1 1, and 
(lU) the printed Massorah on 1 Sam. 27 3. 

ran - § 427. 

f^y^ t£^ footmen, occurs four times. This Rubric, which does 
not occur in the printed Massorah, is from Harley 5710—11, 
Vol. II, foL l42i, on 1 Chron. 19 18. 

n-rn - § 428. 

*9SSi t^ man with him, occurs four times. The third passage, 
viz. roK - 1 Sam. 27 2 is incorrect since it is here my ib^k B>>t. The 
design of this Rubric is probably to guard this phrase against 
the construction irtK t^ (Gen. 45 1). I have mislaid the reference 
to the M& from which this Rubric is taken. 

B-an = § 4-29. 

13B| nnn t2^K every man under his vine, occurs three times. 
That is to guard this phrase against Che one which is without 
rwi after t% which also occurs twice (2 Kings 18 31; Isa. 36 16). 
The second line is manifestly a corrupt repetition of the third 
since the phrase occurs twice only. This Rubric, which does not 
occur in the printed Massorah, is from Add. 15^451, foL 2266, 
OB 1 Kings 6 &. 

^•n - § 430. 

^K3 in or against a man, occurs thirteen times. That is, with 
Shem under the prefix Beth in contradistinction to b!"k| with 
Kametz which is tabulated in the next Rubric. This Rubric, which 
does not occur in the printed Massorah, is from Orient 2349, 
fol. 134«, on Deut 19 15. 



K'^n - § 431. 

tt^KS occurs eight times. That is, with Kamets under the Beih. 
Of this Rubric I collated three Lists, two in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, VoL I, fol. 16a, on Gen. 26 11 which 
I have printed; (II) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah, II, § 31, and (IH) the 
printed Massorah on Levit 20 3. It will be seen that whilst one 
School of Massorites safeguarded the instances in which tf^its is 
with Sheva, the other School fixed the passages in which it is 
with £ain«fe. 

^3'Vn = § 432. 

t^^"l heu ttciee Pathaeh in the Seriptiires, onee it it defective 
and once plene. There are no fewer than three different Massorahs 
on the orthography and import of the expression ihjt with and 
without the prefix He. The first is in the Rubric before us. In 
it the Massorah emphasises the fact that in these two instances 
where shK occurs with the interrogative He it is with Pnthach 
instead of «hrr with Chateph- Pathaeh. Of this Rubric I collated 
five Lists, four in MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 6710—11, 
VoL II, foL 296a, on Neh. 6 11 which I have printed; (II) the 
same MS., VoL I, foL 206 a, on 2 Sam. 14 19 where this Massorah 
is not only ¥nrongly placed, but the heading 'on 'a is a clerical 
error for 'nfi 'a, as is evident from the mnemonical sign p*v tantn = 
Micah 6 10; Neh. 6 11; (IH) Arund. Orient I6, foL H826, on 
Neh. 6 11; (IV) Add. l.%251, foL 4'24a, on the same passage and 
(V) the printed Massorah Finalis, letter it, § 350. 

As tit is defective in one only of the two passages which 
constitute the former Massorah and as it occurs again in this 
abnormal form in Samuel, the second Massorah deals exclusively 
with the defective orthography and is as follows: 

'o'Oi 'on 'a B'Kn B'lt 
^rn^ fcn^r» c»e 2 Sam. 14 19 
yvn n«a vitn Micah < 10 

Of this Rubric, which does not occur in the {w-inted Massorah, 
I collated three Lists: (I) Arund. Orient 16, foL 66a, on 2 Sam. 
14 19 which I have printed; (II) Harley 5710— 11, Vol II, foL 1166, 
on Micah 6 10 and (HI) Add. 15,250, foL I72a, on 2 Sam. 14 49. 

The third Massorah, which is as follows, is the most 
important: 

ran n'3 run -ny Micah C io 

CTi we ProT. 18 24 

^'Otrn^i l^arh vx bk 2 Sam. 14 19 

This Rubric, therefore, which is preserved in the printed 
Massorah on 2 Sam. 14 19 emphatically declares that the two 
abnormal forms tH as well as the normal tftt in Pro v. 14 19 are 
simply the textual reading or Kethiv and that the Sevir or 
alternative reading in all these three passages is t^ there is» 

ybn - § 433. 

tS^KHI and the man, occurs three times. This Rubric, which is 
from AdcL 15,251, foL 1176, on Deut 24 11 is perfectly un- 
intelligible since tf^rn occurs no fewer than seventeen times. 
The printed Massorah Finalis which has also this Rubric under 
letter k, § 841, heads it oytsa 'J trtm tV occurs three times with the 
accent and gives the same three passages. But this is equally 
inexplicable since it has a different accent in each of three 
passages, and though vrKm (Numb. 9 13) with Telisha Ketanah 
does not occur again wiim (Deut 24 11) with Rebia occurs also 
in 1 Sam. 4 13; 2 Kings 5 1, and vnen (Judg. 17 5) is also to 
be found in 1 Sam. 4 14; 9 6; Dan. 19 21. It may be that the 
design of this Massorah is to register the three instances in 
which the combination ntfK t^^rn occurs in the Bible and that the 
catchwords 1^ rc'o vner\ (Judg. 17 5) are a clerical error for rum 
pma nw -i»« Deut 17 12 which is the third passage where tiiis 
phrase occurs. 

TT-n = § 434. 

tS^^K tCn^l and a man man [i. e. whatsoever man], oeeun 
twice in this combination. That is tfije with the prefix Vav followed 
by this expression without it, being the reverse of the three 
instances registered in § 423. The normal combination in these 
phrases is simply tt>'»t t'H without the prefix Vao (comp. Levit 
17 3, 8; 20 2, 2; 22 4, 18 &c.). Of this Rubric, which does not 
occur in the printed Massorah, I collated five Lists: (I) Cambridge 
Add. 1174, on Levit 17 10 which I have printed; (II) Harley 



K § 435—440. 



— 59 



§ 4U— 448. K "" K 



5710-11, Vol. I, fol. 75rt; (UI) Orient 2348, foL 1026; (IV) 
Orient 2349, foL 92&, and (V) Orient 4445, foL ld3a, all on the 
same passage. With the exception of th6 first List, all the others 
have in the heading 'Dyoai ■'3''0B1 - it occurs twice in this combination 
and with the same accents. 

n-^fl = § 435. 

1lSC^i%?S tSTKI and every man to his oton eovntry, occurs twice. 
This Rubric, which does not occup in the printed Massorah, is 
from Add. 15,250, fol. 2196, on Isa. 13 14. 

rbn = § 436. 

mVT tC^^iO and the man of Judah, occurs in this eomhination 
six times in the Scriptures. Ot this Rubric I collated six Lists, 
five in MSS. and one one printed: (I) Hariey 5710—11, Vol. I, 
foL 215a, on 2 Sam. 24 9 which t have printed; (II) Arund. 
Orient 1«, fol. 4l6, on 1 Sam. 11 8; (III) the same MS., fol. 74a, 
on 2 Sam. 24 9; (IV) the same MS., fol. 1686, on Jerem. 32 32; 
(V) Add. 15251, fol. 156a, on 1 Sam. 11 » and (VI) the prirfted 
Massorah Jerem. 32 32. 

rbn = § 437. 

rDlSTl^O tSTKI and a man of war, occurs twice in this com- 
bination! this Rubric, which does not occur in tlS^ printed 
Massorah, is from Hariey 5710—11, Vol. I, fol. lS4a, on 1 Sam. 16 18. 

n'^n = § 438. 

ttTX? o« « w»«W; occurs twenty times wiih Sheva. Of this Rubric, 
which does not occur in the printed Massorah, I collated twenty- 
one Lists: (I) Hariey 5710-11, VoLII, fol. 1846, on Ps. 38 15 which 
I have printed; (II) the same MS., VoL I, foL 1706, on Judg. 20 11 ; 
(HI) the same MS., Vol. II, foL 297 a, on Neh. 8 1; (IV) the 
St Petersburg Codex of A. D. 916 pn Jerem. 14 9; (V) the 
same Coflex on Zech. 4 1; (VI) Add. 15,251, foL l42a, on 
Judg. 6 i6; (Vn) the same MS., foL 242a, on Jerem. 6 23; 
(Vm) the same MS., foL 293 o, on Prov. 24 34; (IX) the same 
Ma, foL 4166, on Ezra 3 1; (X) Add. 21,160, fol. 2106, pn Numb. 
1415; (XI) Halle Ochlah V«-Ochlah 11, § 31, and no fewer than 
ten Lists in Arund. Orient 16, viz. foL 226, on Judg. 6 16; fol. 1 37a, 
on Isa. 42 13; foL 147a, on Isa. 66 13; fol. 156a, on Jerem. 14 9; 
foL 161 o, on Jerem. 23 9; foL 218a, on Zech. 4 1; foL 293o, on 
iPs. 38 15; foL 338a, on Prov. 6 11; foL 3736, on Ezra 3 1 and 
foL 884a, on Neh. 8 1. 

There are several points of interest attached to this Rubric : 
(I) the Sheva under the Caph is called in the heading of List I 
tpn Chateph; (11) in List V which exhibits the oldest form of 
this Massorah it is called 'bi = "in Raphi and (III) List I describes 
tike reading «^»o in Judg. 20 1 as that of certain Codices. What the 
tJtemative was here it is impossible to say as none of the other 
£iBts remark upon it It is remarkable that the printed Massorah 
on Ps. 38 15 refers to Pericope yhvn^ for this Rubric' and the 
printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 342, to Pericope •]b tihv where 
they say this Rubric is given,* but it occurs nowhere in Jacob 
b. Chayim's Massorah. 

•TniSyna nioa idoj 'D'di 'Knpa 'avui i 
•T^ n*»' hea TD03 'D»Di 'aV'KS 2 

tS'^n = § 439. 
THK tr^JO as one man, occurs nine times in the Scriptures. 
I hftve mislaid the reference to the MS. from which this Rubric 
is taken. The note whictf I find is on Add. 15,250, foL 81 6, on 
Numb. 14 15. But the Rubric here is m follows: 'i->pa 'a tw tno 
and the first two instances alone are given. In the printed 
Musorah this Rubric does not occur. 

o-n - §.440. 

tt?^K^ to the man, occurs thiiiy-two times ..... and once it is 
KTuOk the prefix Vav. The design of this Rubric is to safeguard 
these thirty-two instances as well as the one instance with the 
prefix Vav with Kametz under the Lamed so as not to be confused 
with 0>(^. with Shem under the Lamed which occurs no fewer than 
sixty times. 

Of this Rubric, which is one of the oldest constituent parts 
of the Massorah, I collated eleven Lists, ten in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Hariey 5710—11, VoL I, fol. 29a, on Gen. 43 6 which 
I have printed; (H) the same MS., VoL n, foL 48a, on Jerem. 26 li ; 
(in) Orient 4445, foL 386, on Gen. 43 11; (IV) St Petersburg 
Codex of A. D. 916, on Jerem. 26 11; (V) Arund. Orient 16, 
foL 806, on Judg. 16 19; (VI) the same MS., foL 40a, on l Sam. 9 7; 
(Vn) the same MS., foL 636, on 2 Sam. 12 4; (VIII) the same MS., 



foL 2836, on Ruth. 3 3; (IX) the same MS., foL 3436, on Prov, 20 8; 
(X) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochiah H, § 31, and (XI) the printed 
Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 340. 

The statement in the heading of List III that there are thirty- 
three such instances with Kametz under the Teamed includes the 
passage in Judg. 19 24 where it is t^h] the one instance with the 
prefix Vao. List IV notices the thirty-two instances without tth«^, 
but omits by a clerical oversight Jerem. 26 16. 

K'Dn = § 441. 

tJ^KT'l and to a man, occurs three times. That is, to distinguish 

it from shj^i which occurs once (comp.' § 400). Of this Rubric I 

collated eight Lists, six in MSS. and two printed: (I) Hariey 

5710 — 11, VoL I, foL 74a, on Levit 15 33 which I have printed; 

(II) the same MS., VoL I, foL 1976, on 2 Sam 2 15; (HI) the 
same MS., VoL 11, foL 706, on Ezek. 1 23; (IV) Arund. Orient 16, 
foL 58«, on 2 Sam. 2 15; (V) Add. 15,251, foL 74a, on Levit 15 33; 
(VI) the same MS., foL 2686, on Ezek. 1 23; (VII) the printed 
Massorah on Levit 15 33 and (VIII) the printed Massorah 
Finalis, letter k, § 353. All these Lists include 2 Sam. 2 1 5 though 
it is here part of the proper name Ish-hoshelh. 

ran = § 442*— 6. 

tS^tt/yrom man, occurs three times a&iording to the Weriems 

according to the Easterns it is tpi^o in Samuel both in the ^ethiv and 
Keri. This Rubric I have found only in Hariey 5710—11, VoL I, 
foL 4 16, on Exod. 11 7. Of the second recension I have collated 
seven Lists, six in MSS. and one printed: (I) Hariey 5710—11, 
VoL I, foL 2006, on 2 Sam. 6 19 where alone the mnemonic sign 
occurs; (II) the same MS.,' VoL H, foL 158a, on 2 Chron. 15 13; 

(III) Arund. Orient 16, fpL 6O6, on 2 Sam. 6 19; (IV) Orient 2348, 
foL 736; (V) Orient 2349, foL.64a; (VI) Add. 15,251, foL 47a, 
and (VII) the printed Massorah, all on Exod. 11 7. 

yon = § 443. 

''tSTK my huAand, occurs eighi times. Of this. Rubric I collated 
six Lists, five in MSS. and one printed: (I) Arund. Orient 16, 
fol. 656, on 2 Sam. 14 5 which I have printed; (H) the same MS., 
foL 996, on 2 Kings 4 1; (III) the same MS., fol. 200 a, on 
Hos. 2 9; (IV) Add. 15,251, foL 1756, on 2 Sam. 14 5; (V) Halle 
Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, foL 95 a, and (VI) the printed Massorah on 
Gen. 29 3?. 

TOfl = § 444. 

"TO^ thy hu^and, occurs six times. Of this Rubric J collated 
two Lists, one in MS. and one printed: (I) Hariey 5710—11, 
VoL I, foL 876, on Numb. 5 20 which I have printed and (II) the 
printed Massorah on Judg. 14 15. The latter states at the end of 
the List that it occurs once with the prefix Lamed (2 Kings 4 26). 

iTzan = § 445. 

rnSTK her husband, occurs tweniy-five times. Of this Rubric, 
which does not occur in the printed Massorah, I collated four 
Lists: (I) Hariey 5710—11, VoL I, foL 96, on Gen. 16 3 which 
I have printed; (II) the same MS., VoL I, foL 160a, on Numb. 
30 11; (III) Add. 15,451, foL 2106, on 2 Sam. 11 26 and (IV) 
Add. 21,160, foL 241a, on the same passage. 

ran = § 446. 

rnST'KI and her husband, occurs four times. This Rubric I have 
found only in the printed Massorah on Numb. 30 n. 

r-on = § 447. 

D1?r^ mtsn, occurs three times. That is the pluraj of Bht Of 
this Rubric I collated seven Lists, five in MSS. and two printed: 
(I) Hariey 5710—11, VoL II, foL 256, on Isa. 53 3 which I have 
printed; (H) the same MS., VoL H, foL 2196, on Ps. 141 4; (lU) the 
same MS., VoL 11, foL 246 a, on Prov. 8 4; (IV) Arund. Orient 16, 
foL 1416, on Isa. 53 3; (V) the same MS., foL 3196, on Ps. 141 4; 
(VI) the printed Massorah on Isa. 53 3 and (VII) the same on 
Prov. 8 4 which List alone has the mnemonic sign. Most of the 
Lists have in the heading "K^ai '3 it occurs three times and plene. 

n*an - § 448. 

tttt?1>P as the manikin, or apple [i. e. of the eye],^occwr» three 
tim^s. Of this Rubric I collated six Lists, five in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Hariey 5710—11, VoL II, foL 1776, on Ps. 17 8 which 
I have printed; (II) the same MS., VoL II, foL 245«, on Prov. 7 2; 
(HI) Arund. Orient 16, foL 287 a, on Ps. 17 8; (IV) the same 
MS., foL 3386, on Prov. 7 2; (V) Add. 15,251, foL S49a, oil 



8b 



S — K § 449—453. 



— 60 



§ 454-459. X 



Ps. 17 8 and (VI) the printed Massorah on the same passage. Most 
of the Lists have in the heading "vha\ 'i three timet and plene. 

B'On = § 449. 
^K^ri"'K Jthiel without and with the prefic Lamed, oeeura thre^ 
times. This Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, 
is from Arund. Orient 16, foL 3866, on Neh. 11 7. The printed 
Massorah Finalis, letter at, § 360, refers to the Massorah on 
Neh. 11 7 where it states that this Rubric is given, but as it is 
not unfrequently the case in such references, the Rubric is not 
to be found.' 

rn = § 4.')0. 

Dri''SI» Wlierever Efham occurs it. i« always without Yod except 
in one inafance. This is one of those artificial Massorahs which 
KFOup toorether homonyms for the purpose of pointing out variations 
in their orthograpliy. dti'k with IW which is here given as an 
exception to the regular spelling without Yod (onj*), is the Kal 
future first person singular from oari, whereas tariK without Yod 
which in this Rubric is stated to be its normal spelling and 
which without and with the prefix occurs four times (Exod. 13 20 ; 
Numb. 33 C, 7, 8) is the proper name of a city. The wording 
of tliis Rubric, which is from the printed Massorah on Numb. 33 6, 
does not make this import quite clear. The Rubric, however, also 
occurs in Orient 2348, fol. 131 «, and Orient 2349, fol. 121a, both 
on the same passage where the sense is perfectly plain. In these 
two MSS. it is as follows r^ Wkei-ei^er tariK without and ivith tJie 
prefix occurs it is the proper name of a city and is defective except 
in one instance where it is used in a different sense and is plene, 
viz. Ps. 1.9 14. 

.Bfi'K TK 'a ^bvo* Sk Voi nnie b""?! inbb brn Kn»3 bip onio on'n 'v^b ho < 

rin = § 451. 

]jy^Vi strong, strength, occurs four times. This Rubric which is 
from Add. 15,251, fol. 383a, Job 33 19 is incorrect since it occurs 
no fewer than nine times, and five instances are omitted, viz. 
Jerem. 49 19; 50 44; Amos 5 24; Ps. 74 15; Prov. 13 15. The 
Rubric also occurs in Add. 21,160, fol. 231&, and in the printed 
Massorah, both on Numb. 24 21 in a still more inexplicable form 
since it states that jn'it occurs three times only, omitting not 
only the five passages in question, but also Jerem. 5 15. It will 
also he seen that this Rubric excludes }ri'K the proper name 
which without the prefix occurs four times (1 Chron. 3 ^; 6 27, "29; 
15 17) and which is generally included where the orthography 
is identical. 

2'in = § 452. 

^K only, occurs I eigM times at the beginning of a verse in the 
Scriptures. This Rubric which is to be found in the printed 
Massorah only, on Levit 23 27, is hopelessly incorrect, since this 
adverb begins a verse a great many more times. It cannot 
possibly denote that "^ with a certain accent begins the verse 
this number of times, for these eight instances have no fewer 
than three different accents and in one passage it is with 
Makkeph. Each of these accents "^^ has repeatedly in other 
passages where it occurs at the beginning of a verse. As it 
occurs altogether sixty-eight times at the beginning of a verse,* 
the Nakdam probably found tlie full List too long for the margin 
and may have intended simply to give the beginning of it as is 
not unfrequently the case with lengthy catalogues. A later Nakdan, 
however, who did not understand the import of this Massorah, 
finding eight instances only enumerated, dropped d [= 60] and left 
the n [-= 8] to make the heading conformable to the enumerated 
passages. 

1 Comp. Gen. 9 4; U 16, 22; Exod. 21 21; Levit. 11 4, 21, 36; 21 23; 
3.1 27, 39; 27 26, 28; Numb. 1 49; 14 9; 18 17; 3« 56; SI 22; Deut 12 22; 14 7; 
18 20; Josh. 3 4; 1 Sam. 12 24; 1 Kings 9 24; 11 12; 22 44; 2 Kings 12 14; 
13 6; 23 7; 3.1 9, 26; 24 3; Isa. 14 16; 19 11; 4ft 24; Jerem. 3 13; 2« 16 24; 
28 7; 34 4; Hos. 4 4; Zech. 1 6; Ps. 23 6; $9 7; 49 16; 62 2, 3, 5, G, 
7, 10; 68 22; 73 13, 18; 8S 10; 140 14; Prov. 17 11; Job 13 20; U 22; 
16 7; 18 21; 30 24; S3 8; 35 13; Lament S 3; Ezra 10 15; 1 Chron. 23 12; 
2 Chron. 20 33; .10 11. 

yjn = § 453. 
"^JK only, occurs five times with the accent Mehupach. Of this 
Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, I collated 
two Lists: (I) Add. 15,251, fol. 70fe, on Levit 11 4 which I have 
printed and (II) Orient 4445, fol. 946, on the same passage. 



r^ = § 454. 

"^^ For the various accents which this adverb takes, see 
letter c under n-oro. 

.T2n - § 455. 

n53 ^K only the firstling, occurs twice. This Rubric, which 
does not occur in the printed Massorah, is from Cambridge 
Add. 1174 on Levit 27 26. 

nn = § 456. 

n ittSn ^K only or hut the high places, occurs twice .... whilst 
in all other instances it is niosn pn save that, or except the high 
places. This Massorah, therefore, is designed to safeguard these 
exceptional instances against being made conformable to the 
more common combination niaanp-i. This Rubric, which does 
not occur in the printed Massorah, is from the Vienna Codex 
No. 35 on 1 Kings 22 44. The last line moam 'ki is incorrect 
since niaam in this connection occurs twice, viz. 1 Kings 15 14 
and 2 Chron. 15 17. 

In Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 161a, where this Massorah 
occurs on 2 Chron. 20 33, the variation in these phrases which 
record the same event is more strikingly pointed out and is as 
follows : By Asa in Kings and Chronicles it is (nia|rn) and the high 
places they did not remove [1 Kings 15 14; 2 Chron. IS 17]; hy 
Jehoshaphat in Kings and Chronicles it is (nloan "^k) only the high 
places they did not remove [1 £ings 22 44; 2 Chron. 20 33] and 
in all other passages it is (nloan pn), hut the high places they did not 
remove [2 Kings 12 4; 14 4/ 15 4, 36].^ 

,110 K^ moan i>» o'O'n naii ca^on Bonnn ,no vh moam B'O'n ••«■» u>:hen kom » 

.no i6 moan pi "nwi 

T'an = § 457. 

'^jKT and but, occurs three times. Of this Rubric I collated five 
Lists, four in MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 5710 — 11, Vol. I, 
fol. 1006, on Numb. 22 20 which I have printed; (II) Orient 4445, 
fol. 142a, on the same passage; (III) Arund. Orient 16, foL 16a, 
on Josh. 23 19; (IV) Orient 2349, fol. 33a, on Gen. 9 5 and 
(V) the pi'inted Massorah on the same passage. Lists II and IV 
respectively add, one at the end of the Rubric and the other in 
the heading, that it begins a verse in two instances and is in 
the middle of the verse in one passage. The printed Massorah 
which simply states that it occurs twice at the beginning of a 
verse and catalogues the two instances only, is misleading 
inasmuch as it may imply that apart from the beginning of the 
verse it occurs frequently. The two instances which begin a verse 
form part of the words which respectively occur twice with the 
prefix Vav commencing a verse. ^ 

> Comp. Tlie Ma»»orah, letter \ § C3, Vol. I, p. 399. 

n-irs - § 458. 

mDIT* A List of unique woi-ds [chiefly from the root ^k\. 
This Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, is 
from the St Petersburg Codex of A. D. 916 on Isa. 40 12. Its 
design is to catalogue hapax legomena of expressions with Caph 
Lamed. {^). As thirteen out of the five-and-twenty words are 
from taK, and seven only from rho, two from "j^a, two from ■?» 
and one from hy I have added in the heading in brackets jr-ba 
n^rsK to indicate the root of by far the larger number of the 
forms tabulated in the List Why the twelve words of the four 
different roots are here mixed up with the thirteen forms from 
baK when there are nearly ninety other hnpnx legomena from this 
root which could have easily filled up the List, it is difficult to 
say. It may be that the Massorites deoined it necessary to fix 
the reading of these expressions because they were exposed to 
variations in the MSS. or because some Hagadic import was 
attached to them. 

tS'^n = § 459. 

^nri75S he hath devoured Mm, occurs four times in the 
Scriptures. Of this Rubric I collated six Lists, four in MSS. and 
two printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 78fc, on Ezek. 15 5 
which I have printed; (II) Orient 2348, fol. 59/>; (III) Orient 2349, 
fol. 497;; (IV) Add. 21,160, fol, 39 fc; (V) the printed Massorah, 
all on Gen. .37 38, and (VI) the printed Massorah on Ezek. 15 5. 
Lists II and III have in the heading rn -im 'lap 'j -i it occurs four 
timex three timeH loith Knm^tz and once with Pathnch, which is more 
precise, since in Ezek. 15 5 the Lamed has Pathach. 



K K § 460 — 464. 



— 61 — 



§ 465—470. K ■— K 



D-n = § 460. 

0^75^5 ««<^ ^ »^U devour them, occurs twice. That is in 
both instances the Tav is with PathacK and the accent is on the 
penultima. Of this Rubric I collated four Lists, three in MSS. 
and one printed: (I) Arund. Orient. IG, fol. 200a, on Hos. 2 14 
which I have printed; (U) Vienna Codex No. 35 on Jerem. 5 14 
which rightly has in the heading 'na '2; (III) the same Codex on 
Hob. 2 14 and (IV) the printed Massorah on Jerem. 6 14. 

X"Dn = § 461. 
W5^ -'' *«w eaten, occurs twice at the end of a verse, once 
ioith Kametz and once with Pathach. That is, this preterite first 
person singular, which occurs altogether ten times, ends a verse 
m two instances, once it has the normal pausal Kametz under 
the Caph (comp. Ps. 102 10) and once it is abnormally with 
Pathach. This Rubric is from the Vienna Codex No. 35 on 
Neh. 6 14. The printed Massorah Finalis which gives this Rubric 
in letter k, § 375, is hopelessly corrupt' 

' The heading in Jacob b. Chayim's Massorah is msiaa fnnB 'a 'n^K 
which Heidenheim has exposed both in xiipn f»y and be- oiB* on Gen. 81 38. 

ron - § 462. 

^1??^ o^nd they shall eat it, occurs three times. Of this Rubric 
I collated six Lists, four in MSS. and two printed: (I) Harley 
5710-11, Vol. I, fol. 796, on Levit. 24 9 which I have printed; 
(II) the same MS., Vol. n, fol. 386, on Jerem. 10 25; (Til) Arund. 
Orient 16, fol. I54a, on the same passage; (IV) Add. 21,160, 
foL 1806, on Levit 26 16; (V) the printed Massorah on Levit 24 9 
and (VI) the same on Jerem. 10 25. Lists II, III, IV, V and VI 
have in the heading 'om 'i or -Dn 'j which refers to the absence 
of Vav afte-r the Lamed. It will be seen that -cm and on are used 
promiscuously, a fact to which we have often adverted, though 
the former is the more correct way ot stating it since it occurs 
three times only an^ is defective in all the three passages. 

TDfl = § 463. 
TOK eating, devouring, is ten times plene. Of this Rubric I 
collated ten Lists, eight in MSS. and two printed: (I) Harley 
5710-11, tol. I, fol. 69o, on Levit 10 18 which I have printed- 
(H) the same MS., Vol. II, fol. 168a, on 2 Chron. 31 10- (HI) 
Arund. Orient 16, fol. 71a, on 2 Sam. 19 48; (IV) the same MS 
foL 1136, on 2 Kings 19 29; (V) the same MS., fol. 2046, on 
Joel 2 26; (VI) the same MS., fol. 277a, on 2 Chron. 31 10- 
(VH) Add. 21,160, fol. 276, on Gen. 31 15; (VIII) the same MS.', 
foL 151a, on Levit 10 18; (IX) the printed Massorah on the 
same passage, and (X) the same on Joel 2 26. It is to be 
remarked that though one of the instances is bipKn (2 Sam 19 43) 
none of the MS. Lists state in the heading 'v^b:, 'ht '^ and it is 
only in the heading of the two Lists in the printed Massorah 
that It IS so stated. The heading, however, in the first of 
Jacob b. Chayim's List which has it -rba "««?o -^ b^^ is wrong, 
since there is no plene instance of this infinitive absolute with 
the prefix Vav which the Massorah recognises. The Kethiv in 
Isa. 37 30 is excluded from this Lis\ It is, moreover, to be 
noticed that though the plene form of this infinitive is the 
normal orthography and the defective the abnormal since it 
occurs five times only (Gen. 2 16; i Sam. U 30; 2 Kings 4 43- 
Isa. 22 13; Prov. 25 27), the Massorah here, contrary to its usual 
practice, safeguards the normal spelling. 

Ton = § 464. 

.1 T^, !^ ^*' ** *^*'^*'"' '^'"*** P^"^ ""^ *^ mnemonic sign 
thereof m Ckaldee is, the mein killed sheep, and the eagle took bread 
in a good month, and the princes finished the cluster and tarried in 
the field. As this infinitive occurs fifty-three times and is plene 
m thirteen instances only, the Massorah safeguards the exceptional 
orthography. Of this Rubric I collated six Lists, five in MSS 
and one printed: (I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. I76a, on Ezek. 16 20 
which I have printed; (II) the same MS., fol. 353a, on Eccl. 5 J7- 
on) Add. 15,251, fol. 275«, on Ezek. 16 20; (IV) Vienna Codex 
No. 35 on Eccl. 6 17; (V) Cambridge Add. 465 on Levit 25 7 
from which I printed the mnemonic sign and (VI) the printed 
Massorah on Ezek. 16 20. It is remarkable that all these Lists 
contarary to the usual practice of the Massorah, include the Kethiv 
m Ezek 44 3 in the thirteen plene instances since the Massorah 
as a rule recognises only the Keri. 

There is another recension of this Rubric in Harley 5710—1 1 
Vol I, fol. 1876, on 1 Sam. 20 5 which is of great importance 



for the orthography of this infinitive. It is as follows: ^isk'? is 
seven times plene, viz. 1 Sam. 20 5, 24; 2 Sam. 13 9 16 2- 17^29 ■ 
2 Kings 4 40; Eccl. O 2; and it is likewise so in the Ttoelve [Minor 
Prophets] except in omi instance, viz. Hob. 3 M' It will be seen 
that this Rubric not only excludes Ezek. 16 20- 44 3 and 
2 Chron. 7 13, but gives Eccl. 6 2 instead of Eccl. 5 17 as one 
of the plene instances. 

-«3'^ir» ,ipy, ,8-31, ,Drhm ,nwon .^^di h^sHh iSon oy 2vh aw* ims^Di Vo 't h^snh « 

')T)B VH-\ VBoa npi kbh tan h* '?ai 

•TDD = § 465. 
b^^ to eat, occurs twice. That is, this infinitive construct 
occurs twice, once with Kametz under the Caph and once with 
C^&m over it. This Rubric is from the Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah H 
§ 33. The heading in the printed Massorah on Gen. 3 li which 
this Rubric has, viz. pap tjom tb rjena 'k 'a is unintelligible. 

T'Dfl = § 466. 

,. V ?^ "***" *^^^ ^' '^'^''* '«^*^'' That is, with the 

prefix Beth and once this infinitive with the suffix third pei-son 
plural has the prefix Caph. Of this Rubric I collated four Lists, 
two in MSS. and two printed: (I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 4a, on 
Josh. 5 12 which I have printed; (II) Orient 2449, foL 95a, on 
Tnf. ?' ™ '^^ P"^^*"^ ^2.BBov2.h on the same passage 
and (IV) the printed Massorah Finalis, letter «, § 374. 

ron = § 467. 

^1D^ eat, is five Umes phne. Without and with the prefix 
\av this imperative occurs altogether twelve times. It is defective 
m seven instances' and plene in tliese five passages only. Hence 
the Massorah safeguards the minority. C ' this Rubric l' collated 
hree Lists, two in MSS. and one printed: (I) Arund. Orient 16, 
foL 936, on 1 Kings 19 5 which I have printed, but from which I 
omitted by an oversight (-is .3) the second instance in Ezek. 3 1- 
(II) the same MS., fol. 345a, on Prov. 23 7 and (Ilirttie printed 

f SaTt« 02 fh"^-.' '• '' '' *^ ""' -«-d that though in 
1 Sam. 28 22 this imperative has the prefix Vav, none of the 
Lists state in the heading -r^an. 

^sv, 1 'xr?"""^:,^^" * ^'"°- * ^*' * ^°«« 1» "! 19 ^; Prov. 35 16; Eccl. 9 T- 
73KJ 1 Kings 1.1 16; Ezek. 2 8. ' 

n'DfJ = § 468. 

"^Pk^ and he shall eat, occurs five times in the Scriptures and 
the mnemonic sign thereof is in Chaldee, the grass of the bread stood 
up and demed its garden. In all the other twenty-one instances 
where this future third ,^person singular occurs, the prefix Vav 
has Pa^AacA and the Yod is with Dagesh (^,). Hence the 
Massorah safeguards these five instances where "it has Sheva 
and hence also some of the^eadings have ptn 'n = five times with 
Sheva. Of this Rubric I collated eleven Lists, ten in MSS and 
one printed: (I) Harley 5710-11, Vol. I, foL 356, on Exod. 2 20 
which I have printed; (II) the same MS., Vol. I, foL 229a, on 1 Kings 
13 18; (III) the same MS., Vol. H, fol. 261a, on Cant 4 16- 
(IV) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 886, on 1 Kings 13 18; (V) the same 
MS., fol. 8496, on Cant 4 16; (VI) Add. 21,160, fol. 21a on 
Gen. 27 3i; (VII) the same MS., foL 66a, on Exod. 2 20- (VIH) 
the same MS., fol. 80a, on Exod. 10 12; (IX) Vienna' Codex 
No. 35 on Cant 4 16; (X) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, § 33, and 
(XI) the printed Massorah on Gen. 27 31. Lists V, VI, VII, IX and X 
have the mnemonic sign. The mnemonic sign without the List 
IS given in the printed Massorah on Exod. 10 12; i Kings 13 18; 
Cant 4 16, and in the printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 366. 

CS'DD = § 469. 
-^*- '""^ ^« ate, has twice the accent Zakeph toith Pathach. 
This Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, is 
from Arund. Orient 16, fol. 66a, on 1 Sam. 30 li. See, however. 
Gen. 27 25 where ^3»(r is also with Zakeph. 

rn = § 470. 

•?D>^^ he shall eat, occurs thirteen times. That is, with a pausal 
accent and Tze,-? to distinguish it from the fori;y-one passages 
where it has a non-pausal accent and is with Pathach (b^a^) Of 
this Rubric, which is one of the oldest constituent parts of the 
Massorah, I collated twelve Lists, eleven in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. ^I38a, on Isa. 44 16 which I 
have printed; (II) the same MS., fol. I22a, on Isa. 7 22- (HI) the 
same MS., fol. 1466, on Isa. 65 22; (IV) the same MS.,'foL 323«, 



K — K § 471-475. 



— 62 — 



§ 476-482. H — K 



Job 5 5, (V) the same MS., fol. 331&. on Job 31 8; VI) tlie 
same MS., fol. 335., on Job 40 15; (VII) the b^'^^ M?' ^° „f .^^' 
on Eccl. 5 11; (VIII) Orient 4445, fol. 1225, on Numb. 6 3; (IX) the 
St Petersburg Codex of A. D. 916. on Isj 65 22; (X) Harley 
6710-11, Vol.1, fol. 78a. on Levit2l22; (XI) ^alle Och ah Ve- 
Ochlah II, § 33, and (XII) the printed Massorah on Levit 41 a. 

rrn = § 471. 

^Dkn thm shah, or »he shall eat, occurs seven times, and the sign 
thereof is in Chaldee; the priest commanded the wixUno, thy toil and thy 
In-end into the city of the king. His companions came and removed death 
fra,n the hor.se of destmctim and hu.-nt his hlood and flesh .orth fire. 

It is to be remarked: (1) That this Rubric groups together 
the nine instances where this form is the second person masculme 
(Gen. 2 IG; Deut 12 27; 15 23; 20 19; 2 Kings 7 12, 19; Ezek. 
1«> 18- 24 17- Ps. 128 2) and thg eight instances where it is 
third person feminine (Levit 22 l5, 13; 2 Sam. 22 9; Isa. 9 17; 
Pa 18 9- 50 3- Prov. 31 27; Job 31 12) and (2) that it safeguards 
alike these pausal instances with 2WnT against the thirty-six 
non-pausal passages with rathach, including both the second person 
masculine and the third person feminine. This Rubric too is an 
ancient part of the Massorah. Of it I collated fourteen Lists, 
thirteen in MSS. and one printed: (I) ^f f ^^ "j^^^'J^^S 
fol 77a on Ezek. 12 18 which I have printed; (II) the same Mb., 
Vol II.' fol. 1776, on Ps. 18 9; (III) Orient 4445. fol. 106a, on 
Levit 22 12; (IV) St Petersburg Codex of A. D. 916 on Isa. 9 17; 
(V) the sa^e Codex on Ezek. 12 18; (VI) Arund. Orient. 16, 

S 725. on 2 Sam. 22 9; (VII) t»^^ -^ \%f 7 • ixi th^e 
Isa 9 17; (VIII) the same MS., fol. 1825, on Ezek. 2* 1^, (IX) the 
same MS..S0I. 2875. on Ps. 18 9; (X) the same MS fo. 9 a 
on Ps. 50 3; (XI) the same MS., fol. 31 7a, on Ps. 128 2. (XII) 
Cambridge Add. 465 on Levit 22 12, where the ^^^^^^^^'^ 
is given; (XIII) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, § 33. and (XIV) the 
printed Massorah Finalis. letter k, § 363. 

yyn = § 472. 

b^i^l and it shall dtnmir, occurs six times in the Scriptures. 
The design of this Massorah is to safeguard these instances with 
Sheva against any of them being made conformab e to the 
fwenty-one passages wherein the Vav which precedes this future 
sIcTnd person masculine or third person feminine has Pati^ach. 
Hence some of the Lists head this Rubric n^n . **-?«»•' ^ \";^* 
triU She^^. Of this Rubric I collated seven Lists, six ^n MSS. and 
one printed: (I) Harley 5710-11. Vol. I, fol. 1625, on Judg. 9 15 
^hicfi I have printed; (H) the same MS Vol. I. fc.^2385 on 
2 Kings 1 12; (III) Arund. Orient 16. fol. 2^*' «"/"^^- ^J^' 
(IV) the same MS., fol. 975, on 2 Kings 1 12; (V) the same MS 
fol. 2205, on Zech. 11 1; (VI) Add. 15,251. fol. I44a, on Judg. 9 15 
and (VII) the printed Massorah on Zech. 11 1. 



rrn = § 473. 

SdK the future first person singular has once the prefix 
Vav with Kametz-and once Vav with Sheva. This Rubric is from 
the printed Massorah on Gen. 27 3... These two expressions form 
part of the List of words beginning with Vav ^M which 
respectively occur twice, once with Sheva and once with Kamel^. 

. Comp. The Mas^ali. letter i, § 11, Vol. I, p. 322 &c. 
T»n = § 474. 

ns'^SKTI or rtsSpKn thou shaU eat it, occurs twice. This 
Rubric^ which does^Aot occur in the f^^t^ Massorah. is from 
Harley 5710-11. Vol. I. fol. 3a, on Gen. 3 17. Bo h the MSS 
and the early editions differ as to the pointing of this word 
Orient 4445; Orient 2201; Harley 5710-11; Orient 2348; 
Orient 2349; Orient 2350; Orient 2365; Orient 2451 ; Orient 2629 ; 
Orient 4227; the editio princeps of the Pentateuch 1482; the first 
edition of the Bible 1488; the third edition 1494; the first edition 
of the Rabbinic Bible 1517 have it n:'«Kn ^^^^^f ^^^^f f *^" .it: 
whilst Add. 9401 ; Add. 15.250; Add. 15,251 ; Add. 15.252; Add. 15.282. 
Add 15 451 • Orient 2366; the second edition of the Bible 1491-93; 
the Lisbon edition of the Pentateuch 1491; the Complutensian 
and the editio princeps of the Rabbinic Bible with the Massorah 
1624-26 have it n:'?3«n with Chateph-Pathach under the Caph. 
Orient 2201 ; Add. 15,251 and one of my MSS. say that the latter 
is the reading of Ben-Asher and the former is that of Ben-Naphtali. 

,Trn = § 475. 

h^^. and they shall eat, occurs twice. That is with Sheva 
.under the daph. Of this Rubric, which does not occur in the 



printed Massorah, I collated two Lists: (I) Arund. Orient m 
fol 102a, on 2 Kings 6 22 which I have printed and (II) Hariey 
5710—11 VoL I, fol. 2425, on the same passage. The latter heads 
it "ii«^ 'a 'it is twice Baphe that is with Sheva under the Caph m 
contradistinction to the twenty-five instances in which it has 
Pathach under the Vav. But this is not very precise, since the 
instances which constitute the next Rubric have also Sheva under 
the Caph. 

rpn - § 476. 

h^t^ and they shall eat, occurs three times and the mnemonic 
nan the^-eof'u, one pursues aft^ his neigBour = they follow each 
other in consecutive verses. That is with Tz^ire under the Caph 
in consequence of its having a pausal accent Of this Massorah 
I collated two Lists: (I) Cambridge Add. 465 on 2 Kings 4 41 
which has the mnemonic sign, and (II) the printed Massorah on 
the same passage which heads it r^n •; it is ihree times haphe and 
which for the reason stated in the preceding Rubric is inexact 

rj?n = § 477. 

irf^pi^"' they shall eat it, occurs four times and is defective in 
the Scriptures. Of this Rubric I collated eight Lists, six in MSS 
and two printed: (I) Harley 5710-11, Vol.1, fol. 42a. on Exod.l2 8 
which I have printed; (H) the same MS.. Vol. II. fol. 29a. on Isa 63 9 ; 
(III) Orient 4445. fol. 925. Levit 8 31; (IV) Add. 15,251 fol. 88a 
on Numb. 9 II; (V) the same MS., fol. 237a, on Isa. 62 9^ (VI) 
Add. 21,160, fol. 202a, on Numb. Oil; (VII) the printed Massorah 
on Exod. 12 8, and (VIII) the same on Isa. «2 9. It is remarkable 
that List III. which represents the oldest Massorah, gives Levit 6 9 
as one of the four instances where the present text has nbzt 
and omits Exod. 12 8 which is in^3»t' in the textns recepfns. This 
Rubric occurs again in this ancient Codex on Numb. 9 II, 
fol 1275, but the leaf is unfortunately defective so that it is 
impossible to say whether the four instances given m this 
Rubric are the same as those recorded in the first instance. 

n-rn = § 478. 

h^^ occurs three times, twice it is with AUph and denotes 
eatinq and once it is written with Vav and denotes low, deceiving. Of 
this Rubric I collated eight Lists, seven in MSS. and one printed: 
(I) Hariey 5710-11. Vol. I. fol. 25. on Isa. 4 1 which I have printed; 
(H) the same MS., Vol. II. fol. I27a. on Mai. 1 14 ; (ni) Arund. 
Orient 16, fol. 1205, on Isa. 4 1; (IV) the same MS., fol. 223« 
on Mai 114- (V) Add. 1 5,251, fol. 31 3 a, on the same passage; (VI) 
Vienna Codex No. 35 on the same passage; (VII) Halle Ochlah 
Ve-Ochlah II, § 83, and (VIII) the printed Massorah on Gen. 3 .. 

B'Pn « § 479. 
^^^T^ and we shall eat htm, occurs twice. Of this Rubric, 
which does not occur in the printed Massorah, I ^o^^t'^d two 
Usts: (I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 102a, on 2 Kings 6 28 which I 
have printed and (II) Add. 15,251, foL 2035, on the same 
passage. The latter rightly has in the heading rJWi '= tmce 
and in the same section. 



D'D = § 480. 
h2*\^ eating, is four times plene. As this participle which 
occurs thirteen times, is defective in nine instances* and plene 
in these four passages only, the Massorah safeguards the ex- 
ceptional orthograhy. Of this Rubric I <^"ll^^ff ««7" ^.^ ' '^^ 
in MSS. and two printed: (I) Harley ^V^^""' ^^^- ?^' ^^^^Z'"' 
on Nah. 3 12 which I have printed; xll) the same MS.. VoL II, 
fol. 1865, on Ps. 41 10; (III) Orient 2349, fol. 50 5. on Gen 39 8 ; 
(IV) Add. 1.5,251, fol. 835; (V) Add. 21,160, fol. 4l5; (VI) the 
printed Massorah, all on Gen. 39 6, and (VH) the prmted 
Massorah on Ps. 41 10. 

» Comp. h^ Gen. 40 17; Exod. 18 16, 19; Levit. 7 26; 2 Sam. » U, 18; 
1 Kings 21 6; Ps. IOC 20; Prov. W 25. 

««Dn = § 481. 
^b)3k eaters of, or that eat of occurs four times ....and on^ 
it is with the pf^efix Vav. 1 have mislaid the reference to the MS 
from which this Rubric is taken. This participle plural construct 
also occurs a fifth time in the textus recepttts, viz. Ps. Ul i. 

ron = § 482. 

nSak cownming, or I will eat, occurs five times. Of this Rubric 
I collated nine Lists, 6ight in MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 
5710-11 Vol n, foL 395, on Jerem. 1* 12 which I have prmted; 



K K § 483—490. 



§ 4yi-41.S. K — H 



(II) St. Petersburg Codex of A. D. 916, on Joel. 2 5; (III) Arund. 
Orient. 16, fol. I55a, on the same passage; (IV) the same MS., 
foL ^04a, on Joel 2 b; (V) Add. 16,251, fol. 2456, on Jerem. 12 12^ 
(VI) Add. 21,160, fol. 2616, on Deut. 4 24; (VII) Orient. 234ft, 
foL 1256, on the same passage; (VHI) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, 
§ 33, and (IX) the printed Massorah on Deut. 4 2 J. 

As usual, the Massorah here groups together homonyms or 
words which are spelled and pointed alike. Hence four of the 
instances (Deut 4 24; 9 3; Jerem. 12 12; Joel 2 5) are the 
participle feminine of ^k, whilst Deut 12 20 is the first person 
future with paragogic He. 

J*Dfl = § 483. 
^5iS^.^ *^^' ^« eaten, occurs ttoenty-ttoo [-three] tim^a. It is 
designe4 to safeguard this Niphal future third person singular 
against the Kal future third person singular which is written 
with the same four letters, but differently pointed (vide supra 
§ 470). Of this Rubric I collated three Lists, two in MSS. and 
one printed: (I) Harley 5710-11, Vol. I, 120a, on Deut 12 22 
which I have printed. The heading a-s = 22 is a clerical error since 
there are twenty-three such instances and the List correctly 
enumerates them; (II) Add. ai,i60, foL 1456, on Levit 7 19 
and (in) the printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 385. It will be 
seen that apart from the Pentateuch, this Niphal future first 
person singular occurs once only. 

TDfl - § 484. 
^SRF) it shall be eaten, occurs nine times. That is, the Niphkl 
future third person singular feminine to distinguish it from the 
Kal future third person future singular feminine which is written 
with the same four letters, but pointed differently (vide supra 
§ 471). Of this Rubric I collated seven Lists, five in MSS. and 
two printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 846, on Ezek. 23 25 
which I have printed ; (II) Arund. Orient. 1 6, fol. 2 1 5 a, on Zeph. 1 1 8 ; 
(HI) Add. l.^,2;^l, fol. 68ct, on Levit 6 9; (IV) the same MS., 
fol. 27!»6, on Ezek. 23 25; (V) Add. 21,160, fol. 144a, on Levit 6 9; 
(VI) the printed Massorah on the same passage, and (VII) the 
same on Zeph. 3 8. 

iTDfl = § 48i>. 

^7p^^ they shall be eaten, occurs twice in the Scriptures. The 
design of this Massorah is to distinguish these two instances 
from the same Niphal future third person plural in Levit 11 13 
where it is pointed ii^k: with Sheva because of its non-pausal 
accent, as well as to safeguard them against the Kal future third 
person plural which is written with the same four letters, but is 
pointed differently (^b^). Of this Rubric, which does not occur 
in the printed Massorah, I collated two Lists: (I) Harley 5710 — 11, 
foL 52a, on Jerem. 30 16 which I have printed and (II) 
Orient 2849, fol. 131a, on Deut 14 19. 

ren = § 486. 

HDT'DKri they shall be eaten, occurs four times. That is, to 
distinguish this Niphal future third person plural feminine from 
the Kal future third person plural feminine which is written 
with the same six letters, but is pointed differently. Of this Rubric 
I collated six Lists, five in MSS. and one printed: (I) Arund. 
Orient 16, foL 162a, on Jerem. 24 2 which I have printed; (II) the 
same MS., fol. 1666, on Jerem. 29 17; (III) Add. 1.5,251, fol. 2536, 
on the same passage; (IV) Vienna Codex No. 35 on Jerem. 24 2; 
(V) the same Codex on Jerem. 29 17 and (VI) the printed 
Massorah on Jerem. 24 2. 



rOfl - § 487. 
1 75K they have been consumed, occurs three times. Of this Rubric 
I collated six Lists, five in MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 
1710—16, Vol. II, fol. 2936, on Neh. 2 .n which I have printed; 
(II) St Petersburg Codex of A. D. 916, on Nah. 1 10; (III) Arund. 
Orient 16, fol. 3796, on the same passage; (IV) Add. 15,250, 
foL 3086, on Nah. 1 10; (V) the same MS., foL 3946, on Neh. 2 3, 
and (VI) the printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 886. 

3fn-n"Dn - § 488—490. 

I i?^5K» To understand these three Rubrics which catalogue 
the same phenomena in differently worded Massorahs, it is 
necessary to remark that the Hiphil h'ovtri occurs fourteen times 
with prefixes and suffixes, and that it is plene in seven instances 
and defective in seven. In the Pentateuch, where it occurs four 
times, it is always defective (Numb. 11 4, 18; Deut 8 8, 16); in 
the Prophets, where it occurs six times, it is four times plene 



(Jerem. 9 14; 23 15; Ezek. 21 33; Hos. 11 4) and twice defective 
(I Kings 22 27; Ezek. 3 2), and in the Hagiographa where it 
occurs four times it is plene in three instances (Ps. 81 17; 
Prov. 25 21; 2 Chron. 18 26) and once defective (2 Chron. 28 15). 

Accordingly § 488 which is from Add. 21,160, fol. 206 a, on 
Numb. 11 18 and which states that it is plene once only in the 
Hagiographa (Ps. 81 17) and once defectiMp in the Prophets 
(1 Kings 22 27) must be based upon a recension which differed 
in its orthography from the texttts receptus. 

Equally at variance with the texlus receptus is § 489 inasmuch 
as it fully supports § 488 in more artificial language. It makes 
up the three instances in which this Hiphil is defective by 
counting the whole Pentateuch as one, and by counting each 
of the two other divisions of the Hebrew Scriptures as one. 
§ 490 which is from Add. 15,250, foL 1976, on l Kings 22 27 is 
corrupt In the heading, this Rubric states 'nu'oa 'on 'a it is twice 
defective in this book, i. e. Kings and yet gives 2 Chronicles 18 26. 
Besides in Chronicles it is n^'s^rn plene. 

K-JCn - § 491. 
pKI surely, occurs eighteen times. The necessity for safe- 
guarding this adverb is manifest from the fact that in the 
recension from which the Septuagint was made, some of the 
instances recorded in this Rubric were omitted altogether (comp. 
Gen. 28 16; Isa. 53 4; Jerem. 8 8) and in some instances the 
translators read p^ (comp. Isa, 49 4; Ps. 31 23; 66 19). Traces 
of the uncertainty about the number of passages in which this 
adverb occurs are still preserved in the Massorah itself. 

Of this Rubric I collated fifteen Lists, fourteen in MSS. and 
one printed: (I) Arund. Orient 16, foL 86a on 1 Kings 11 2 which 
I have printed; (U) the same MS., fol. IBOo^ on Isa. 49 4; (III) the 
same MS., fol. 141 6, on Isa. 53 4; (IV) the same MS., foL 14 9a, 
on Jerem. 3 20; (V) the same MS., I'oL 29 la, on Ps. 31 23; 
(VI) the same MS., fol. 3()0a, on Ps. 66 19; (VII) the same MS., 
fol. 305a, on Ps. 82 7; (VIII) the same MS., fol. .H82a, on Job 32 8; 
(IX) Orient 4445, fol. 43a, on Exod. 2 14; (X) Add. 15,250, 
fol. 1886, on 1 Kings 11 2; (XI) Add. 15,251, fol. 232a, on Isa. 
45 15; (XII) the same MS., foL 3586, on Ps. 66 19; (XIII) the 
same MS., fol. 3826, on Job 32 «; (XIV) Add. 21,160, fol. 656, on 
Exod. 2 14 and (XV) the printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 388. 
That the Massorah itself has preserved traces of ancient 
variations as to the number of instances in which this adverb 
occurs, is evident both from the MSS. and the printed Massorah. 
List III states in the heading that there are nineteen such 
instances though it enumerates seventeen only, omitting Jerem. 
3 236. The Massorah Parva in Cambridge Add. 4fi5 on Gen. 28 16 
also states that there are B" = 19. This is not only distinctly 
stated in the printed Massorah Parva both on Gen. 28 16, and 
Exod. 2 14, but in the Massorah Magna on the latter passage. 
When we come to the printed Massorah Finalis, to which the 
Massorahs Magna and Parva refer for the Rubric, the heading 
here states that there are nineteen and actually enumerates 
nineteen giving asb "iiJun as the catchword for one of them. And 
though this passage is nowhere to be found in the textus 
receptus it distinctly recognises a variation. The nineteenth instance 
is manifestly Jerem. 6 2 where the Sevir is pjc instead of p^ as 
may be seen in the note on this passage in my edition of the 
Hebrew Bible. Another ancient record seems to be preserved 
in the printed Massorah Parva on Zeph. 3 7 where it states 
(v p^) that it occurs sixteen times only. 

2')tn = § 492. 

^3K a ploughman, occurs twice in the Scriptures. Of this Rubric 
I collated two Lists: (I) Add. 15,251, fol. 300a, on Amos 5 l« 
and (II) the printed Massorah on Jerem. 61 23 which I have printed. 

rSfn = § 493. 
T5K ^K n'>t not. Twenty-three verses both bec/in with ^k and have 
this adverb of negation in the middle of the verse. Most of these 
instances exhibit the abnormal absence of the prefix Vav in the 
second part of the verse. The Massorah, therefore, guards them 
against the insertion of the Vav on the part of the Scribes. This 
applies also to a large extent to the twenty-nine passages where 
this negative occurs twice in the middle of the verse without 
the Vav before the second b*^ and though I have not been able 
to find a Massoretic List of these instances, it is more than 

' Comp. Gen. 87 22; 49 6; Exod. S4 3; Josh. 7 S; 10 IP; 22 Ifl; Judg. « 14; 
1 Sam. 18 20; 2 Sam. 13 26; 2 Kings 4 16; Isa. 7 4; 61 7; Jerem. 10 2; 18 23; 
Ezek. 7 12; Mlcah 1 10; Zeph. 3 16; Zech. 7 10; 8 I7; Ps. 25 2; 35 22; 37 1; 
75 5; ProT. 24 17; 27 10; Job 3 6; Lament 2 18; EccL 10 20; Ezra » 12. 



K — >< § 494—495. 



64 — 



§ 496—501. X ■ 



probable that some MSS. may yet come to light containing this 
Rubric. 

Of this Rubric I collated nine Lists, seven in MSS. and 
two printed: (I) Arund. Orient. 16, foL 292fe, on Ps. 36 12 which I 
have printed; (II) the same MS., fol. 345a, on Prov. 23 10; (III) the 
same MS., foL 3456, on Prov. 24 15; (IV) Orient 4445, fol. 105«, 
on Levit. 19 31; (V) Add. 21,160, fol. 18»ifc, on the same passage; 
(VI) Vienna Codex No. 35 on Jerem. 43 n ; (VII) Halle Ochlah 
Ve-Ochlah, Supplement, fol. 129o; (VIII) Paris Ochlah Ve-Ochlah, 
§ 320, and (IX) the printed Massorah on 2 Sam. 1 20. 

It is important to remark that eight out of the nine Lists 
expressly state in their respective headings that there are twenty- 
three such verses, though four only catalogue this number and 
though the received text has twenty-six verses in which this 
phenomenon occurs. To show the relationship of these Lists to 
each other as well as to the tescttu reeeptm, I subjoin the following 
Table in which the first column exhibits the Massoretic text. 
The numbers in the several columns indicate the order in which 
these instances are given in the respective Lists: 



IX VIII VII VI 



:^S 23 22 20 23 22 24 l.<i 2» 26 



HTn h» 
nstn h* 
)K»n bit 
iKi»n btt 
unsKD Sk 
noK' b* 

«P2» b* 

'js'Spn bn 

^b* 

X)in b* 

{nn b» 
tSB" b* 

j»n •?« 
afwn bn 
•mnn b*t 
innnn b» 
o^a'jaS b* 
bn^n ^K 
"jnan b» 
lyin b* 



LoTit 19 31 

2 Sam. 1 20 

Isa. 41 10 

„* ■ 43 18 

Jerem. 6 25 

42 11 

Micah 7 6 

Ps. 35 25 

36 12 

38 22 

M 13 

69 7 

71 9 

74 15) 

tOS 16 

» 121 3 

140 9 

ProT. 7 26 

23 10 

24 15 
» » 19 

25 6 



1 Chron. 16 22 



The explanation of the discrepancies in these Lists is supplied 
by List IV which is from the oldest MS. The heading here is 
simply, the following verges Jiave abnormally ^K in the beginning and 
in the middle.^ In this original form of the Massorah we see the 
first attempt to collect these passages and hence so many only 
are enumerated as the compiler was able to find. He, therefore, 
left the List open without fixing the number, as he expected 
other Massorites would complete it But instead of doing so, a 
later Nakdan counted the instances thus catalogued and as is 
often the case supplied it with the numeral heading. In Jacob b. 
Chayim*s printed Massorah cTran b'Pi -SBa i»n*n ^k is a mistake for 
bss "i^a "sea "ttnTi but (Jerem. 42 J 1) and asaba i-to»e but for i-ia»e "sk 
eaba (Ps. 35 2n). 

'nns b» nwy'soi vtn D'piDH p"?*! i 

r)ir\ = § 494. 
V^K yH ^K* Tico verges respectively brgin with bVi and have this 
ni'fftttive twice in the middle. Of this Rubric, which does not occur 
in the printed Massorah, I collated two Lists : (I) Arund. Orient 16, 
fol. IftGi, on Jerem. 14 21 which I have printed and (II) Paris 
Ochlah Ve-Ochlah, § 319. 

iTTtn - § 495. 

xK ^K xK* In Jive verses the negative bK occurs three times. 
That is, in all these passages the repetition of it is abnormally 
without the prefix Vav. Whilst the preceding Rubric registers 
the two instances only where the first of the three negatives 
begins the verse, this Massorah professes to catalogue all the 
Yeraes in the Bjible which exhibit thia phenomenon including 



the two which constitute § 494. This Rubric is from the printed 
Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 407. As there are eight such instances 
in the textus receptus, the Massorite must have based this Massorah 
on Codices in which the second or third b» had the prefix in the 
three passages here omitted (Judg. 19 23 ; Jerem. 22 3 ; Ezek. 20 18). 
The supposition that the MSS. varied with regard to the presence 
or absence of this prefix in the recurrence of ^k in the same 
verse is confirmed by Add. 21,160, fol. 2926. Not only does the 
Massorah here positively state that there are altogether three 
verses only which exhibit this phenomenon, viz. 2 Sam. 13 12; 
Jerem. 14 21: Jonah 3 7, but the verse on whiclvthis Massorah 
is given actually reads v-i-'jki (Jonah 3 7). 

ritn - § 496. 
7K» Five words respectively occur once only combined toith ^ 
That is, these words do either not oc^ur again in combination 
with this adverb of negation or where combined with it this 
negative is bn) with Vav prefix. This Rubric, which is from the 
printed Massorah on Prov. 24 1, is perfectly unintelligible 
since there k are ^db(iut one hundred and sixty words which occur 
once only combined with ^n. There can be no doubt that it is 
simply a small part of a long alphabetical List which catalogued 
the unique combination of words with this adveirb of negation 
and that it represents one instance of letter Pe and a portion 
of letter Tav. This is fully confirmed by the partially illegible 
fragment in the Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah I, foL 666, margin, which 
registers some of the words representing letters Aleph and Beth 
in combination with ^k and which is another piece of this 
alphabetical List. That small portions of long alphabetical Lists 
exhibiting different letters of the Alphabet are of frequent 
occurence in the Massorah may be seen in a very cursory 
examination of the MSS. 

rsn = § 497. 

"lDrt^"7K let it not hick, occurs twice. That is, to distinguish 
it from the combination "iDrr»t'? (Prov. 31 11). This Rubric is 
from the printed Massorah on Eccl. 9 8. In registering such 
combinations, the Massorah takes no notice. of the fact that in 
one of the two instances the verb is in pause and hence the 
Samech has Kametz (ion;). 

n-stn = § 498. 

K^j^X let him not go out, occurs three times in thiS' oom- 
bination in the Scriptures. In the other four instances where this 
future is combined with the negative, it is vtTih (Levit. 21 12; 
25 30; Deui. 24 5; Job 6 6). Of this Rubric I collated seven 
Lists, four in MSS. and three printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, VoLI, 
foL 2646, on 2 Kings 9 15 which I have printed; (H) Add. 15,251, 
fol. 2056, on the same passage; (HI) Add. 2t,i60, lol. 92«, on 
Exod. 16 29; (IV) Vienna Codex No. 35, on 2 Kings 9 15; (V) the 
printed Massorah on Exod. 16 29; (VI) the same on 2 Kings 9 15 
and (VII) the same on 2 Kings 10 25. 

B'Jtn - § 499. 
Dl'^Jfett K'n'^rr^K be not afraid of them, occurs twice. The 
design of this Massorah is to safeguard this phrase against the 
similar combination arafp nnn-^K be not dismayed at them, which 
occurs in close proximity with the second instance. Indeed the 
Massorah Arund. Orient 16, foL 9o, on Josh. 11 6, from which this 
Rubric is taken, actually gives Jerem. 1 17 instead of Jerem. 1 8 as 
the second instance. As this Model Codex contains the most accurate 
redaction of the Massorah, it is evident that the Massorites 
worked upon a recension of the text in which the verbs ri'iji and 
nnn in Jerem. 1 8, 17 were reversed in these two verses. 

p'r\ = § 500. 

tDri"7K put not away, occurs tvme. That is, it is designed to 
safeguard this apocapated Hiphil future second person singular 
masculine from r-^n against vrrbt *«»^ «o'^ the apocapated Kal 
future second person singular from n»ri which occurs once (Prov. 
4 27). It is also designed to distingmsh it from the normal future 
with the negative, i.e. n»ri ^b which occurs three times (Exod. 23 6; 
Deut. 16 19; 24 V7). Of this Rubric, which does not occur in the 
printed Massorah, I collated three Lists: (I) Harley 6710— 1 1, VoL 11^ 
fol- 1806, ou Ps. 27 9 which I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient 16, 
fol. 290a, and (IH) Add. 15,251, fol. 351 o, all on the sawB passage. 

K-'pn «= § 501. 
^t2?Pri"^SI do ye not, occurs three times. That is, to distinguish 
it from the normal phrase ^ir^ri |6 ye shall not do which occurs no 



K — X § 502—506. 



65 



§ 507-512. K — K 



fewer than thirty times. Of this Rubric, which does not occur 
in the printed Massorah, I collated three Lists: (I) Arund. 
Orient. 16, fol. 150ct, on Jerem. 5 10 which I have printed; (II) Add. 
15,251, fol. 21a, on Gen. 19 8 and (III) Vienna Codex No. 35 
on the same passage. 

3"pn = § 502. 

|Bri"^K do not regard, occurs three times. Of this Rubric I 
collated four Lists, three in MSS. and one printed: (I) Add. 21,160, 
fol. 2156; (II) Add. l.'),25l, fol. 93a; (III) Orient. 2349, fol. 1106, 
and (IV) the printed Massorah, all on Numb. 16 15. 

:"pn = § 503. 

IJJ'n'^T'K let them not feed, occurs twice. This Rubric, which 
does not occur in the printed Massorah, is from Harley 5710—11, 
Vol. II, fol. 1136, on Jonah 3 7. 

l"pn = § 504. 

^*Tri"^K do not slack, or desist, occurs three times in the 
Scriptures. Of this Rubric I collated eight Lists, six in MSS. and 
two printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 2186, on Ps. 138 8 
which I have printed; (II) the same MS. Vol. II, fol. 2436, on 
Prov. 4 13; (III) Arund. Orient, 16, fol. 76, on Josh. 10 6; (IV) the 
same MS., fol. 8376, on Prov. 4 13; (V) Add. 15,251, fol. 387ct, 
on the same passage; (VI) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah, Supplement 
fol. 1336; (VII) the printed Massorah on Ps, 138 8 and (VIII) 
the same on Prov. 4 13. 

.Tpfl = § 505. 
"^Kl and not, occurs five times at the beginning of a verse. This 
is the natural import of the heading of this Rubric, which occurs 
in the printed Massorah Finalis only, letter k, § 411. The design 
of this Massorah, which is here given in its incipient form, is 
manifestly to catalogue the passages throughotft the Bible in 
which hvei begins a verse, as the three instances in which it 
begins a verse in Isaiah are mentioned separately,' and the three 
passages in which it commences a verse in the Psalms are 
given in a special Rubric* No question has been raised about 
the meaning -db '»n •: bir where it refers to Tsaiah and the Psalms, 
simply because the heading in these cases coincides with the 
instances enumerated in the Rubrics. The artificial attempt to 
explain away the obvious sense of the heading in the Rubric 
before us' is entirely due to the fact that ^ki begins a verse in 
no fewer than fifteen instances in the Bible,* whereas the 
heading here states that it occurs five times only. The real 
explanation, however, is to be found in the fact that the 
five passages simply exhibit the first attempt of the original 
Massorite to collect these instances and that a later Nakdan, 
as usual, mistook the import of this Rubric and supplied the 
heading in accordance with the enumerated instances. Similar 
cases will be seen in the next two Rubrics. 

> Comp. the Massorah in Arand. Orient, 16 lOB 'hi 'j on Isa. 36 15 and 
the printed Massorah Parva n"T 'J on the same passage. The three instances are 
ba. M 15; 56 3; 62 7. 

» This Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, I have 
given in The Mattorah, Vol. Ill, p. I, § 506, from Orient. 2^75, fol. 74 o on 
Ps. 119 43. 

» Comp. Frensdortt, Matiorelitchu Wmterhuch, p. 212, note 6. Hannover 1876. 

« Comp. 2 Kings 18 30; Isa. .96 15; S6 3; 62 7; Jerem. 25 6; 27 14; 
Amos ft 6; Obad. 12, 14; Ps. 69 18; 119 43; 143 2; Neh. 3 ,97; 2 Chron. 28 6; .SO 7. 

ran - § 506. 

"7K1 and not. Words preceded by -f?>r which respectively 
occur once only in this combination. In all other instances where 
this adverb of negation is combined with the same words it is 
•b» without the prefix Vav. This Rubric is from the St. Petersburg 
Codex of A. D. 916, on Jerem. 14 17. The heading, which is in 
brackets, I have supplied. This List affords a convincing proof of 
the oft-made statement that Rubrics frequently contain only 
the first attempt of the original Massorite who collated instances 
which exhibit the same phenomenon and who left the completion 
of the Lists to his fellow-members of the guild. For this reason 
the first Massorite who designed this Rubric did not supply it 
with the heading, since he could not as yet fix the exact number 
of passages which contained this unique combination. The List, 
however, was never completed, or if completed has not come to 
light For though this incipient form of it catalogues twenty-four 
instances only, there are about thirty-six throughout the Bible, so 



that no fewer than twelve are here omitted.' But even this incipient 
List has been added to by a later Nakdan who mistook its import 
This is evident from the fact that there are three instances in it 
which do not occur again with -^k* and hence are contrary to the 
design of the original Massorite. He catalogued only those 
unique combinations with -"^ki which in other passages have -bn, 
since without this contrast there are no fewer than ninety-nine 
words preceded by -"ski which do not occur, again. 

The only other List of this Rubric which I have been able 
to find is in the printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 408. Not 
only does it give two instances less, viz. !ik3;-'?ki Ps. 69 28 which 
according to the original design of this Massorah is rightly 
omitted and '.J3tpn-^»ti Ps. 27 9 which is wrongly left out (comp. 
':im-b» Ps. 38 22; 71 9, 18; 119 8), but it has already added 
to it the pernicious heading by a later Nakdan which erroneously 
states that there are twenty-two instances only of this unique 
conibination with -b»r. 

' Comp. (1) B^ar^Ki Jerem. 46 6; o^l'^H l Kings 18 40; (2) «t-'?ki 
2 Chron. 15 7; WT-Ijk Zeph. 3 16; (3) «»p«f|-Vin 2 Chron. .32 15; "'aKFi-'?K 
Micah7 6; (4) '^Onn-^lO Jerem. 61 3; '^DHft-SK Jerem, SO 14; (5) Bn-'7«i Provli 6; 
».?-'?« Ptov, 4 27; (6) wnFi-^»i Josh. 10 25, «ftnw-^x Jsa, 51 7; Jerem. 10 2; 
(7) n?Da-^Ki Prov, 5 7, ^-MC^-^K 1 Sam, 12 20; (8) ^DR-hm Prov. 8 33; ^pon-^K 
Levit. 10 6; (9) 3^?.r^«l Prov, 6 8, aipR-'jK Exod,3 5; (10) wis'*"n-'?KiJerem, « 21, 
iHVR-^H Ezra 9 12; (11) ft3'Pi-^Ki i Kings 13 22, HB'fl-^K Levit, 10 9; Judg,13 14; 
(12) 'nsffl-^Ki Judg. 13 4, 'pB'fl-^K Judg. 13 7, 

2 Comp, nj'D-lfl-fjMi Jerem. 14 17; wb;-^K) Ps. 69 28; iWb'b-^ki Esther 4 16, 

rpn = § 507. 

^•>] pJ i" •♦ Seven words respectively occxit ttoice combined tenth 
-bKi. This List I have found in the printed Massorah Finalis 
only, letter k, § 410. It has, suffered at the hands of later 
Nakdanim in exactly the same way as the preceding Rubric, As 
there are no fewer than fifteen such pairs, it is evident that the 
seven here given simply represent the first attempt of the 
original Massorite to collect the instances which exhibit this 
peculiarity. A later Nakdan, however, mistook the List as final 
and hence added the heading which erroneously fixes the number 
at seven. The following eight pairs are omitted: 

w?V?i'^ Neh, 8 10, 11 HBai-Vin given in § 508 

iri^r^Kl Deut 20 8; 31 6 IIIPi-^K] 2 Kings 18 26; Isa, 36 11 

iKfiB-^Ki given in § 511 ts'aPi-fjKi Prov. 1 8; 6 20 

■iJn?|-^Ki Deut. 2 9, 19 "^ft-^Ki Jerem. 25 6; .35 15 

Most of the respective pairs which are catalogued in the 
incipient List as well as of those which are omitted from it, are 
given as separate Rubrics on the respective passages in the MS. 
Massorahs. 

n'pfl = § 508. 

HbD^^KII and let not him make trust, occurs ttoice. Of this 
Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, but which 
constitutes one of the omitted pairs in § 507, I collated two Lists: 
(I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 1366, on Isa. 36 15 which I have printed 
and (II) Vienna Codex No. 35 on 2 Kings 18 30. 

J3"pn = § 509. 
|riri"T5K1 and do not give, occurs three times. Of this Rubric 
I collated two Lists: (I) Orient 2349, fol. 135a, on Deut 21 8, 
which I have printed and (II) the printed Massorah on Joel 2 17. 

»"pn = § 510. 

*TOPr)"7Kn and do not stay, occurs ttoice. This forms the 
seventh pair in § 507. 

K'-'pfl = § 511. 
iJ«|ir)"^Kl and do not desire, occurs ttoice .... and once it is 
-^K without the Vav prefix. This pair, which is omitted in § 507, is 
from the printed Massorah on Prov. 24 1. 



3'»pn = § 512. 

"?K occurs twice in a secular sense in the Scriptures. That 
is, this expression which normally diBnotes the. divine name God, 
is in these two instances abnormally the shortened form of the 
secular pronoun n>K thes^:. This Rubric, which does not occur in 
the printed Massorah, is from Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 2896, 
on Ezra 5 15, It will be seen that the Kethiv in Ezra 5 15 ha^ 
the normal pronoun n^ It is the Keri which is bir and the 
Massorah as usual does not recognise the textual reading. 



K § 618— 516. 



66 



§ 51G— 620. S — H 



r»pn - § 618. 

hnn is in eight passage, vted for n^ these. That is, this 
triliteraiVith exactiy the same vowel-points, which in aU the 
other nineteen instances where it occurs, denotes Ood, is in 
these eight passages used as the pronoun r^ these. Of this 
Rubric I collated eight Lists, seven in MSS. and one printed: 
(I) Harley 6710-11, VoL I, fol. Ho, on Gen. 19 8 which I have 
printed; (II) the same MS., VoL I, fol. 16a, on Gen. 26 3; (IH) 
the same MS., Vol. I, foL 766, on Levit 18 27; (IV) the same 
MS., Vol. I, foL ll7fl. on Deut 7 22; (V) Add. 21,160, fol. 176, 
on Gen. 26 8; (VI) Orient 2349, foL 134o, on Deut 19 ll; 
(VII) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, § 88, and (VHI) the printed 
Massorah on Gen. 26 3. u t • * 

Though the heading of this Rubric is in most of the Lasts 
either "jin pw"? 'n or n^Kpwb'n yet at the end of Lists I and II 
where the Massorite refers to the two instances without the prefix 
He (§ 512) he states that the Sevir is n^K. The printed Massorah, 
too, on Gen. 19 25, where it simply gives the heading of this 
Rubric and refers to Gen. 26 3 for the Lists, emphatically states 
that the Seoir is rf!>n in all these instances. The same fact the 
printed Massorah 'repeats on Gen. 26 8 where the List is duly 
given. 

T»pn - § 614a. 
-^K to, or agairut. For both -b^ and -bRi in this Verte the Sevir 
i» T^ against A«- and rvb^ and against her. This Rubric, which I 
have printed in the Massorah, VoL m, p. 1, § 514, is from my 
own MS. on Jerem. 51 3. For other variations on this passage see 
the Introduction to the MassoreHco- Critical edition of the Hebrew 
Bible, pp. 817, 529. 

T'pn - § 6146. 
b^ hii* In seven in^ances the texttuil reading or Keihiv is -b^f 
unto, a^ the official reading or Ken is -«?S upon .... About aU of 
them, however, there is a difference of opinion, but the last two are 
80 read by the Swra%. This Rubric, which is of supreme importance 
to textual criticism, I have found only in the St Petersburg 
Codex of A. D. 916 on Ezek. 13 2. It discloses the following 
facts- (1) In four of the seven passages, where this Rubric states 
that the textual reading is -hn, viz. 1 Kings 20 43; Cant 2 17; 
Dan 9 17- Neh. 3 37, it is -S? in the textus receptus; (2) three of 
these seven passages, which are described as having \^'^l'^^* 
viz Eiek. 13 2; Dan. 9 17; Neh. 8 37, have no such official 
marginal reading in the textus receptus; but in aU these three 
passages ^V is the substantive reading according to the Eastern 
recension without the textual readitig or Kethiv -bif, (3) in the 
two passages where the Westerns read -htf and the Easterns -hf 
(Ezek 13 17; Neh. 8 37) neither of these Schools accordmg to 
the officialList exhibits an alternative reading or Kethiv and Ke,i^ 
and (4) the printed Massorah Parva on Ezek. 13 2 which refers 
to the existence of these variations, but does not enumerate them, 
not only states that there are five, but what is more important 
•calls these Keris by the interchangeable name Sevinn (•ri-'?j 
^V rrao). That these simply represent the few instances which 
were preserved in one School of textual redactors, and that 
there are many more instances where the Sevir on -^»« »n"St 
Tave been -hi is evident from Josh. 16 18; 17 4; 1 Sam. 24 7; 
2 Sam. 1 24; Jerem. 30 4; 33 14; 86 15, 17; Ezek. 12 19; 17 2; 
21 7 &C. In several of these instances some MSS. and editions 
read -bv as may be seen from the notes on these passages in 
my edition of the Bible. 

Another important Rubric, recording the variations which were 
preserved in the different Massoretic Schools with regard to 'b\^ 
and -hv, I found ih the splendid Codex marked No. 1—3 of A.D.1286 
in the National Library, Paris on Josh. 6 14. It is as follows: 
aiei. '»i 2 Sam. 14 M "01 "^ ^w nmo'j :hn 'J > 

nn?r*n nprnn lia. V t vvm* ^'' ^°*^ * ** 

The latter U -hv in the textus receptus and -^ according to 
the Easterns. 

> Bwides the omdal List, we have the «<>"o^»»« *»t«'*'*|°«JSI?* '° 
the printed Massorah on Neh. » 37. ,«rS« '-"^ .«»r^ l^^f^ '»™ ^"'^ 
osir^Ki '1DH '»nim. Here, therefore, no mentton Is made of a K^luv and Ken. 

ropn - § 616. 

^, In three passages in the Bmtateuch -hK is taken to denote 
^....The Sura% add a fomiJt, viz. Gen. 41 55. I have mislaid 
the reference to the MS. from which this Rubric is taken. 



ropn - § 616. 

"SK 'TDB 1» In four verses the preposition -^« occurs first 
three tim^ and is followed by M- That is, the prepositions foUow 
this order and no regard is had to the fact that two instances 
only are strictly in accordance with the heading (2 Sam. 14 38; 
Ezek. 10 2), and that in the third passage (Jerem. 48 21) the 
third -b» and -h^ have both the prefix Vav, whilst in the fourth 
passage '(Neh. 4 8) the second -b* is with this prefix. Of this 
Rubric I collated four Lists, two in MSS. and two printed: 

(I) Add. 15,251, foL 423a, on Neh. 4 8 which I have printed; 

(II) Arund. Orient 16, foL 381 6, on the same passage; (lU) Paris 
Ochlah Ve-Ochlah § 354 and (IV) the printed Massorah on 
Ezek. 10 2. With the exception of List III all the other Lists 
state in the heading that there are four verses only which 
exhibit this peculiarity. Lists II and IV, however, give the 
catchwords for the fourth verses n-Mcn "jw tr^m "jk -naKi oipKi nir. 
As these words represent two distinct verses of the same chapter, 

•viz. Neh. 4 8 and 13, List III states more corractiy that there 
are five such verses and properly separates the catchwords into 
two instances. The heading in List, H, viz. "jk bin ^Ki Vie 'DB "i 
which is also given in' the Massorah Parva of the same MS. is 
manifestiy diie to a clerical error. 

rpn - § 517. 

^Kl *?«♦ In three verses the preposition -«?k is followed four 
times by this' preposition with th^ prefix, i. e. by -b^. Here too the 
sequence of four times -bw} with the prefix after -bi(, is emphasised 
though in one verse (Jerem. 27 3) h^ without the prefix occurs 
again after the four instances with the prefix. Of this Rubric 
I collated three Lists: (I) Paris Ochlah Ve-Ochlah § 355; (11) the 
printed Massorah on Jerem. 27 8 and (HI) the printed Massorah 
FinaUs, letter k, § 894. Not only is the heading in List HI wrong 
•?»< bm bvi b» crpiDB % but the catchword on"'??! is a clerical error 
for onnbw - Jerem. 27 3. The Massorah FinaUs, letter k, § 391, 
also mentions this Rubric and refers to the Massorah on 
Jerem. 27 8 for the List But here too the heading in the 
Massorah Finalis bn btr, b»r "tki "rir «» 'icb 'J is incorrect, since it is 
in one passage only (Jerem. 27 3) tiiat «?!( follows the four 
instances of "jic and the manifest design of tiie Massorah is to 
catalogue the four instances of bvn after «?»t It is evident that 
Jacob b. Chayim did not see that Rubrics 91 and 94 in his 
Massorah Finalis and the Massorah on Jerem. 27 3 are identicaL 

n'»pn - § 618. 

bn bp bn* In seven verses the preposition b\f occurs first, ihen 
bi and^thenb^ again. Of this Rubric I collated ten Lists, seven 
in MSS. and three printed: (I) Harley 6710-11, VoL I, foL 6a, 
on Gen. 8 9 which I have printed; (H) the same MS., VoL I, 
foL 203a, on 2 Sam. 11 n ; (HI) Arund. Orient. 16, foL 13a, on 
Josh. 18 16; (IV) the pame MS., foL 806, on 1 Kings 6 8; (V) the 
same MS., foL 95 a, on 1 Kings 20 30; (VI) Vienna Codex No. 36 
on Gen. 8 9; (VII) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah I, § 158; (VHI) Pans 
Ochlah Ve-Ochlah § 353; (IX) the printed Massorah on Gen. 8 9 
and (X) the same on Josh. 18 IC. 

^•"'pn = § 619. 

b}9 bp bn* In eighteen verses the preposition -«?*( occurs first 
and is ihen'folhtoed twice by bv.. Of this Rubric I collated thirteen 
Lists, ten in MSS. and three printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, 
foL 286, on Gen. 42 21 which I have printed; (H) the same MS., 
VoL I, foL 626, on Exod. 40 20; (IH) Arund. Orient 16, foL 4 1 6, 
on 1 Sam. 16 1; (IV) the same MS., foL 90 6, on 1 Kings 15 20; 
(V) the same MS., foL 1276, on Isa. 22 15; (VI) the same MS., 
foL 3796, on Neh. 1 6; (VH) Add. 21,160, foL 48a, on Gen. 42 21; 
(VIII) the same MS., foL 112a, on Exod. 28 80; (IX) tiie same 
MS., foL 2726, on Deut 11 29; (X) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah I, 
§ 168; (XI) Paris Ochlah Ve-Ochlah § 361; (XII) the printed 
Massorah on Exod. 40 20; and (XIH) tiie printed Massorah 
Finalis, letter », § 171. 

Lists II, IV, VI, XI and XHI head tiiis Rubric 'Mtt-^- 
nineteen verses and give Ezek. 48 21 as one of tiie verses. 

D'pn = § 620. 
bV\ bPI bv b^* Four verses in this book [L e. Jeremiah] 
are alike" in' that' the "preposition b^ occurs first and is ihen fotl-^ved 
several times by bv the first without the prefix Vav and the others are tctth 
it. This Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, is 
from Orient 1474, fol. 11 6, on Jerem. 7 20. One instance only, vii. 
Jerem. 44 20, exactly answers to tiie heading. In the first and 



H — K § 621a— d— 622 o— 5. 



67 



§ 523— 524a— fc X — K 



aeoond passages ^^^ is followed once by -bp and three times by 
•bg^ whilst in the fourth passage it is followed six times by 
-^yi. The design of the Massorah is simply to emphasise the 
uniform sequence of -bf after the solitary -^jt 

K'3pn = § 521a— d. 
^?K« Words which retpeelively occur once only preceded ty thU 
prepoeUion. That is, in the exceptional instances where these words 
occur again in combination with this preposition, it is -^ki with 
the prefix Vav. 

The four Rubrics which are here marked §§ 521a, 52 1 i, 
621c and 521(2 show in a striking manner the gradual development 
Qf the Massorah. The first fragment, which catalogues twelve 
instances only, discloses the fact tnat the original Massorite 
collated the words in this combination which begin with He and 
that he designed it as a part of an alphabetical List. But in the 
Massorah of the ancient Codex Orient. 4445, fol. 137a, on 
Numb. 17 28, where fourteen instances exhibiting this peculiarity 
are given, they are still without alphabetical order nor are they 
arranged according to the sequence of the books. In Rubric 521 6, 
however, we have already the instances which the compiler of 
this List collated, arranged in a limited alphabet. But he too, like 
the compilers of the fragments, furnished no heading nor does 
he give the catchwords for the respective passages. It will be 
seen that he gives two words only to represent letter He and 
that neither is among the twelve given in § 521a as representing 
combinations with words which begin with this letter. 

The most developed form of this Massorah is exhibited in 
§ 521c. Not only are the different letters which compose the 
alphabet increased in number, but the List is supplied with a 
heading and catchwords are given in each instance to facilitate 
the identification of the respective passages. Because letter Vav 
is not represented, this alphabetical List is described in the 
heading as yfy^ « incomplete, I e. wanting this letter. Of this 
Rubric I collated four Lists, one, in MS. and three printed: 
(I) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah I, § J 56, which I have printed; 
(H) Paris Ochlah Ve-Ochlah § 77; (III) the printed Massorah on 
2 Kings 17 4 and (IV) the printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 412. 
Rubric 62id which is from Harley 6710-11, VoLI, fol. 17a, 
on €ren. 27 9 is remarkable. This List does not record the 
instances which exhibit this combination alphabetically as is the 
case in the former recensions, but acioording to the order of the 
books. It is, therefore, evident that the two different recensions 
do not emanate from one and the same School of Massorites. 

It will be seen ^at the two recensions of the Lists, viz. 
the alphabetical and the book sequence vary in the number of 
instances which they respectively record as exhibiting this 
combination. List 521 6 gives ; thirty-two. List 521c givies sixty, 
whilst List 521(2 gives fifty-seven. When it is stated that there 
are nearly five hundred such unique combinations with -^k it 
will readily be conceded that even the longest List gives simply 
a fragment of the actual number, and that the original Massorites 
left it to their colleagues gradually to complete the Rubric. 
In 521(2 Judg. 7 17 should be Judg. 7 G. 

3'3pn - § 622a— ft. 

■^K* The foUowing taords throughout the Scriptures are always 
eominned with -hn, hut never with -^^. Though § 522a, which is 
from Arund. Orient 16, foL 196 &, on Ezek. 44 30, has no heading 
in the MS. the heading of the identical Rubric 522b, which is 
from the printed Massorah Finalis, letter % § 402, emphatically 
states that this Massorah records words which occur several times 
in combination with •*?», but never with 'b^ It is, therefore, 
designed as a contrast to the preceding Rubric. That Rubric 
registers words which occur once only in combination with -htf, 
bat when they occur again combined with this preposition, they 
are preceded by -bifi with the prefix Vav. 

Accordingly both recensions of this List which are arranged 
alphabetically, the one exhibiting an incomplete alphabet with 
nineteen instances, and the other a complete one with thirty 
instances, suffer from serious corruptions: (1) They contain six 
instances which severally occur once only and which, therefore, 
belong to the preceding Rubric, viz. ^aa-"?!* Exod. 86 2; yrr^-b^ 
Judg. 19 22; D^a-^(t I Sam 1 19; wri^-^K Numb. 38 18; •'(Olpfi-^ 
Numb. 24 11 and rit:^* Neh. 8 13. This is evident from the fact 
that there are more than four hundred and seventy unique 
combinations with -^ which do not occur with -hvn; (2) though 
the heading distinctly declares that none of the words recorded 
in this Massorah occur with -bir, no fewer than six are combined 
with -f?jn, viz. r|py|t-V>n i Sam.' 28 8, 26; ?ij«rr-^ Josh. 21 i; 



Hag. 1 1; 2 2; loipo-^|n EccL 1 5; rr^bx] Isa. 51 2^ ntrrb^, 
Jerem. 3 6; Zech. 3 10; n^iiri-bKi Neh. 1 11 and (8) three 
combinations are recorded which do not occur in the textus 
reeeptus, viz. -pair^K -ajT^rar^K and -["sa-^. In the received text we 
have once aK'brnr^Ki (Exod. 36 2). It is more than probable that these 
corruptions are due to a later Nakdan who arranged the original 
materials alphabetically. Mistaking the import of this Massorah 
he added these instances in order to obtain a respectable alphabet 

rDpn = § 523. 
■7X» Words which are exceptionally combined with -^k, but 
which are normally in construction with the preposition -bp. Of 
this Rubric I collated the following Lists: (I) In the Dikduke 
Ha-Teamim edited by Baer and Strack, § 74, pp. 68—71, which 
I have printed; (EL) Bodl. MS. No. 179, fol. 5a, which I have 
printed in the Massorah VoL III, p. 1, § 523; (IH) Codex Tzufut- 
Kale No. 17 which I have printed in Vol. HI, p. 292, § 93; (IV) 
Codex Tzufut-Kale No. 15 which I have printed in Vol. Ill, p. 305, 
§ 45; (V) British Museum Orient 4227, fol. 278&, where it forms 
part of the mpnrjibn and (VI) the separate portions of it in the 
Massorah in Orient 4445; on Gen. 42 17, fol. 32a; on Numb. 4 12, 
fol. 120a; on Numb. 31 8, foL 151a— 6. 

T3pn = § 524a -fc. 

■^P f^K» An alphahetical List of words which respectively occur 
twice, once preceded by ->?»( and once by -"??. The earlier portions 
of this Rubric, viz. 524 a — g, as is the (jase in Rubric 521, furnish 
again an illustration of the gradual manner in which the Massorah 
was developed. In Orient 4445, fols. 83a, 151 &, where the two 
primitive fragments of this Massorah are given on Gen. 39 17 
and Numb. 31 8, the first recording nineteen pairs and the 
second nine pairs, the attempt to arrange the comparatively few 
instances in alphabetical order is still very irregular. More 
successful are the fragments consisting respectively of fourteen, 
three, four, seven, five and twenty pairs in § 524a — g which I 
have printed from Harley 5710—11, on Gen. 48 22; Exod. 2 15; 
Numb. 36 8; Exod. 9 14; 1 Chron. 13 7; Vol. I, fols. 33a, 866, 
40a, Vol. II, fol. 139 a, as well as from Arund. Orient 16, fols. 76i, 
377a, on 1 Kings 1 23 and Ezra 8 17. 

In §§ 624^ and 524t we have already these pairs ranged 
in alphabetical order. But even here the Lists do not contain 
all the instances in the Bible. List 524 A gives thirty-two pairs 
only, whilst List 624t, which is from the St Petersburg Codex of 
A. D. 916, on Ezek. 21 26 and which, therefore, exhibits the 
oldest alphabet, not only gives one example for each letter, but 
omits the pair for letter Ayin (r) and as no. instances exist to 
represent letter Vav (i), records twenty pairs only. 

The most complete Rubric is that given in , § 524X; and 
the extensive catchwords attached to each passage show thajt- it 
is a later recension. Of it I collated three Lists: (I) Halle Ochlah 
Ve-Ochlah I, § 2, which I have printed; (H) Paris Ochlah Ve-Ochlah 
§ 2, and (IH) the printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 413. Lists 
I and in are identical. They not only tabulate the same seventy- 
two pairs, but give the same catchwords, thus affording anoUier 
conclusive proof that Jacob b. Chayim took the greater part of 
his Massoretic Lists from this recension of the Ochlah Ve-Ochlah 
as stated by Levita. 

This extensive Rubric, however, contains passages some of 
which are erroneous and some which cannot be reconciled 
with the present textus reeeptus. There are also omissions in it 
which are manifestly due to the oversight of the compiler, as 
will be seen from the following analysis: (I) the combination 
wnir^ does not occur, •utik is twice preceded by the preposition, 
and in both instances it is -bp. Moreover it is w-n^ the singular 
in one passage (Gen. 42 21) and n^nit the plural in the other 
(1 Chron. 13 2). Yet this pair is not only given in all the three 
Lists of 624fc, but in § 524o; § b2ig and § 524^; (2) Bipr*?? the 
second of the fifth pair does not occur, though it is not only 
given in all the three Lists of 521fc, but in § 624a, and § 524^; 
(8) npartK which is the first of the thirteenth pair and in 
all the three Lists of 524 X; and in § 624 A, occurs twice 
(Josh. 6 8; 1 Sam. 10 5) and hence does not belong to these 
unique combinations; (4) njnarr^j which is given as the second of 
the twenty-seventh pair in Lists I and III of Rubric 624 X;* as 
well as in § 524 &, does not occur and is omitted in List 11 of 
Rubric 624ik; (5) a««"-«?p which is given as the s^nd of the 
thirty-ninth pair not only in all the three Lists o| Rubric 624 X;, 
but in § 524 A, does not occur. The pair to it, which is a^^yi 
(Zech. 12 10) with the prefix Vav does not belong to this Rubric; 
(6) r9i«»po-^ which is given as the first member of the fifty-third 



8 — K § 525—529. 



-- 68 



§ 530—535. K — ^^ 



pair both in Lists I and III does not occur, whilst nsK^a-Sp the 
pair to it occurs three times (Ezra 3 8; 1 Chron, 9 19; 23 4); 
(7) the first member of the fifty-fourth pair is ntoya-'?Ki with 
Vav prefix which is against the import of this Massorah and 
yet it is given in all the three Lists of Rubric 524 fc (8) "i^-bs 
the second member of the sixteenth pair does not occur. The 
instance here given in all the three Lists of Rubric b2ik is 
"z^-bj?-! with the prefix Vav which is contrary to the import of 
this Massorah, and (9) i'^p-bvi the first member of the sixty- 
seventh pair which is given in Lists I and III of Rubric 524 fc 
does not occur and though it is omitted in List II of this 
Rubric it is given in the first fragment of the ancient Codex 
Orient. 4445, fol. 83a, on Exod. 39 17. 

The following four pairs are omitte^ (1) im-b^ Levit. 13 2, 
nri»-by Gen. 23 2; (2) nin3ton-'?K Isa. 17 8, n^rowrrbv 2 Kings 23 20; 
(3) Bi'-bK 1 Chron. 16 23, Bl'-bjr i Sam. 26 8 and (4) rre-^K Zech. 6 8, 
.'TB-'?? 1 Kings 7 31. 

n-Dpn = § 525. 

"^P '"^^5♦ Ten worda for twenty pairs] are twice preceded by 
•bvi and twice by -bv.. Of this Rubric I collated five Lists, three in 
MSS. and two printed: (I) Harley 6710—11, Vol. I, fol. 36&, on 
Exod. 4 18 which I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 313fl, 
on Ps. 115 1; (III) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah I, § 156; (IV) Paris 
Ochlah Ve-Ochlah § 88 » and (V) the printed Massorah Finalis, 
letter r, § 168. 

T'Dpn = § 526. 

"T^P"] "7P "^K* 8ix groups of words are respectively preceded 
once by -bvi^ once by -br and once by -bv]. Of this Rubric I collated 
eight Lists, six in MSS. and two printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, 
Vol. I, fol. 41 &, on Exod. 12 22 which I have printed; (II) the 
same MS. Vol. II, fol. 576, on Jerem. 36 29; (III) Orient. 4445, 
fol. 526, on Exod. 12 22; (IV) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 34a, on 
Judg. 21 6; (V) the same MS., fol. 2775, on 2 Chron. 32 9; 
(VI) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah, I § 156; (VII) Paris Ochlah Ve- 
Ochlah § 89 and (VIII) the printed Massorah Finalis, letters, § 169. 

rspn = § 527. 

^''riDK^T'K to thy fathers, occurs tivice combined in the 
Scriptures. The design of this Massorah is to safeguard the 
reading -bvi in 2 Chron. 34 28, since both some MSS. and the 
editio princeps of the Hagiographa read it -b$ in accordance with 
the parallel passage in 2 Kings 22 20. Of this Rubric, which 
does not occur in the printed Massorah, I collated two Lists: 
(I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 171a, on 2 Chron. 34 28 which 

1 have printed and (II) Add. 15,251, fol. 196, on Gen. 15 15. 

n-Dpn = § 528. 

ilD jSri^K into the land, occurs six times in this combination. 
The design of this Massorah is two -fold. It is to guard it against 
the normal expression pKrr'pK into the land or country, since this 
is the sense in five out of the six passages which constitute this 
Rubric. And in the second place it is to safeguard this excep- 
tional combination of the preposition -bn with nonKn, since in all 
the other twenty-two passages where nanKn is preceded by the 
preposition it is -b^ and not -b»^ 

Of this Rubric I collated seven Lists, five in MSS. and two 
printed: (I) Harley r.710— 11, Vol. II, fol. 565, on Jerem. 35 15 
which I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 835, on 1 Kings 
8 34; (III) the same MS., fol. 1705, on Jerem. 35 15; (IV) Add 
15,251, fol. 122a, on Deut. 31 20; (V) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah ij 
§ 159; (VI) the printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 81 and 
(VII) the same letter k, § 422. 

» Comp. Gen. 7 8; Exod. 10 6; 20 12; Xuinb. 11 12; Deut. 4 10, 40; 
5 16; 7 13; 11 9, 21; 12 1; 25 15; 28 11; 30 18, 20; 31 13; 32 47; 1 Sam. 20 31;' 

2 Sam. 17 12; Isa. 24 21; Jerem. 2fi 6; Ezek. 88 2>K 



In the second place it is to safeguard the combination -bn 
with na*!K, since in the other six passages, where nanK is preceded 
by the preposition, it is -br and not -b«.^ 

Of this Rubric I collated six Lists, five in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 775, on Ezek. 12 19 which 
I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 179a, on Ezek. 20 42; 
(III) the same MS., fol. 183a, on Ezek. 37 12; (IV) Vienna Codex 
No. 35 on Ezek. 20 42; (V) the same Codex on Ezek. 37 12 and 
(VI) the printed Massorah on Ezek. 12^ 1 9. 

Lists III, IV, V and VI head the Rubric h nonK-'?tf! na-iK-'jK 
which is more correct, since in three instances the preposition 
has the prefix Vav (Ezek. 13 9; 20 38; 25 3), whilst Lists II and 
VI have also Kiroa h = eight times in this book because all the 
instances occur in Ezekiel. 

> Comp. Ezek. 12 22; 18 2; 33 24; 36 6; 38 18, 19. 

ypn = § 530. 
D''(^^K"T'i<{ to God, occurs three times in the Pentateuch and in 

the Prophets and three times in the Psalms. In all the other 

twenty instances where this combination occurs, it is D",i'?Kn-'?»c 
with the article. The three passages in the Psalms are 55 17; 
62 2; 84 8. This Rubric, which does not occur in the printed 
Massorah, is not quite correct since o"ri^K-'?K occurs four times 
in the Pentateuch and the Prophets, Hos. 3 1 is here omitted. 
I mislaid the reference to the MS. from which it is taken. 

H'bpn = § 531. 

ni?3*lK"^K to the four, occurs four times. This Rubric, which 
does not occur in the printed Massorah, is from Orient. 1474, 
fol. 795, on Ezek. 10 11. It is designed to exclude the Keri ra-ix 
in Ezek. 46 21 which is to be found in some MSS. and is given 
in the St. Petersburg Codex of A. D. 916: 

2"bpn = § 532. 

IIXn^KI |"lKiT'^K to the ark, occurs three times. That is 
in three instances p«rr is preceded by -^k without and with the 
prefix Vav. In the other eight passages, where it is in combination 
with the preposition, it is -b$ and not -bH.^ This Rubric is from 
the printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 710. 

' Comp. Exod. 25 21; 
13 10; 2 Chron. 6 8. 



40 3, 20, 20; Levit. 16 2; 1 Kings 8 7; 1 Chron. 



tS'Dpn = § 529. 
i^tt |K"7K to the land of [Israel], occurs eight times in this 
combination [in Ezekiel]. The same two-fold reason which is at 
the basis of the preceding Massorah also underlies this Rubric. 
It is designed in the first place to safeguard this combination 
against the interchangeable phrase ^jnftr j^k -'?k. This is evident 
from the following Massorah in Arund, Orient' 1«, fol. 184 a, on 
Ezek. 27 17 throughout this book [Ezekiel] it is bw^^_ na-iK except in 
three instances where it is b^niB^fM, viz. Ezek. 27 17; 40 2; 47 18. » 

bit «3»i2n d'hSk niinaa htmtr jmn min» b»Di Wuc p* Jbb htnv nom mao bs » 

.ptn f2D onp rum htrten pn 



2'bpn = § 533. 

J^KrP!?K to the land, occurs four times in this combination 

in the other passages in this book it is n^n"^?- '^^^^^ *s, in these 
four passages only is p»-r preceded by -bvi in Genesis, whilst in 
the thirty-one other instances where it is combined with the 
preposition it is -bs ' and not -^r. This Rubric is from the printed 
Massorah on Gen. 12 1 where it is given twice. 

' Comp. Gen. 1 11, 15, 17, 20, 26, 28, 30; 2 5; 6 12, 17; 7 4, 6, 10, 12, 14, 
17, 18, 19, 21, 21, 24; 8 1, 17, 17, 19; d 14, 16, 17; 19 23; 41 34; 42 6. 

Tbpn = § 534. 

piKri"7'K» Throughout Leviticus it is fnKrrby except in three 
instances where it is y9K^b% In Leviticus, where jnwi is eleven times 
preceded by the preposition, it is in eight instances fnKrr^y » and 
in three passages only is it combined with -«?k. Hence the 
Massorah records the exceptional combination. This Rubric, which 
does not occur in the printed Massorah, is from Add. 15,251, 
fol. 76a, on Levit. 19 23. 

« Comp. I^vU. 11 2, 21, 29, 41, 42, 44, 46; 25 18. 



•T^pfl = § 535. 
P^KTr^K occurs five times in this book, i. e. Ezekiel. In 
Ezekiel jn^n is seven times preceded by -^y' and six t'mes by 
-b^ The Massorah, therefore, catalogues the minority. This Rubric, 
which does not occur in the printed Massorah, is from Orient. 1474, 
fol. 835, on Ezek. 14 19, and is designed to exclude the Eastern 
reading rwrbt in 14 19. It is remarkable that Ezek. 13 14 which is 
also n^CT^K is omitted. The meaningless addition o'oo 'This\ at 
the end of the Rubric is simply intended to fill up the line in 
the MS. 



> Comp. Ezek. 14 17; 24 7; 2C 16; 



I 18; 3S 8; M 18; S7 26. 



K — K § 536a— 687. 



69 



§ 688— 648. It — M 



ripn = § 536a. 

yyfT'hp '|nKrr7K» This Rubric, which records the in- 
stances in the Pentateuch where pKn is preceded by the pre- 
position 'bvt and where it Is combined with -^y, does not occur 
in the printed Massorah in this separate form. I have printed 
it from the Massorah in the Vienna Codex No. 35 on Exod. 16 14. 

We have already seen that Rubrics 533 and 534 catalogue 
the instances in Genesis and Leviticus. These separate Lists 
exhibit the original form in which the Masso rites laboured on 
the individual books of the Bible. The Rubric before us embraces 
the whole Pentateuch and shows the artificial manner in which 
the several Lists have been linked together at a later period. 

Genem. — In Genesis, where the combination y^yb$ is the 
rule and fitn-bH the exception, the Massorites record the 
exception. Vide supra, § 533. 

Exodus. — In Exodus, where fn^'T^** occurs three times 
(6 8; 13 25; 33 1) and f^rrb^ once only, the exceptional instance 
is safeguarded. 

Leviticus. — In Leviticus, where p«n-^y occurs eight times 
and y^b* tliree times only, the minority is registered. Vide 
supra, § 534. 

Numbers and Devieronomy are joined together. In these two 
books fjKrrbK is the rule. It occurs no fewer than twenty-nine 
times,! whilst the combination fnKrr'?p occurs eleven times only, 
the Massorah registers the minority. 

> Comp. n.Hn-'^K Numb. 13 27; 14 3, 8, 16, 24, 30; 15 18; 20 12, 24; 82 7, 9; 
34 2; Deut. 2 29; 4 21; 6 10; 7 1; 9 2; 11 29; 17 14; 18 9; 26 1, 3; 27 2, 3; 
30 5; 31 7, 21, 23; 32 52. 

rbpn = § 5865. 

This Rubric is a still further development and records 
these combinations throughout the whole Bible. With the 
exception of the difference in the arrangement of the catchwords, 
the part which catalogues the instances in Genesis, Exodus and 
Leviticus is the same. The other two books, however, viz. 
Numbers and Deuteronomy, this Massorah combines with Joshua, 
Judges and Samuel. When it is borne in mind that fnKrrbK occurs 
once only in Joshua (1 2) and once in Judges (2 1) and that it 
does not occur at all in Samuel, whilst pKn-*?? does not occur 
at all in Joshua and Judges and only once in Samuel, it will be 
seen that the sentence and throughout the rest of the Pentateuch, 
Joshua, Judges and Samuel it is likewise p»T''l' except in 
twelve instances where it is pKTi-^y, which groups these books 
together, is not only highly artificial, but misleading to those 
who are not conversant with the language of the Massorah. 

Khigs. — In Kings, where f'^Krb^ occurs five times » and 
pKrr^H once, the single instance is safeguarded. 

Isaiah. — In Isaiah, where pKn-^x occurs twice (36 10; 
61 6) and y^*rrb:s twice, the former is recorded. 

Jeremiah. — In Jeremiah, where yy^rrbii occurs eight times 
(3 18; 16 13; 22 26, 28; 24 6; 26 9, I3;"6b 21) and pKrr«?^ twice 
only, the minority is given. 

Etekiel. — This book is artificially divided into two parts 
for the purpose of Massoretic annotation in connection with this 
Rubric. In the first part, which includes Ezek. 1—21 pKrr^R 
occurs five times (13 14; 14 19; 20 15, 28, 42) and y^bs 
only once, the single instance is recorded. In the second 
part of Ezekiel, however, where pKrrfjp is the rule and where 
it occurs six times (24 7; 26 16; 28 18; 33 3; 36 18; 37 25) 
and f^K^bv, the exception and. where it occurs once only, the 
single instance is recorded. 

In the rest of the Scriptures, where f^Krrbn is the rule and 
where it occurs no fewer than fourteen times' whilst r^rr^K occurs 
twice only, the exception is recorded- 

Of this Rubric I collated two Lists: (I) Halle Ochlah Ve- 
Ochlah I, § 160 which I have printed and (II) the printed Massorah 
Finalis, letter x, § 74s. The latter portion of this Rubric, which 
treats on the second part of Ezekiel and the rest of the 
Scriptures, is also given separately in the printed Massorah on 
Ezekiel 14 17. The catchwords taniwoD bra ry-n - Ezek. 26 16, which 
are not only given in both the complete Lists, but also in the 
fragment, are manifestly a mistake for BTnrjKO ni^ = 27 29. 

' Comp. n??"^ 1 Kings 8 27; 2 Kings 11 3; 1& 19; 18 25; 23 33. 
» Comp. n??"^ Hag. 1 11; Ps. 103 11; 105 16; Ecd. 5 1; 8 14, 16; 10 7; 
11 2, 3; 12 7; Esther 10 1; 1 Ohron. 2» 16; 2 Chron. 6 18; 22 12. 

Vbpr\ = § 537. 
trUOK to his land, occurs twice. This Rubric, which does 
not occur in the printed Massorah, is from Arund. Orient* 16, 



fol. 184 a, on Isa. 87 7. As this phrase occurs .four times in the 
textus receptus, it is remarkable that this Model Codex should 
omit 1 Kings 22 36 and Isa. 13 14. The omission of 1 Kings 22 36 
may be due to the fact that some ancient Codices read it 
lantr^Ki instead of the present reading lariK-^K Bhjtv This is attested 
not only by the Septuagint and Vulgate, but'by the editio princeps 
of the Prophets, Soncino 1485, and the first edition of the 
Bible, Soncino 1488. For the omission of Isaiah 13 14 I cannot 
account 

n'^pn = § 588. 

^^tf'^^K whither, occurs Jive times. Of this Rubric I collated 
ten Lists, eight in MSS. and two printed: (I) Harley 5710— li. 
Vol. I, fol. 57a, on Exod. 32 34 which I have printed; (II) the 
same MS., Vol I, fol. 109 a, on Numb. 33 54; (III) the same MS., 
Vol. II, fol. 706, on Ezek. 1 12; (IV) the same MS., Vol. H, 
fol. 986, on Ezek. 42 14; (V) the same MS., VoL n, fol. 2586, 
on Ruth 1 16; (VI) Orient 4445, fol. 75 6, on Exod. 32 34; 
(VII) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 1946, on Ezek. 42 14; (VIII) Halle 
Ochlah Ve-Ochlah I, § 159; (IX) the. printed Massorah on Exod. 
32 34 and (X) the same on Ezek. 1 12. 

O'^pn = § 639. 
pSS^^ to Babylon, occurs six limes in this combination in 
the Scriptures. That is, to distinguish it from the ten instances where 
it is ba?-"??.* Of this Rubric I collated five Lists, four in MSS. 
and one printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, foL 69a, on Jerem. 
61 60 which I have printed; (II) the St Petersburg Codex of 
A. D. 916 on Jerem. 60 1; (HI) the same Codex on Jerem. 51 60; 
(IV) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah I, § 159, an(f (V) the printed 
Massorah Finalis, letter «, § 423. 

' Comp. his-h^ Jerem. 50 9, 13, 14; 51 1, 11, 29, 35, 42, 48, 66. 

O'pfl = § 540. 
r)^3rr7K to the House. Throughout Isaiah and Kings it is 
always n^an-"?? except in four instances in Kings. That is rrsri which 
is eighteen times combined with the preposition in Kings and 
Isaiah is in fourteen instances preceded by -b^^ and in four 
passages only by -«?K. Hence the Massorah safeguards the 
minority, and thereby excludes the Kei-i -b$ in l Kings 8 29 
which was the official reading according to some Schools of 
textual redactors, as is evident from the important Codex Add. 
21,161. This Rubric is from the printed Massorah Finalis letters, 
§ 158. It is also given in Arund. Orient 16, fol. 83a, on l Kings 
8 29, where the heading is simply 'bos -i n^an b^ For a fuller 
development of this Rubric see letter y, § 406, Vol. H, p. 397. 

J Comp. n?an-S? i Kings 4 6; 8 43; 16 9; 18 3; 2 Kings 10 6; 12 13- 
15 6; 18 18, 87; 19 2; Isa. 22 16; 36 8, 22; 37 2. 

K'Opfl = § 541. 

^^5"^^ *o <*« house of, is tunce taken in the sense of into the 

house of. That is, in these two passages, where T.nbn is preceded 

by n-a-bK, it ought to be n-aa and is so given in Onkelos, as it 

is in the second clauses of Gen. 39 20, in verse 23 and in Gen. 40 5. 

y^pn = § 642. 

fT'S'^K to the house of, occurs four times in Jeremiah, n-a, which 
is in six instances combined with the preposition in Jeremiah, is 
twice preceded by -b? (3 18; 22 6) and four times by -^k. It is 
remarkable that the Massorah, contrary to its usual method, 
safeguards here the majority. This may be due to the fact that 
in Jeremiah 33 14 we should naturally expect rva-^y as is evident 
from the next clause. It is, however, probable that the five passages, 
where n'a is preceded by -«3?i with the prefix Vav, are included 
(Jerem. 6 1; 33 14; 48 22, 23, 23). Of this Rubric I collated two 
Lists: (I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 169a, on Jerem. 33 14 and (H) the 
printed Massorah on the same passage. 

J'Opn = § 643. 
fT<^-^^ <o tHe house of, occurs ihree times in the Minor Pro^iets. 
In the Minor Prophets, where n^a is eleven times combined with 
the preposition without and with the prefix Vav, it is seven times 
preceded by -bp ' and four times by -»?k without and with the prefix 
Vav. This Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, 
is from Arund. Orient 16, fol. 2186, on Zech. 5 4. The omission 



1 Comp. n«a-^ Hosea 1 4; 
n?"^ Zech. 18 4. 



Amos 3 16; 7 9, 16; Zeeh. 12 10 and 



H §644—648. 



— 70 



§ 649—652. K -~ K 



of Micah 4 2 is u^accountable, since thid Rubric includes •«Mr with 
the prefix Vav, as is evident from Zech. 6 4 which is counted 
twice and where the second instance in this verse is -b|^. 

TOpn = § 644. 

ST2 *?P1 'TPS^^ «iwn the house of, and upon the lunue of. 
In thirteen ^t^ges ff'the Sa-ipturet r'? w preceded by -"?? wUhout 
and tvith the prefix Vav ...... . Jn Kings, Isaiah, Jeremiah and in 

the Twelve Minor Prophets it is likewise so except in eleven instances 
where it is preceded by -b^ without and with the prefix Vav. 

To understand this Rubric it is necessary to remark 
(1) that n'3, which occurs ninety-five times in combination with 
the preposition, is in sixty-one instances preceded by -b^ without 
and with the prefix Vav and thirty-four times by -b? without 
and with the prefix Vav; (2) that the combination with -b* is 
the rule in all the books of the Bible with the exception of 
four; (3) that excepting these four, the combination with ->?»« occurs 
fifty times 1 and with -bv thirteen times only and (4) that in 
these four books the combination with -bi occurs twenty-one 
times 8 and with -bf eleven times only." Hence the Massorah 
divides the Bible into two parts, the first part embraces the 
books in which the combination with -b^ is the exception and 
the second part the books in which the combination with -bn is 
the exception so as to safeguard the minority in each of the 
two divisions. 

Of this Rubric I collated eight Lists, seven in MSS. and 
one printed: (I) Harley 5710-11, Vol. H, foL77«. on Ezek. 13 5 
which I have printed; (JO) the same MS., VoL I, fol. 197a, on 2 Sam. 
1 12- (ni) Orient. 4446, fol. 34a, on Gen. 42 19; (IV) Arund. 
Orient. 16, fol. 57a, on 2 Sam. 1 12; (V) Add. 15,261, foL 83a, on 
Numb. 3 34; (VI) the same MS., foL 168&, on 2 Sam. 1 12; (VII) 
Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah I, § 159, and (VIH) the printed Massorah 
where this Rubric is divided into two, the first part is given 
on Numb. 2 34 and the second on l Kings 14 10. 

< Comp. n'l-^H Gen. IS 2; 8488; 88 21; 59 20; 403; 4«31; W 4; LeTit.83 13; 
Josh. 17 17; 21 48; Judg. 18 16; 19 2, 2; 1 Sam. 8 27; 7 1; 19 11; 2 Sam 4 6; 
7 19- 17 18; 21 1; Ezek. S 1, 4, 6; 14 6; 17 2; 80 27, SO; 84 3; 86 8; 85 10; 44 6; 
Ps. 63 2; Cant. 3 4; 8 4; 8 2; Ecd. 4 7; 7 2, 2; 12 6; Esther 2 8, 8, 14, 16; 7 8; 
Ezra S 8; Neh. 6 10; 1 Chron. 1$ 13; 2 Chron. 7 2; 20 28; 86 21. 

JCoinp.n'a-^piKiiigiS27;2King8l0S,10;1118;Isa.717;141;812;S8 2C; 
Jerem.S18;286;3S14;48 23,28,2S;Ho6.14;81;Amos.8l6;79.16;Zech.l34 10. 

3 The two instances, where h» in combined with b» n'l (1 Kings IS 1, 10), 
are excluded because it is a proper name. 

n'apn = § 545. 

n'liS'^K to ^ daughters of, occurs three times. That is, 
according to \he Westerns whose recension we follow. According 
to the Easterns it occurs twice only, since they read nl3a-'?y in 
Ezek. 13 17. Of this Rulyic I collated two Lists: (I) Add. 21,160, 
fol. 232 o, on Numb. 25 l and (II) the printed Massorah Finalis, 
letter a, § 232. 

VDpn = § 546. 

D"!*I3'^J< to the nations, occurs twice. That is, without the article 
before d:U, in the other passages where this combination occurs 
it is D^ls-T^. These are given in the following Rubric. 

t'Opn = § 547. 

0*^311^8 to the nations, occurs five times. In the other five 
instances, where trin is in combination with tlie preposition, it is 
•bf and not -bn. The safeguarding of these five passages is due 
to the fact that in Zech. 2 12 some MSS. and the ancient Versions 
exhibit -bv, and -bv ia naturally also expected in Ps. 79 6 as is 
evident from the next clause of the verse. 

Of this Rubric I collated seven Lists, five in MSS. and 
two printed: (1) Harley 6710-11, Vol. II, foL 31a, on Isa. 66 19 
which I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient le, fol. 147a, on the same 
passage; (III) the same MS., fol. 192 fr, on Ezek. 39 28; (IV) the 
same MS., fol. 2l7t, on Zech. 2 12;' (V) the same MS., fol. 804fl, 
on Ps. 79 6, where the five instances of the combination with 
-bv are given as a contrast to this combination; (VI) the printed 
Massorah on Isa. 66 19 and (VII) the same on Ezek. 39 28. 

n'Opn - § 648. 
?Tl*n Tth'hT^ to the borders of Jordan, occurs twice. To 
safeguard it against Josh. 18 17 where it is simply nib'^a-^K without 
fTWi. This Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, 
is from Add. 15,251, foL 1366, on Josh. 22 10. 



B3"Dpn = § 649. 

"nHJiT^K to the words of. ITiroughout the Pentateuch it is 
■nsT^K and throughout Chronicles it is "TST^f vnth the exception of 
one instance where it is ■ns'ir'jlt. 

The wording of this Massorah would naturally mislead 
those who are not familiar with its artificial expressions, since 
it would apparently suggest that nST^^ is of frequent occurrence 
in the Pentateuch, whereas this combination occurs only once 
in the whole Pentateuch (Deut. 13 4). What the Massorah really 
means is that ■"na-n is preceded by -*?« in the Pentateuch, but 
never by -■??, whereas in Chronicles it is always preceded by 
•bn (1 Chron. 29 29; 2 Chron. 9 29; 32 8; 33 18, 19; 34 21) and 
once only by -^k. This Rubric, which does not occur in the 
printed Massorah, is from Orient 2349, foL 131a, on Deut 13 4. 

rpn - § 550. 

"nS M?K to my toords, occurs three times. In the only other 
instance where '"O-n is preceded by the preposition, it is -bV 
(Jerem. 6 19). Of this Rubric I collated four Lists, three in MSS. 
and one printed: (I) Vienna Codex No. 35 on Jerem. 29 19 which 
I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 1656, on the same 
passage where the Scribe omitted the expression mm and, 
therefore, some one ignorantly altered 'a in the heading into -a; 
(III) Orient 2349, fol. 1336, on Deut 18 19 and (IV) the printed 
Massorah on Jerem. 29 19. 

K'3pn = § 551. 
^■nirT^^t to the way, occurs twice. That is, in contradistinction 
to TnTr*?? which occurs five times (Gen. 38 21; Judg, 4 9; 
1 Sam. 24 3; 26 3; Ezra 8 31). Of this Rubric, which does not 
occur in the printed Massorah, I collated two Lists: (I) Arund. 
Orient 16, fol. 2606, on 2 Chron. 6 27 and Vienna Codex No. 36 
on the same passag^. 

»'apn = § 551*a-6. 
"TI'IT'^N* These two Rubrics, which I have printed in 
Volume III, p. 1, are respectively from Orient 2349, fol. 50a, 
and the printed Massorah both on Gen. 38 16. yr\ without and 
with the prefixes and suffixes, which is twenty-four times 
combined with the preposition, is in seventeen instances preceded 
by -^5^ and in seven instances only by -b*. Hence the Massorah 
as usual safeguards the minority. Accordingly the first recension 
of this Rubric, which gives four instances only, is incorrect The 
design of this Massorah is to exclude the Eastern reading 
T?T^? in Judg. 20 42. 

» Comp. T)r^ Gen. 88 14; Judg. 6 10; 1 Sam. 6 12; Hob. IS 7; Ps. SC 6; 
1^in-^J Qen. S8 21; Judg. 4 9; 1 Sam. 34 3; 26 3; Ezra 8 31 ; B'2-;^"^5? Isa. 49 9; 
Jeiem. 8 2; 6 16; "Vrt^ Job 34 21; M'?"ir'?? Hag. 1 B, 7; sn'ST?-"?? Job 24 23. 

3":pn = § 652. 

TT^K to, or upon Hie mountain, occurs sixteen times. That is, 
to distinguish it from the eighteen instances in which nn is 
preceded by -•??.* This Rubric, therefore, safeguards the Western 
reading -b^ in Isa. 56 7 against the Eastern recension which 
reads -erb^. 

Of this Rubric I collated twelve Lists, eleven in MSS. and 
one printed: (I) Hariey 6710—11, Vol. I, fol. 104a, on Numb. 27 12 
which I have printed; (II) the same MS., Vol. I, foL 149a, on Josh. 
16 10; (III) Orient 4145, fol. 43a, on Exod. 3 1; (IV) St Peters- 
burg Codex of A. D. 916 on Isa. 56 7; (V) the same Codex on 
Ezek. 40 2; (VI) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 11 a, on Josh. 15 10; 
(VII) the same MS., fol. 1 19 a, on Isa. 2 3; (VIII) the same MS., 
fol. 211 a, on Micah 4 2; (IX) the same MS., fol. 2946, on 
Ps. 43 3; (X) the same MS., fol. 3496, on Cant 4 6; (XI) Halle 
Ochlah Ve-Ochlah I, § 159, and (XII) the printed Massorah on 
Isa. 56 7. 

List I which I have printed omits Ps. 43 8. This is mam- 
festly due to a clerical error, for not only does the heading state 
that there are sixteen such instances, but all the other Lists 
give the instance in question. The addition that wherever it i* 
in connection toHh Carmel without or with the aHicle it is liketdse 
-vrbvi, which is also at the end of all the eleven Lists, refers to 
the four instances in Kings, viz. l Kings 18 19, 20; 2 Kings 2 25; 
4 25, where this combination occurs. 

1 Comp. Exod. 19 11, 20; 24 16; Deut 11 29, 29; 27 12; Isa. IS 2; S» 8; 
81 4; 40 9; 57 7; 66 20; Ezek. 17 22; 84 2; Obad. 16; Zech. 14 4; Lament. S 18; 
Dan. 9 20. 



K ~" S § 553—556. 



71 



§ 556-559. K — 8 



It is to be remarked that not only do both the Lists in 
the St Petersburg Codex, viz. Nos. IV and V give Isa. 56 7 as 
one of the sixteen instances, but that the text on which the 
first List is given reads -^y^*. This conclusively shows that 
neither the textual reading nor the Massorah exhibits the Baby- 
lonian recension. 

j":pn = § 553. 

D'^'TITH^K to, or on the mountains, occurs twice in this 
comliinnthn ''. . . !aml thronghovt EzeJciel it is likewise so except in two 
Instances whfi'e it is D'"inn"'?f. 

Q,.p,-, is twenty-two times combined with the preposition. 
In fifteen instances it is preceded =by -•??» and in seven instances 
by -Vk. Outside Ezekiel Dn.rn-'?x is the exceptional combination 
whilst in Ezekiel Dnnrr"?? is 'the exception. Hence the Massorah 
in each case safeguards the minority. This Massorah is designed 
to exclude the Kei-i -bK in Isa. 65 7 which is the official reading 
in Standard Codices and is the textual reading in the editto 
jmnceps of the Prophets, Soncino 1485-86; the first edition of 
the Bible, Soncino 1488, and in the third edition, Brescia 1494. 

Of this Rubric I collated six Lists, five in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Harley 6710-11, Vol. I, fol. 273a, on 1 Kings 22 17 
which I have printed; (II) the same MS., Vol. II, fol. 215&, on 
Ps. 121 1; (in) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 9(5&; (IV) the same MS., 
fol. 316a, on the same two passages; (V) Halle Ochlah Ve- 
Ochlah I, § 159, and (VI) the printed Massorah on Ps. 121 '1. 

The Paris Ochlah Ve-Ochlah in § 2 of the Supplement 
registers the two passages in Ezekiel where D'-rrrbK is followed 
by two different predicates with variations in the vowel-points 
of the same verb. The Rubric is as follows: 

'»aiB nne "jsm ''D1 ini 'dd bsH annn-btj Ezek. 18 11 
n'siD fsp bs« >&i rap Ssh t^b o'-inn-'jK „ „ 6 

That is, nnnn-'jK in one instance is followed by «??^t with 
Pathach under the Caph and in one by •?s»«k'7 with gamete under 
the Caph. And the mnemonic sign is at eating («?5K) the mouth 
is opened (nne Pathach), and when not eating {biifHh) the mouth 
is chsed (jrop Kametz). The sign is based upon the double meaning 
of Pathach and Kametz.^ 

» Comp. onnn-'?? Deut 13 2; Judg. 11 37, 38; Isa. 5S 7; 65 7; Jerem. 9 9; 
Eick. 18 15; 32 5; Joel 2 2; Nah. 3 1 ; 3 18; Cant. 2 8; Lament. 4 19; 1 Chron. 12 9; 
2 Chron. 18 10. 

1 Comp. Levita, Ma»»oret.h Ha-Mattm-eth, p. 2G6, ed. Ginsburg, London 1867. 

T:Dn = § 554. 
i*T,"T-^X; to, or on the maintains of, occurs five times. The 
construct plural '-n is fourteen times combined with the pre- 
position. In nine instances it is preceded by -"jp^ and in five 
only by •% The Massorah, therefore, safeguards the minority 
and thereby excludes the reading ny'jK Cant. 2 17 which is 
exhibited in the Eastern recension. Vide supra, % § 514. 

Of this Rubric I collated ten Lists, eight in MSS. and two 
printed: (I) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. Vf^h on Ezek. 19 9 which I 
have printed; (II) the same MS., fol. 1886, on Ezek. 3413; (III) 
the same MS., fol. 1895, on Ezek. 36 l ; (IV) St Petersburg 
Codex of A. D. 916 on Ezek. 6 2; (V) the same Codex on 
Ezek. 19 9; (VI) the same Codex on Ezek. 34 13; (VII) Add. 
1.V351, fol. 2856, on Ezek. 36 1; (VIH) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah I, 
§ 159; (IX) the printed Massorah on Ezek. 6 2 and (X) the 
same on Ezek. 34 13. 

It is remarkable that List IV not only heads this Rubric 
.~^p^ ,-n ijK, but catalogues four instances only, omitting Ezek. 36 1 
and in the text the k in "jk is underlined, thus showing that it is 
meant for hi,. The Massorah on it, however, states that it is one 
of the five instances where it is "jk and the other two Lists in 
this Codex, viz. Nos. V and VI, give both in the heading and in 
the Rubric five instances which fully coincide with all other Lists. 

« Comp. nn-^ Oen. 8 4; Jerem. 13 16; Easek. 3S 12; 38 8; S» 4, 17; 
Amos 3 9; Cant 2 17; 8 14. 

n'3pn = § 555. 

^irrbK unto Haggai, occurs tioice all the others are by the 

hand nf Haggai. The phrase which expresses the communication of 
the word of Jehovah to this prophet occurs five times in this 
book. In three instances it is followed by -irrr? % «*« ^««<^ of 
Haggai (Hag. 1 1 ; 2 1) and twice by \arr^K. Hence the Massorah 
safeguards the minority and thereby excludes the reading -ra 
in 2 10 which obtained in some Schools of textual redactors 



and which is exhibited in the famous Codex Hellali, the 
Complutensian Polyglot, the editto princeps of Jacob b. Chayim's 
Rabbinic Bible with the Massorah, Venice 1524 — 26; the Syriac 
and the Chaldee. This Rubric, which does not occur in the 
printed Massorah, is from Orient 1474, fol. 259o, on Hag. 2 10. 

T:pn = § 656. 

n}lSlHrn?8 to the waU, is three tim^s ihtis combined in the 
Scriptures .... and they are unique in this combination, noinn occurs 
twelve times in combination with the preposition. In nine 
instances it is preceded by -b^^ and in three instances only is 
it preceded by -«?k. The Massorah, therefore, safeguards the 
minority. 

Of this Rubric I collated seven Lists, six in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 295a, on Neh. 4 9 
which I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 63a, on 
2 Sam. 11 21; (III) the same MS., fol. 3816, on Neh. 4 9; (IV) 
Add. 15,251, fol. 174a, on 2 Sam. 11 21; (V) Vienna Codex 
No. 35 on the same passage; (VI) the same Codex on Neh. 4 9, 
and (VII) the printed Massorah Finalis, letter n, § 27. 

The tautological remark at the end of the Rubric has been 
added to fill up the line. I have printed it as it is in the MS. 
to show that unnecessary phrases are often used by Scribes as 
part of the Massorah which are simply intended to fill up a 
vacant space. 

« Comp. nann-^ 2 Kings 3 27; 6 26, 30; 18 26, 27; Isa. 30 II, 12; 
Neh 4 13; 2 Chron. 88 18. 

t'ipn = § 567. 

•TXTT^K to the court, occurs twice. That is, in contradistinction 
to ixn-bR the construct which also occurs twice (Jerem. 32 8; 
Ezek. 8 16). Of this Rubric, which does not occur in the printed 
Massorah, I collated two Lists: (I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 1936, 
on Ezek. 40 28 which I have printed and (II) Add. 16,250, 
foL 2926, on the same passage. 

n':pn = § 558. 

T^K to the hand or side, occurs five times in the Scriptures 

and throughout the hook of Esther it is likewise so except in 

one instance. 

The expression t is thirty-four times combined with the 
preposition. In twenty-five instances it is preceded by -•??* and 
in nine only by -^k. Outside the book of Esther the combination 
T-'pK occurs five times only and t-*?? twenty-three times, whilst 
in Esther T^^ occurs four times (Esther 2 3, 8, 8, 14) and 
T^t once only. Hence the Massorah safeguards the minority in 
each ease. By fixing the number of r-'jK at five, the Massorah 
defends the Western reading t-*?? both in Zech. 14 13 and 
Esther 2 14 where the Easterns read n-bK. 

Of this Rubric I collated eight Lists, seven in MSS. and 
one printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 2166, on Ps. 123 2 
which I have printed; (II) St Petersburg Codex of A. D. 916 
on Ezek. 48 1; (III) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 198a, on the same 
passage; (IV) the same MS., fol. 316a, on Ps. 123 2; (V) Add. 
16,261, fol. 2936, w Ezek. 48 1; (VI) the same MS., fol. 372rt, 
on Ps. 123 2; (VII) Halte Ochlah Ve-Ochlah I, § 159, and (VIII) 
the printed Massorah on Ezek. 48 1. 

The List from the St Petersburg Codex, i. e. No. 11 affords 
another striking proof that this so-called Babylonian Codex 
exhibits the Western recension, since it excludes Zech. 14 13 
which is T-h^ according to the Babylonians. 

1 Comp. Gen. 41 42; Exod. S 6; Josh. 15 46; 1 Sam. 17 22; 2 Sam. IB 2; 
1 Kings 14 27; 2 Kings 82 5, 9; Jerem. 28 24; 46 6; Zech. 14 13; Ps. 181 6; 
ProT. 1» 11; Esther 6 9; Dan. 10 4; Ezra 1 8; 8 S3; l Chron. 8S 2; 86 28; 
29 8; 2 Chron. 18 10; 81 16; S6 11; $4 10, 17. This is exclusive of 2 Kings IS 12 
where the Kethiv is iV^. for which the official reading is l?"^ the plural. 

B'lpn - § 569. 

ni n r^X to Judah, occurs six timet in the Scriptures. In all 
the other nineteen instances where rnrr is combined with the 
preposition it is -bj* and not -bf 

Of this Rubric I collated nine Lists, seven in MSS. and two 
printed: (I) Harley 5710-11, Vol II, fol. 2936, on Neh. 2 5 

1 Comp. niw-^ 2 Sam. 5 6; 1 Kings 16 1, 17; 88 41; 2 Kings » 29; 
Isa. 1 1; 8 1; » 20; Zeph. 1 4; Zech. 18 2, 7; 2 Chron. 1$ 1; 1« I; 80 31; 84 18; 
28 9; 29 8; 3« 4, 10. 



8 § 560—561. 



§ 562—666. K 



which I have printed; (11) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 272a, on 
2 Chron. 24 23; (III) the same MS., fol. 380a, on Neh. 2 5; 
(IV) Add. 21,160, fol. 40&, on Gen, 38 22; (V) Orient. 2349, 
fol. 50a, on the same passage; (VI) Vienna Codex No. 35 on 
Neh. 2 5; (VII) Halle Ochlak Ve-Ochlah I, § 159; (VIII) the 
printed Massorah on Gen. 38 22 and (IX) the same on Ezek. 48 1. 
As one of the six instances is -'?ki with the prefix Vav 
(Jerem. 30 4) the headings in Lists II, IV and V which state 
{rmrr' hvn 'K1 'n) that it occurs five times and that once it is with 
the prefix is more correct. List VII heads it "i |» in it occurs 
four times, though it rightly registers all the five instances and 
omits the one with the pi*efix. The heading in List VIII 
which states that there are six such instances is incorrect, 
it ought to be five (-n) as is evident from the addition at the 
end nmrr hv. im. 

D"pn = § 560. 

t3*rT7X» Throughout, Ezeldel and the Minor Prophets it is always 
b.'T'?*? ^^^^^ '^'^ exception of two instances where it is nVT-bv ..... In 
all the rest of the Sanptures it is Wcewise n»rr'?? «t"''^ i^ exception 
of one instance. 

o»n is twenty-three times in combination with the preposition. 
In ten passages it is preceded by -^r' and in thirteen by -bv.^ 
As nine out of the ten passages, where it is D'n-'jK, occur in Ezekiel 
and the Minor Prophets, and moreover, as apart from the two 
instances in Ezekiel all the eleven passages, where it is ajn-"??, 
occur outsidfe Ezekiel and the Minor Prophets and one instance 
only of Djn-bK is to be found in the other Scriptures, this 
Massorah safeguards the two exceptions of wrrbv in Ezekiel and 
the Minor Prophets and the solitary instance of B;rr'?« in the 
other parts of the Bible. 

Of this Rubric I collated six Lists, five in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 199a, on Ezek. 48 28 which I 
have printed; (II) the same MS., fol. 351 «, on Eccl. 1 7; (III) Add. 
21,160, fol. 3015 on the same passage; (IV) Vienna Codex No. 35 
on the same passage; (V) Halle Oehlah Ve-Ochlah I, § 159, and 
(VI) the printed Massorah on Ezek. 48 28. 

> Comp. cjn-'jK Ezek. 47 19; Joel 2 20, 20; Jonah 1 4, 6, 12, 15; Zech. 
14 8, 8; Eccl. 1 '?. 

» Comp. ajn-"?? Exod. 14 2, 1C>, 21, 20, 27; Numb. 13 29; Josh. 5 1; 
2 Sam. 17 11; iKinffS 4 20; Isa. 10 26; 23 11; Ezek. 47 18; 48 28. 

K'Dpn = § 561. 

D V^l"^^"^^ to Jerusalem, occurs thirteen timss in the Scrip- 
tures .... and throvghout Ezra it is likewise so except in one instance. 

Apart from Ezra-Nehemiah p^tfn^ is forty-two times 
combined with the preposition. In twenty-nine instances it is 
preceded by -b:?^ and in thirteen instances only by -^k. Hence 
the Massorah safeguards the minority. In Ezra-Nehemiah, however, 
whete pb'Pi'i^ occurs five times in combination with the preposition 
and where it is in four instances preceded by 'b^ (Ezra 3 1; 
7 7, 9; Neh. 2 11) and once only by -'??, the Massorah safeguards 
the solitary instance. Ezra 4 8, 20 are excluded from this Rubric 
because they are both Chaldee. By fixing the number at thirteen, 
the Massorah designedly excludes Ezek. 14 22 where the Easterns 
read d^^-i^-^k. 

Of this Rubric I collated sixteen Lists, fifteen in MSS. and 
one printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 596, on Jerem. 39 1 
which I have printed; (II). the same MS,, Vol. II, fol. 766, on Ezek. 
13 16; (III) the same MS., Vol. II, fol. 83a, on Ezek. 21 7; (IV) 
St. Petersburg Codex of A. D. 916, on Jerem. 39 1; (V) the 
same Codex on Ezek. 14 22; <VI) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 173&, on 
Jerem. 39 1; (VII) the same MS., fol. I75h, on Ezek. 14 21; 
(VIII) the same MS., fol. 180 a, on Ezek. 21 7; (IX) the same 
MS., foL 1826, on Ezek. 24 2; (X) the same MS., fol. 2216, on 
Zech. 14 2; (XI) the same MS., fol. 2476, on 1 Chron. 15 3; 
(XII) the same MS., fol. 2596, on 2 Chron. 6 2; (XIII) the same 
MS., fol. 269a, on 2 Chron. 20 27; (XIV) the same MS., fol. 2706, 
on 2 Chron. 23 2; (XV) Halle Oehlah Ve-Ochlah I, § 159, and 
(XVI) the printed Massorah on Zech. 14 17. 

In the List which I have printed, the order and the division 
of the catchwords in Chronicles should be 

2 Chron. 5 2 no'jr "rnp* tk i Chron. 15 3 im 'jnpn 
1 „ 28 1 nom 

This yields the requisite thirteen instances instead of the 
twelve as printed. Jacob b. Chayim's Massorah, List XVI, also 
gives twelve instances only, though the heading correctly states 
that there are thirteen. This is due to the omission of n-am = 



1 Chron. 28 1 after "w fjs riK Tin '?np'i = l Chron. 16 3. At the end 
of this, moreover, the essential words "an n>t rnann K'ba are omitted 
after •vai vna ba^ 

As Lists IV and V are from the so-called Babylonian Codex, 
they afford additional materials for testing the relationship of the 
Massorah of this Codex to the Babylonian recension. The first 
of these two Lists gives identically the same thirteen passages 
as the Western Lists and like the Western Lists deliberately 
excludes the Eastern reading in Ezek. 14 22. It is the second 
List on Ezek. 14 22 which is very instructive. The text 
itself exhibits the Eastern reading and though the heading 
of the Massoretic List here also emphatically states that 
there are thirteen instances only, which is in accordance 
with the Western recension, fourteen are enumerated, the words 
mni3 ran = Ezek, 14. 22 being added at the end of the List 
That this addition, however, is no part of the original List, 
is not only evident from the fact that it is in direct conflict 
with the heading, but from the position which these words 
occupy. The List itself is identical both in the catchwords and 
in the order of the books with the first List It is at the end 
of the Rubric after Chronicles, and separated from the other 
instances in Ezekiel that these words have been added by a 
later Scribe who, for reasons best known to himself, has frequently 
attempted to. make this Codex conformable to the Eastern 
recension. 

1 Comp. 1 Kings 14 25; 2 Kings 12 18; 21 12, 13; 25 1; Isa. 31 6; 
Jerem. 4 16; 6 6; 32 2; 34 1, 7; 37 5; 44 2, 13; 52 4; Ezek. 9 8; 14 22; 26 2; 
Zech. 1 16; 12 2, 9; 14 12, 16; Ps. 68 30; Eccl. 1 16; 1 Chron. 21 16; 2 Chron. 
12 2, 9; 32 2, 

a'Dpn = § 562. 

^l>|nw^"'!?K to Israel, occurs three times at the end of a verse. Of 
this Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, I 
mislaid the reference. 

:"Dpn = § 663. 

t'KIw'^'T'K to or over Israel, occurs seven times in this 

combination and wherever it is preceded by, I have anointed 

the king, it is likewise so except in one instance. 

biK-f)^, is combined with the preposition about one hundred 
times. In about ninety times it is preceded by -^? and in ten 
instances only by -^k. Hence the Massorah safeguards the 
minority and thereby excludes the Eastern reading fjK-i^r-^K 
1 Kings 21 7. As the phrase ^r^^b ^'m^ precedes in four passages 
b»nt|r with the preposition, and moreover, as in this construction 
the preposition is in three instances -■?>« (2 Kings 9 3, 6, 1 2) and 
in one instance -■?? (2 Sam. 12 7), the Massorah treats these three 
instances separately so as to safeguard the solitary exception 
in this combination. 

Of this Rubric I collated twelve Lists, ten in MSS. and two 
printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. 'I, fol. 177 o, on 1 Sam. 7 7 
which I have printed; (II) Orient. 4445, fol. 1536, on Numb. 32 14; 
(III) St Petersburg Codex of A. D. 916, on Mai. 1 1; (IV) Arund. 
Orient 16, fol. 39a, on 1 Sam. 7 7; (V) the same MS., fol. 166a, 
on Jerem. 30 4; (VI) the same MS., fol. 222a, on Mai. 1 1; 
(VII) Add. 21,160, fol. 496, on Gen. 43 8; (VIII) the same MS., 
fol. 60 a, on Gen. 49 2; (IX) the same MS., fol. 245 a, on Numb. 
32 14; (X) Oehlah Ve-Ochlah I, § 159; (XI) the printed Massorah 
on Gen. 43 8 and (XII) the same on Jerem, 30 4, 

TDpn = § 564. 
iri'wX to Jethro, to the residue of, occurs ttoice in this com- 
hination in the Scriptures. That is, to distinguish it from the two 
instances where in;; is preceded by -bv- Of this Rubric I collated 
six Lists, four in MSS. and two printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, 
Vol. I, fol. 366, on Exod. 4 18 which I have printed; (II) Orient 
444,5, fol, 45a, on the same passage; (III) Add, 15,251, fol. 2536, 
on Jerem, 29 1; (IV) Add, 21,160, fol, 69a, on Exod, 4 18; (V) 
the printed Massorah on the same passage and (VI) the same 
on Jerem, 29 1. Lists II, III, IV and VI give the two instances 
in which it is "inr'?? (see the Massorah, letter y, § 441, Vol. II, 
p. 400). This Rubric is part of the lengthier Massorah recording 
the ten words or twenty pairs which are respectively preceded 
twice by -b^ and twice by -^r. Vide supra k, § 525. 

iTDpn = § 665. 
^3 V^S has five times the accent. That is, in five instances the 
preposition ■?« instead of having the usual Makkeph has the accent 
Merctia. This Rubric, which does not occur in the printed 
Massorah, is from Add. 15,251, fol. 119a, on Deut. 27 9. 



K — K § 566—668. 



73 



§ 669--*71. R — H 



VDpn = § 566. 

■'^JS'^K to all. Throughout the hook of Kingt -h^ w always 
preceded by the freposkion -ht except six times where it is preceded 
hy-^. 

-hs which is twenty-two times combined with the preposition 
in Kings, is in sixteen passages preceded by -bv without and 
with the prefix Vav * and in six instances only by -bK without 
and with the prefix Vav. Hence the Massorah safeguards the 
minority. 

Of this Rubric I collated four Lists, three in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, fol. 23lh, on 1 Kings 16 13 
which I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 91a, on jkhe 
same passage; (III) Orient 2210, fol. 147a, on 1 Kings 16 20, 
and (IV) the printed Massorah on 1 Kings 18 5. List 11 takes 
in the six passages in Samuel which are given in § 568; List III' 
gives the mnemonic sign which I have printed in Volume III, 
§ 5666, p. 2, and List IV includes Isaiah in the heading, viz. 
throttghout Kings and Isaiah it is -^a bpi -hs *?? except in six instances. 
This, however, is not quite exact since all the six instances occur 
in Kings alone. 

» Comp. b»-ht 1 Kings 4 1, 7; 6 10; 8 66; 1142; 12 20; 1423; 15 20, 33; 
2 Kings 4 4; 16 20; 17 10; 18 13; 23 26; ^B'Sji 1 Kings IS 32; 16 T. 

ropn = § 567. 

•^S^K to all, occurs eleven times in the Hagiographa. In the 
Hagiographa, where as we shall see in the next Rubric bs is 
eighty-two times combined with the preposition and where it is 
seventy-one times preceded by -b? and eleven times only by 
-bK, the Massorah safeguards the exceptional combination. 
Of this Rubric I collated six Lists, five in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, VoL II, foL 2726, on Esther 3 13 
which I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 291 6, on 
Ps. 33 14; (III) the same MS., fol. 314 a, on Ps. 119 6; (IV) 
the same MS., fol. 3426, on Prov. 17 8; (V) the same MS., 
foL 860a, on Esther 3 13 and (VI) the printed Massorah on 
Prov. 17 8. 

In List I rrn^'z before trairoa in the heading is manifestly 
a clerical error and ought to be cancelled. In accordance with 
my principles not to alter the MSS. I have printed it as it is 
in the Codex. List VI combines with this Rubric the two instances 
of b|-b|t in the Minor Prophets and hence heads it te bm ta ^k 
-ic^Tm "iroa r\ 

rropn = 568. 

b^yhtT] h'yhlS hl^)^^ ^T^^* This Rubric exhibits a 
combination of the separate Massorahs which record the instances 
in the several books wherein -^s is either preceded by -^k or 
-b? throughout the Bible. To understand this artificial con- 
catenation it is necessary to treat each link of this chain 
separately. It will be seen that this lengthy List is divisible into 
fifteen groups, each one of which has a distinct heading. 

I. Gen. 1 1—Exod. 11 10. In this group which embraces the 
whole of Genesis and the first eleven chapters of Exodus bs-^p 
without and with the prefix Vav occurs eleven times, viz. Gen. 
9 2 2; 19 28; 39 5; 41 41, 43, 56; Exod. 7 19; 9 9, 22; 10 14; 
whilst hyb», occurs twice only. Hence the Massorah in this group 
safeguards the exceptional instances. 

n. Exod. 12 1—40 38. In this portion the reverse is the 
case, b3rb» occurs seven times, viz. Exod. 13 3; 16 6, 9, 10; 28 3; 
35 4 ; 36 2 and hs'b$ occurs four times only. The Massorah, 
therefore, records the minority. In the printed text of this group 
Exod. 9 9 is a misprint for 18 9. 

III. Levit. 1 1—16 34. — In these sixteen chapters h^^V 
occurs seven times, viz. Levit 3 2, 13, 16; 10 6; 11 37; 16 33; 

81 11 whilst "js-^K occurs once only, and the Massorah, therefore, 
safeguards the solitary instance. 

IV. Levit. 17 l-Josh. 24 33. - In this group which 
includes the rest of Leviticus and the whole of Numbers, 
Deuteronomy and Joshua where '?3-'?k occurs no fewer than 
thirty times, viz. Levit 18 6; 19 2; 20 16; 31 24; 33 18; Numb. 
13 26; 14 7, 10, 89; 15 33; 16 5, 19; 17 24; Deut 1 1, 7; 6 1, 19; 
27 9, 14; 39 1; 31 1, 9; 32 45; Josh. 1 16; 7, 23; 9 19; 10 24; 

82 18; 34 2, 27 and where bs-bp occurs fifteen times only, the 
Massorah records the minority. 

V. Judges. — In Judges bs-bp occurs five times, viz. 6 37, 
89, 40; 9 44; 16 30; whilst «?3-bK occurs twice only. Hence the 
minority is recorded. In Jacob b. Chayim's printed Massorah 
T03 'rat emtv tei is a mistake for n-aa. 



VL Samuel. — In Samuel b^-hi^ occurs ten times, viz. 

I Sam. 7 3; 10 24; 13 1; 14 40; 19 l'; 2 Sam. 3 29, 31; 16 11; 
30 22, 23; whilst bsrb:? occurs six times only. The Massorah, 
therefore, records the minority. 

VIL Kings and Isaiah. — In Kings and Isaiah b^f occurs 
no fewer than forty-two times, viz. 1 Kings 4 1, 7; 6 10; 8 66; 

II 42; 13 20; 13 32; 14 23; 15 20, 33; 16 7; 2 Kings 4 4; 16 20; 
17 10; 18 13; 23 26; Isa. 8 12, 12, 13, 13, 14, 14, 16, 15, 16, 16; 
4 5, 5; 8 7, 7; 14 26, 26; 35 7, 7; 38 22; 30 25, 25; 38 13, 20; 
34 2, 2 ; 36 1 ; whilst br*?^ occurs six times only and, therefore, 
the minority is recorded. 

VIII. Jei'em. 1 1—2S 38. — In this portion of Jeremiah 
bs-b? occurs twenty-one times, viz. Jerem. 1 7, 14, 15, 15, 16, 18; 
320, 34; 3 6, 8; 9 3, 24, 25; 16 17; 19 8, 15; 85 I, 2,' 9, 13, 29; 
whilst by-^K occurs four times only. Hence the Massorah records 
the minority. 

IX. Jerem. 26 1 — 30 18. — In this second and small portion 
of Jeremiah ^s-^k is the rule and '?|-bp the exception. The former 
occurs eleven times, viz. Jerem. 36 8, 11, 12, 12, 17, 18; 87 16; 
39 1, 16, 25, 25 and the latter once only. Hence the Massorah 
safeguards the solitary instance. 

X. Jerem. 30 19—36 S. — In the third portion of this 
Prophet bv-bii is the rule and b^^ the exception. The former 
occurs ten times, viz. Jerem. 30 20; 31 37; 33 19, 32; 33 5, 9, 9; 
34 1, 7; 36 2 and the latter once only. The Massorah, therefore, 
again safeguards the solitary instance. 

XI. Jerfm. 36 9—52 34. — In the fourth portion •?s-«?k is 
the majority and "js-bp the minority. The former occurs ten times, 
viz. Jerem. 38 1 ; 40'5; 43 8; 43 1; 441,20,24,24; 488; 6037 and 
the latter nine times. Hence the Massorah records the minority. 

XIL Eeek. 1 1—9 S. -r- In this portion of Ezekiel it is 
always ba-bic without any exception, viz. Ezek. 5 4; 6 11, 13; 
7 12, 13,' 14, 18. 

Xin. Ezek. 9 4—39 29. — Ih the second portion of Ezekiel 
•js-bp is the rule and bs-irK the exception. The former occurs 
twelve times, viz. Ezek. 9 4^ 6; 13 18; 16 15, 36, 37, 43; 31 20; 
32 16, 31; 33 29; 346; whilst the latter occurs three times only. 
Hence the Massorah safeguards the exceptional instances. 

XrV. Ezek. 40 1—4835. —In the last portion of Ezekiel b^ 
is the rule and •?3-»?p the exception. The former occurs four times, 
viz. Ezek. 41 17,' 19; 44 7; 47 9; whilst the latter occurs once 
only. The Massorah, therefore, safeguards the solitary instance. 

XV. The Minor Prophets and the Hagiographa. — This link of 
the great chain has already been discussed in its separate form. 
{Vide supra k, § 567.) 

Of this entire Rubric I collated two Lists, one in MS. and 
one printed: (I) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah I, § 161, which I have 
printed and (II) the printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 404. 

tS'Opfl = § 569. 

D^'TVTiT^3"^i|> ^ «^^ *^ J^^> occurs three times in this 
combination in the Scriptures. In the fourth instance where D'ninrr 
is preceded by -^k it is without -b^ (Esther 8 9). Of this Rubric 
I collated six Lists, five in MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 
5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 2755, on Esther 9 20 which I have printed; 
(II) St Petersburg Codex of A. D. 916, on Jerem. 41 1; (III) 
Add. 15,251, fol. 262a; on the same passage; (IV) the same MS., 
foL 408 a, on Esther 9 20; (V) Vienna Codex No. 35 on Jerem. 41 l 
and (VI) the printed Massorah Finalis, letter % § 120. 

rpn = § 570. 

"'S^^^S"^^ ^ or against all the inhabitants, occurs twice. 
The full phrase here intended is properly fyfri ''Spi'^b^-bH against 
all the inhabitants of the land. In the only two other passages 
where this phrase occurs it is -by and not -h^ (Comp. letter r, 
§ 452, Vol. n, p. 400.) This List, which does not occur in the 
printed Massorah, is from Arund. Orient 16, fol. 2916, on Ps. 33 14, 
where it is contrasted with the two instances of yyen "^"pTharh^^. 

K'rpfl = § 571. 
T^jSntt^l'^S'T'K to M Israel, occurs four tim.es in this com- 
bination. This Rubric, which is from the printed Massorah Finalis, 
letter ', § 438, is incorrect, since this combination occurs no fewer 
than eight times. The four instances omitted are Deut 37 9; 
89 1 ; 1 Sam. 13 1 ; 14 40. The incorrectness of this Rubric is due 
to a later Nakdan who mistook its import The design of the 
Rubric is not to catalogue the passages where the phrase in 
question occurs, but the instances in which it is preceded by 
the verb nai. This Massorah is correctly given under letter n 
§ 28, p. 222. 



K — S § 572—679. 



— 74 — 



9 680—585. K — K 



2'Ppn = § 572. 

bitrip^ ''53 ryi jrb y S K toaUtke congregation of the children 
of Israel, ^occurs three "timet. Of this Rubric I collated three Lists, 
two in MSS. and one printed: (I) Orient 2348, foL 77a, which 
I have printed; (II) Orient 2849, foL 67a and (III) the printed 
Massorah, all three on Exod. 16 9. It is remarkable that ihey all 
omit Exod. 35 4 and Numb. 14 7. As the manifest design of this 
Rubric is to guard the instances here recorded against being 
assimilated to the parallel phrase SjnjT "TT^?"^ ^ ^^ ^ 
congregation of Israel (Exod. 13 3; Josh. 82 18) without the ex- 
pression "31 the children of, this Massorah must proceed from a 
School of Massorites who worked on Codices which had not 'sa 
in Exod. 35 4 and Numb. 14 7. 

yvpn = § 573. 

'''?3"*!?K to vessel, occurs twice and once it is toit^ tJie 

article. That is, to distinguish it from -^|-'?^ with Sheva under 
the Caph which also occurs twice (Levit 14 5, 50). Of this Rubric 
I collated two Lists, one in MS. and one printed: (I) Harley 
5710—11, Vol. I, fol. 986, on Numb. 19 17 which I have printed 
and (II) the printed Massorah on the same passage. 

Trp/1 = § 574. 
D^SsrrbK to the vessels, occurs twice, cr^sn is six times 
clhHbined with the preposition. In four instances it is preceded 
by 'hi (1 Sam. 26 13; 30 24; Jerem. 27 21; 1 Chron. 9 29) and 
twice only by -^k. Hence the Massorah safeguards the minority. 
Of this Riibric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, 
I collated two Lists: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, fol. 179a, on 
1 Sam. 10 22 which I have printed and (II) Arund. Orient 16, 
fol. 283 a, on Ruth. 2 &. 

n-rpn = § 575. 

iSb"'!?^ •*Q'?"*7P» In thirteen instances ^3h is combined with 
the preposition. Four times it is preceded by -•?? (Exod. 28 29, 30; 
Jerem. 44 21; Dan. 1 8) and nine times by -bf (Gen. 6 6; 8 21; 
1 Sam. 27 1; 2 Sam. 13 33; 19 20; Isa. 44 19; Ezek. 14 4, 7; 
Eccl. 7 2). It will be seen that outside the Pentateuch i3^-*?p 
occurs twice only, whilst in -the Pentateuch lay^K occurs twice 
only. Hence the Massorah in each case safeguards the two in- 
stances. In fixing the number of "laybp at two outside the 
I^entateuch, the Massorah excludes the Eastern recension which 
also reads la^j in 2 Sam. 13 33. 

Of this Rubric I collated ten Lists, eight in MSS. and two 
printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 276a, on Dan. 1 8 
which, I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 3646, on the 
same passage; (IH) Orient. 2348, fol. 43a, on Gen. 8 21; (IV) 
Orient 2349, fol. 38a, on the same passage; (V) Add. 15,251, 
fol. 4086, on Dan. 1 8; (VI) Vienna Codex No. 35 on Gen. 6 6; 
(VII) the same Codex on Dan. 1 8; (VIII) Halle Ochlah Ve- 
Ochlah I, § 159; (IX) the printed Massorah on Gen. 6 6 and 
(X) the same on Dan. 1 8. 

vrpn = § 576. 

'Tp^'p'^K to, or in thy heart, occurs ttoice. As "n^ib is twice 
preceded'by -bK and twice by -bf, the Massorah safeguards each 
pair. Of this Rubric, which does not occur in the printed 
Massorah, I collated two Lists: (I) Vienna Codex No. 35 on 
Deut 4 39 which I have printed and (II) the same Codex oil 
Deut 30 1. List I also gives the two instances in which "^^b is 
preceded by -bf. (Comp. letter p, § 461, Vol. H, p. 401.) 

rvpn = § 577. 

Hp'prrbi^ occurs tvnce. That is, this Niphal infinitive con- 
struct occurs twice and is in both instances preceded by -b». 
This Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, is 
from Arund. Orient 16, fol. 376, on l Sam. 4 21. 

n'Vpn = § 578. 

nl3^?n"^K to the chambers, occurs tiirice. In the only other 
instance in which this combination occurs, it is rfapbn-b» the 
construct (Ezek. 46 19). Of this Rubric, which does not occur 
in the printed Massorah, I collated two Lists: (I) Cambridge 
Add. 465 on Neh. 10 40 which I have printed and (II) Vienna 
Codex No. 35 on the same passage. 

B'rpn = § 579. 

rQ]firwKI unto the altar, occurs nine times, rotan is sixty 
times combined with the preposition. In fifty-one instances it is 



preceded by -^5* and in nine only by -b^t Hence the Massorah 
safeguards the minority. 

Of this Rubric I collated ten Lists, nine in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Harley 6710—11, Vol. I, fol. 65a, on Exod. 30 20 
which I have printed; (II) the same MS., Vol. I, fol. 636, on 
Levit 2 8; (III) Orient 4445, fol. 73a, on Exod. 30 20; (IV) the 
same MS., fol. 926, on Levit 9 7; (V) Add. 15,251, fol. 58a, on 
Exod. 28 48; (VI) Add. 21,160, foL 113a, on the same passage; 
(Vn) the same MS., fol. 138 a, on Levit 2 8; (VIII) Orient 2349, 
fol. 82a, on Exod. 30 20; (IX) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah I, § 159, 
and (X) the printed Massorah on Levit. 1 15. 

> Comp. Oen. S8 9; Exod. 34 6; 89 16, 20, 21, 86, 37, S8; Levit. 1 6, 7, 
8, 11, 12; S 2, 8, 18; 6 2, », 6, 6; 7 2; 8 11, 19, 24, 80; 9 12, IS, 17, 18,, 24; 
17 11; S8 22; Kumb. 18 17; Judg. 6 28; 1 Kings S 4; 9 26; IS 82, 33, 88; IS 1, 
2, 4, 32; 18 26; 2 Kings 16 12, 13, 16; 3S IC, 17; Esek. 43 27; Amos » 1. 

D'pfl = § 580. 
nSJtlp"^'^ to the altar of, occurs tvnce in this combination. 
The construct n^TC, which occurs fifteen times in combination 
with the preposition, is in thirteen instances preceded by ""jf' 
and in two only by -^k. The Massorah, therefore, safeguards 
the exceptional occurrence. Of this Rubric, which does not occur 
in the printed Massorah, I collated two Lists: (I) Harley 5710—11, 
Vol I, fol. 256 a, on 2 Kings 23 9 which I have printed and 
(II) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah I, § 159. 

» Comp. Levit. 4 10; 17 6; Deut 32 27, 27; Neh. 10 86; 1 Chron. 6 84; 
IS 40; 21 26; 2 Chron. 1 6; 8 12; 26 IG; 39 21; SS 16. 

K'Dpn = § 681. 

mntt"^K to or against light, occurs twice. This Rubric, which 
does not occur in the printed Massorah, is from Arund. Orient IG, 
fol. 81a, on 1 Kings 7 5. 

a'Dpn = § 582. 

'P"^K unto which, occurs three times. The interrogative '8 
which is eleven times combined with the preposition, is in eight 
instances preceded by ""jj * and in three by -bif^ Hence the 
Massorah safeguards the minority. Of this Rubric I collated 
five Lists, two in MSS. 'and three printed: (I) Arund. Orient IC, 
fol. 1866, on Ezek. 31 2 which I have printed; (II) Add. 15,251, 
fol. 2836, on the same passage; (IH) the printed Massorah on 
the same passage; (IV) the same on Ezek. 31 18 and (V) the 
printed Massorah FinaUs, letter m, § 401, where it is given as 
a contrast to 'O-'tki. (Fm7« infra, § 623.) 

» Comp. ^-hl 2 Kings 18 20; Isa. 10 »; S6 6; 5.^ 1 ; 57 4, 4; Jerem. 6 10; 
Nah. S 19. 

repn - § 583. 

C^^^K hy the waters, occurs three times, isn is ten times 
combined with the preposition. In seven instances it is preceded 
by 'bn (comp. letter k, § 468, VoL II, p. 401) and in three in- 
stances only by -^k. The Massorah, therefore, records here the 
minority. Of this Rubric I collated five Lists, four in MSS. and 
one printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 6l6, on Jerem. 41 12 
which I have printed; (II) the same MS., Vol, I, fol. 72a, on 
Levit 14 5 where it is given as a contrast to d^o-*??; (HI) 
St Petersburg Codex of A. D. 916 on Jerem. 41 12; (IV) the 
same Codex on Ezek. 17 8 and (V) the printed Massorah on 
Jerem. 41 12. As the expression D'an follows o'0-'?k in all the 
three instances Lists III and IV head this Rjubric •; ja in wan ^si^M. 

TBpn = § 584. 
^"^K hy or with the toaters of, is three times thus combined in 
the Scriptures. The construct -a is nine times combined with the 
preposition. In six instances it is preceded by -^y (Deut 33 8; 
Josh. 11 7; Judg. 6 19; Ps. 23 2; 81 8; 106 32) and in three 
instances only by -•?«. Hence the Massorah safeguards the 
minority. Of this Rubric I collated five Lists, four in MSS. and 
one printed: (I) Harley 5710-11, Vol. I, fol. 145a, on Josh. 11 5 
which I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 86, on the 
same passage; (III) Orient 2349, fol. 103a, on Numb. 5 23; (IV) 
Orient 2210, fol. 13 a, on Josh. 11 5 and (V) the printed Massorah 
on the same passage. 

<TDpn = § 585. 

"^■^JSTwP f^Jfptl ' ^K* On or to the king, occurs eight 

times and wherever it is confined with gootl tfyaS} it is likewise 

preceded hy -^5 exc^t in three instances where it is preceded by -^f 



K — K § 686—691. 



— 75 — 



§ 592—597. K — K 



The design of this somewhat complicated Massorah is to 
record the instances in which tj^t without the adjective aitt is 
preceded by -bv, and the passages in which though combined 
wkh this adjective ^^n is preceded by -htf. 

The phrase i^^Thv occurs altogether eighteen times. In ten 
instances it is combined with alio' and in eight passages only is 
it without this adjective. Hence the Massorah registers the 
minority. With ale the adjective i^% as we have seen, is 
normally preceded by -hv, and it is in three instances only where 
it is abnormally preceded by -«?f The Massorah, therefore, 
safeguards the exceptions. 

Of this Rubric I collated twelve Lists, eleven in MSS. and 
one printed: (I) Harley 6710-11, Vol. n, fol 1626, on 2 Chron. 
23 10 which I have printed; (II) the same MS., Vol. I, fol. 247a, 
on 2 Kings 11 8; (HI) the same MS., Vol. n, foL 271a, on 
Esther 1 16; (IV) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 106 a, on 2 Kings 11 8; 
(V) the same MS., fol. 116a, on 2 Kings 21 24; (VI) the same 
MS., foL 271 a, on 2 Chron. 23 10; (VH) the same MS., foL 279a, 
on 2 Chron. 88 26; (VHI) the same MS., foL 868&, on Esther 1 16; 
(IX) Add. 15,261, foL 2186, on 2 Kings 21 24; (X) the same 
MS., fol. 3886, on 2 Chron. 23 10; (XI) Halle Ochlah V#-Ochlah I, 
§ 169, and (XII) the printed Massorah on 2 Chron. 28 10. 
(Comp. also letter », § 84, Vol. I, p. 617.) 

• Comp. Either t 19; S 9; 6 4, 8; 7 8, 9; 8 5; S 18; Neh. 2 6, 7. 

rcpn - § 686. 
b''TiCtt"*?K to Egypt, occurs twice. This Rubric I have found in 
the printed Massorah only, where it occurs twice: (I) Gen. 37 36 
and (H) on Jerem. 26 22 which I have printed. In the other 
twelve instances where enp? is preceded by the preposition it 
is -h^e^ and not -b^. 

1 Comp. Exod. 1 8; 7 6; 14 26; 2 Kings 18 21, 24; I«a. 19 12; 80 3; 
S« 6, 9; Jerem. 9 26; Eaek. 80 11; » 16. 

T'Dpn- - §■ 687. 
Dlptt"^K to the place, occurs nine times. This Rubric, which 
is from the printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 398, is in- 
correct, since there are eleven instances in the textus recephis. 
Though the heading distinctly states that there are nine in- 
stances only, the List itself records the catchwords for ten and 
the eleventh instance, viz. Numb. 23 27 is omitted altogether. It 
is remarkable that both the Massorah on Gen. 1 9 and the 
Massorah Finalis, letter p, § 87, where the heading only is 
given, the mistake ts ^ 9 is repeated. 

n-Dpn - § 588. 

THK Dlptt''?KI to qne place, occurs three times in this eom- 
Unation in the Scriptures.' Ot this Rubric I collated three Lists, 
two in MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, 
foL 2656, on Eccl. 6 6 which I have printed; (II) Halle Ochlah 
Ve-Ochlah I, fol. 676, note, and (HI) the printed Massorah 
Finalis, letter p, § 88. 

tS'Dpn - § 689. 

DDlpO"'?J< to their place, occurs twice. Of this Rubric, which 
does not occur in the printed Massorah, I collated two Lists: 
(I) Orient 2348, fol. 130 a, on Numb. 32 17 which I have printed 
and (II) Orient 2349, f«l. 120a, on the same passage. 

3{'pn - § 690. 
P^$7)aTbK to {he tent, occurs three times in this form . . . in all 
the oih^ 'instances istwj U preceded hy -»??. That is, without and with 
prefixes and suffixes it is ih these three instances only combined 
with -'?« or -^Ki. It is in the first instance only where it is l^i^wr^ 
(Exod. 40 21),"in the second instance it is pi^i? the construct 
^umb. 17 28), whilst in the third passage it is not only ■vnissnto 
the plural with the suffix second person singular, but the pre- 
position has the prefix Vav (Ps. 43 3). AH these different forms 
are embraced in the expression Ksr-'ja in the heading. In all the 
other passages which are twelve in number, ]3tn is preceded 
by -"jp.^ This Rubric, which I have not found in any MS., is 
from the printed Massorah Finalis, letter v, § 150. 

» Comp. ?s«'»!l-^ Exod. S« 7; S6 14; 40 19. 38; Numb. S 26; 9 16, 18, 
19, 20, 22; l??*?-^ Numb. 1 60; nisstfor^S Cant. 1 8. 



it is -bs. This Rubric is from Arund. Orient. 16, fof. 3676, on 
Dan. 4 26 where it is contrasted with the two passages in which 
it is preceded by -hp The same Rubric is given in the printed 
Massorah on the same passage. This Rubric constitutes one of 
the ten pairs which respectively occur twice, one pair with -hf 
and one with -bv- {^^^ *«P»*«' ^^^^^ *» § ^^5, p. 64.) 
rXpfl - § 592. 

*TlT^^ to or by the river of, occurs three times. The construct 
•vq is nine times combined with the preposition. In six instances 
it is preceded by -^?' and in three by -«?it Hence the Massorah 
safeguards the minority. In fixing the number at three, the 
Massorah excludes the Eastern reading rhifi in Jerem. 46 2. Of 
this Rubric I collated three Lists, two in MSS. and one printed: 
(I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 196a, on Ezek. 43 8 which I have 
printed; (H) Vienna Codex No. 35 on the same passage and 
(in) the printed Massorah Finalis, letter s, § 63. 

« Comp. 2 Kings tS 29; Jerem. 46 2; Ezek. 1 1, 8; S 28; 10 22. 

yapn = § 693. 

*^^-*Tn7^J< hy the river of Chebar, occurs twice. In the 
other four passages where^ laa-inj is preceded by the preposition 
it is -bv (Ezek. 1 l, 3; 3 28; 10 22). This Rubric, which does 
not occur in the printed Massorah, is from the St Petersburg 
Codex of A. D. 916 on Ezek. 3 16. 

T5tpn - § 594. 

DnSn3"bK* The form n^nj inheritance, wUh prefixes and suffixes, 
is three' U^s preceded hy ■b^\oithoui and with the pr<^ Vav. In 
the other five instances where it occurs in combination with 
the preposition it is preceded by ■«?? (Numb. 86 8, 4; 1 Sam. 10 l ; 
Ruth 4 5, 10). 

Of this Rubric I collated eight Lists, six m MSS. and two 
printed: (I) Harley 6710-11, VoL I, foL 1726, on Judg. 4l 28 
which I have printed; (H) Arund. Orient 16, foL 846, on the 
same passage; (IH) the same MSS., fol. 286o, on Ps. 6 1; (IV) 
Add. 21,160, fol. 278a, on Deut 12 9; (V) Orient 2849, fol. 1306, 
on the same passage; (VI) Vienna Codex No. 85 on the same 
passage; (VH) the printed Massorah on the same passage and 
(Vni) the same on Ps. 6 1. The heading in Lists H— VIH is 
b» 3Ta bv rtbm pw«? bo, which makes the import of this I^ubric more 
clear. The printed Massorah on Deut. 12 9 (List VH) states in 
the heading (Toa) that there are four such instances which is 
mani^stly an error, since it correctly enumerates the three 
passages only. 

.T3epn - § 696. 

D"WD^K* 2%« form em horse, with prefixes and sjtffiaaes, is 
twice preceded "hy -^ wiOiout and with the prefix Vav. dw in its 
various forms is thirteen times combined with the preposition. 
In eleven instances it is preceded by ""js' and in two only by 
•bu. Hence the Massorah safeguards the exceptions. This Rubric, 
which I have not found in any MS., is from tiie printed Massorah 
Finalis, letter d, § 20. 

1 Comp. om-ht 1 Kings 20 20; Isa. SO 16; Hos. 14 4; own-^i Esther 6 9; 
o»wo-Vp Eccl. 10 7; Isa. SI 1; D««r^Si Jerem. 6 28; 60 42; B«w»n-'?y. 2 Kings 
U 20; 2 Chron. 86 28; ^WD-^y Hab. S 8. 



rXpn - § 696. 

*^D^K to, or into a book, occurs three times in this combination 
in the Seriptt^res. As iBO is fifty-three times in combination with 
the preposition and moreover as it is in no fewer than fifty 
times preceded by -^S and in these three instances only by -«^, 
the Massorah safeguards the abnormal combination. By this Rubric 
the Massorah excludes the reading -«?5 in Jerem. 80 2 which is to 
be found in some MSS. as well as in the editio prineeps of the 
Prophets, Soncino 1486-86 and the first edition of the Bible, 
Soncino 1488. 

Of this Rubric I collated six Lists, four in MSS. and two 
printed: (I) Harley 5710-11, Vol. H, foL 686, on Jerem. 61 60 
which I have printed; (H) the same MS., Vol. H, foL 1976, on 
Neh. 8 3; (III) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 884a, on the same passage; 
(IV) Vienna Codex No. 35 on the same passagej. (V) the printed 
Massorah on Jerem. 30 2 and (VI) the same ofi Neh. 8 8. 

K-Jtpn - § 591. rxpn - § 597. 

-TaCKffiOrtK to N^uchadnezzar, occurs twice. In the other n^rvb^ to the well, occurs twice In the other two instances 

two i^tancel wher4 n^T5,a? is combined with the preposition | where r?^ is in combination with the preposition it is -^ 

10b 



X — K § 5?8— 600. 



— 76 — 



§ 601—605. K — K 



(Gen. 16 7 ; 24 30). These two instances form one of the pairs 
which are twice preceded by -b|t and twice by -b^ recorded in 
the Massorah. (Vid^ aupi-a, letter k, § 525, p. G4,) 

This Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, 
is from Orient. 234», fol; 40&, on Gen. 24 21i. 

n'jcpn = § 598. 

DP"T'X 'DS?"^^ to, over, or against a people, occurs Jive 
times .... and throiiffhovt Isaiah and the Psalms it is likewise so except 
in three imtances. In these three instances us. is preceded by 'bv.. 
Of this Rubric I collated five Lists, tliree in MSS. and two 
printed: (I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 8lfc, on Judg. 18 27 which I 
have printed; (II) the same MS., fol. 347o, on Prov. 28 15; 
(III) Add. 15,251, fol. 3936, on the same passage; (IV) the 
printed Massorah on 2 Sam. 6 21 and (V) the same on Prov. 28 16. 
The import of this artificial Massorah is very, complicated, 
as will be seen from the following analysis, us. is combined 
with the preposition nineteen times. In ten instances it is pre- 
ceded by '% (Judg. 18 in; 2 Kings 9 G; Isn. 18 2; 65 2; Ezek. 3 5; 
12 19; 26 20; Fs. 105 13; Rutli 2 11; 1 Chron. 16 20) and in 
nine by -bv (Judg. 18 27; 2 Sam. 6 21; 14 13; Isa. 30 5, 6; 
Zeph. 2 10; Prov. 28 15; 2 Chron. 1 9; 32 18). Accordingly the 
five instances of c?-'?y contained in the first part of this Rubric 
exclude four passages, two in Samuel and two in Isaiah. In the 
Psalms tills combination does not occur at all. The heading, 
therefore, in the second part of this Rubric is doubly incorrect. 
It omits Samuel where cs-bs occurs twice and specifies the 
Psalms where it does not occur at all. Lists IV and V, which as 
wo have seen are in the printed Massorah, remove the first 
mistake, siuce the heading in the second part of the Rubric is 
here yU2, "ui m'rnm mm bvnuv bs\ and throughout Sawuel, Isaiah and 
the Psalms it is lihiwise so except in three instances, but they leave 
the second, inasmuch as they • include the Psalms among the 
books in which ay-'?? occurs. 

List II exhibits another recension of this Massorah. It is as 
follows r^ DS-h^ occurs three times, viz. Judg. 18 27; Zeph, 2 10; 
Prov. 28 15 and throughout Samuel, Isaiah, Chronicles and the 
Psalms it is likewise so except in four instances lohere it is QS'bVi, 
viz. Isa. 18 2; 65 2; Ps. 105 13; 1 Chron. 1^ 20. Though the 
first mistake is here removed, the second which states that 
us-bs occurs in the Psalms is left. This recension explains the 
otherwise inexplicable Massorah in Add. 15,251 (List III) where 
it simply states on Prov. 28 1 5 that or-'?? occurs three times 
only. It is based upon ^Ulis recension with the omission of the 
second part of this Rubric. Why the Massorah so artificially 
divides the occurrence of usrb^ and b?-^? and does not plainly 
state that the former combinaj^ion occurs ten times and the latter 
nine times it is difficult to divine. 

,ppip 3T1 onj n» ,zs\»i nnn on'? nxt ,n3»a ntry tck n« inp"? nam 'O'di 'j cy bi i 
i3%nnM (Orn hi 'T 'ntris) ,d»"i»5 o'a n'?irn 'o'cr ini 'm '^nm 'a'n 'am n^yci 'jxiatr "jai 

.'am ij h» '«o 

»"5tpn = § 599. 

"teP^X to my people, occurs four times in this combination in 
the Scriptures .... and once it is tvith the prefix Vav. -ay is eighteen 
times in combination with the preposition. In fourteen instances 
it is preceded by ■??* and in four only by -*?*{. Hence the Massorah 
safeguards the exceptional combination. 

Of this Rubric I collated eight Lists, six in MSS. and two 
printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 77fc, on Ezek. 13 19 
which I have printed; (II) the same MS,, Vol. n, fol. 36, on 
Amos 7 15; (III) Add. 15, 15,251, fol 406, on Gen. 49 29; (IV) 
Orient. 2349, fol. 57 o, on the same passage; (V) Vienna Codex 
No. 35 on the same passage; (VI) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah I, 
foL 676 note, (VII) the printed Massorah on Gen. 49 29 and 
(VIII) the same on Ezek. 13 19. List IV heads it 'n 'op-*?^ = it 
occurs five times, but this is due to the fact that it includes the 
one instance with the prefix Vav (Joel 4 3). 

» Comp. '^T^i 1 Sam. 9 IG; 2 Sam, 7 8, 11; 1 Kings 8 IC; 147; 16 2; 
Isa. 47 6; Ezek. 38 IC; Joel 4 2; 1 Chron, 11 2; 17 7, 10; 2 Chron, 6 5, 6. 

Tn = § 600. 

D'^^P^K to peoples, occurs three times. Of this Rubric, which 
does not occur in the printed Massorah, I collated two Lists: 
(I) Add. 15,251, fol. 269a, on Ezek. 3 6 which I have printed 
and (II) the same MS., fol. 307 o, on Zeph. 3 9. It will be seen 
that though in one instance it is with prefix Vav {-bK\ Isa. 49 22), 
the heading makes no distinction. It ought properly to be 

WUS b\K\ 'K1 -3. 



K'ln = § 601. 

itoSjtP^K to his hone, occurs twice in the Scriptures in this 
conibination. Of this Rubric I collated three Lists, two in MSS. 
and one printed: (I) Harley 5710 - 11, Vol. II, fol. 2226, on Job 2 5 
which I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 1906, on Ezek. 
37 7 and (III) the printed Massorah Finalis, letter p, § 306. The 
heading of this Rubric in the printed Massorah 'vbz 'S "^k dsp is 
not quite correct, since it is exactly the same form in both 
instances. The addition by x''''!''i'>«^ refers to the two instances 
in which the form uss with suffixes is preceded by -bs, viz. 
ua^r^S Lament. 4 8 and on'oscr^P Ezek. 32 27. This addition 
ought properly to be worded 'trba bs "sr,. 

Tin = § G02. 

''B"^K to the mouth of, occurs five tim^s in this combination 

in all other instances it is ^U'bs. The construct -b is about fifty-five 
times combined with the preposition. In about fifty passages it 
is preceded by -bs and in five only is it preceded by -"?«. The 
Massorah, therefore, safeguards the exceptions. By fixing the 
number at five this Massorah is against the >S«yiV -"^p in Josh. 21 3. 

Of this Rubric I collated twelve Lists, eleven in MSS. and 
one printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. \ fol. 144a, on Josh. 10 18 
which I have printed; (II) the same MS., Vol. I, fol. 148m, on 
Josh. 15 13; (III) the same MS., Vol. I, fol. 149a, on Josh. 17 4; 
(IV) the same MS., Vol. II, fol. 2846, on Dan. 10 3; (V) Arund. 
Orient. 16, fol. 8a, on Josh. 10 18; (VI) the same MS., fol. 11 6. 
on Josh. 15 13; (VII) the same MS., fol. 126, on Josh. 17 4; 
(VIII) the same MS., fol. 146, on Josh. 21 3; (IX) the same MS., 
fol. 372fl, on Dan. 10 3; (X) Add. 15,251, fol. 130a, on Josh. 10 18; 
(XI) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah I, § 159, and (XII) the printed 
Massorah on Josh. 17 4, 

jnn = § 603. 
in^SS''^K to his mouth, occurs twice. This Rubric I have 
found only in the printed Massorah Finalis, letter b, § 14. The 
design of this Massorah is to safeguard the longer form of the 
suffix third person singular masculine. In the other instances 
where this combination occurs it is with the shorter form which 
is recorded in the next Rubric. 

inn § 604. 

VB"t'X to his mouth, occurs three times. That is, in this 
combination with the shorter form of the suffix third person 
singular masculine. It was deemed all the more necessary to 
guard the orthography of these two different forms in this 
combination since they are used interchangeably in the same 
books, as will be seen from a comparison of the two Rubrics. 
This Massorah is, moreover, designed to safeguard these instances 
in which this shorter form is preceded by "^k from those in 
which it is preceded by -bs (Numb. 27 21; 2 Kings 4 34). 

Of this Rubric I collated four Lists, three in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Arund. Orient. 16, foL 43a, on 1 Sam. 14 26 which I 
have printed; (II) the same MS., foL 3646, on Prov. 26 15; 
(III) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, § 279, and (IV) the printed 
Massorah on 1 Sam. 14 26. 

n'Vl - § 605. 

^3B"^K before the face of, i. e. before, occurs nine times 

and from Ezek. 40 1—48 35 it is liketoise so except in four 
instances where ijfi is preceded by -bs without w with the prefix Vav. 

To understand this Massorah it is necessary to remark that 
-3B is combined with the preposition no fewer than one hundred 
and twenty-nine times. In one hundred and seven instances it is 
preceded by -by and in twenty-two only by -b^ without and 
with the prefix Vav.^ It will be seen that not only do fourteen ^ 
out of the twenty-three instances occur in Ezekiel, but that 
thirteen occur in the last seven chapters. The Massorah, there- 
fore, for the purpose of recording the exceptional instances 
in which "i^-bn occurs, divides Ezekiel into two; the first portion 
consisting of chapters 1 — 40 and the second comprising chapters 
41—48. It shows that apart from Ezek. 40—48 ■'»-'?« is the 
exception since it occurs nine times only, eight outside Ezekiel 
and once in, the first part of this book. Here, therefore, the 
Massorah safeguards the exceptional nine instances. In Ezek. 
40—48 the case is different. Here "ztrbvi is the rule. It occurs 



1 Comp. '3B-'7« Exod. 2.3 17; Levit. 6 7; 9 5; 14 S.*}; IG 2; Numb. 17 i 
20 10; Ezek. IG 5; 41 4, 12, 16, 25; 42 2, 3, 7, 10, IS; 44 4; 48 21; '?S-^> 
Ezek. 42 10; 45 7; Neh. 2 13. 

2 For these fourteen instances see tlic preceding note. 



S — X § 606—609, 



— 77 



§ 610—614. K — K 



no fewer than fourteen times and 'ja-bp which occurs four times 
only (Ezek. 40 15; 42 8; 48 15, 21) is the exception. Here, 
therefore, the Massorah safeguards the exceptional four instances 
and militates against the Eastern recension which reads '.3B-f?K 
in Ezek. 42 8. Of this Rubric I collated eleven Lists, nine in 
MSS. and two printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 786, on 
Ezek. 16 5 which I have printed; (II) Orient. 4445, fol. 89 6, on 
Levit 6 7; (III) the same MS., foL 100a, on Levit. 14 53; (IV) 
the same MS., foL 1016, on Levit. 16 2; (V) Arund. Orient 16, 
fol. 1756, on Ezek. 16 5; (VI) Add. 21,160, fol. 1606, on Levit 
14 53; (VII) the same MS., fol. 1626, on Levit 16 2; (VIII) 
Vienna Codex No. 35 on Exod. 23 17; (IX) Halle Ochlah Ve- 
Ochlah I, § 159; (X) the printed Massorah on Exod. 23 17 and 
(XI) the same on Ezek. 16 5. 

In printing, the words 'o^di nba -la-i -dot 'id ip isni'jj^ rnv vam 
-mum -ncan -ttk -s ,to priK'n have inadvertently dropped out of 
the text after c-iwra |oi at the end of the Rubric. This part also 
forms a separate Rubric and is given under letter p, § 494, 
VoL II, p. 403. 

r"lfl = § 606. 

•"TT^n ''^^"78 to the face of the field or open field., occurs three 
times. Of this Rubric I collated four Lists, three in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Orient 2348, fol. 101a, on Levit 14 53 which I have 
printed; (II) Orient 2349, fol. 91a; (III) Vienna Codex No. 35 
and (IV) the printed Massorah, all on Levit. 14 53. The printed 
Massorah states that this phrase occurs twice only and omits 
Ezek. 32 4. This is due to the fact that the Westerns read it 
here rri^ ^jB-^p. The other three Lists of this Rubric emphatically 
adopt the Babylonian recension and this affords a striking proof 
that the Eastern Massorahs are not unfrequently embodied in 
the Western recension of this Corpus. 

rnn = § 607. 

V3S"^K to, or on his face, is six times thus combined in the 
Scriptures. rjB occurs twenty times in combination with the 
preposition. In fourteen instances it is preceded by -b^^ and in 
six only by -f?K. Hence the Massorah safeguards the minority. 
The safeguarding of these instances is directed against the Sural a 
branch School of the Babylonian textual redactors who read 
viu-b? both in Josh. 6 14 and 2 Sam. 14 22. The first of the two 
passages is also -bp_ in the editio princeps of the Prophets, 
Soncino 1485—86; the first and tliird editions of the entire 
Bible, Soncino 1488, Brescia 1494 and the Complutensian. {Vide 
supra, letter k, § 5 146.) 

Of this Rubric I collated eight Lists, six in MSS. and two 
printed: (I) Harley 5710-11, Vol. H, fol. 2276, on Job 13 15 
which I have printed; (II) the same MS., VoL II, fol. 160a, on 
2 Chron. 19 2; (III) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 268a, on the same 
passage; (IV) Add. 21,1 60, fol. 2686, on Deut 7 10; (V) Orient 2349, 
foL 1276, on the same passage; (VI) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah I, 
§ 159; (VII) the printed Massorah on 2 Sam. 14 22 and (VIII) 
the same on 2 Chron. 19 2. 

' Comp. Via-h^ Gen. 17 3, 17; 32 22; Exod. 34 G, 33, 35; Numb. 16 4; 
Josh. 7 6; 1 Sam. 17 49; 2 Sam. » 6; 1 Kings 18 7; 2 Kings 8 16; 13 14; Job 21 31. 

nnn = § 608. 

"fljSCTl^K unto, or upon the rock, occurs three times in this 
form. That is, without and with the prefix He. The expression 
•trba indicates that in 2 Sam. 21 io where this combination 
occurs nix has the article. 

"iistn is seven times in combination with the preposition 
(including the two instances without the article). In four passages 
it is preceded by -«?5 (Exod. 17 6; 33 21; Judg.' 13 19; l Chron. 
11 15) and in three by -"?«. The Massorah, therefore, safeguards 
the minority. 

Of this Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, 

1 collated three Lists: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, fol. 213a, on 

2 Sam. 21 10 which I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient 16, 
fol. 72a, on the same passage and (III) the same MS., fol. 141a, 
on Isa. 51 1. 



0'"in = § 609. 

LDp"T'K to or at the grave of, occurs three times. In the only 
other instance where ia[3 is preceded by the preposition, it is 
•h$ (2 Kings 23 6). Here we have one of the few instances 
where the Massorah safeguards the majority. This Rubric I have 
only found in the printed Massorah Finalis, letter j?, § 10. 



^nn = § 610. 

*^'')?'J^1^ ^^0 the wall, occurs three times. This Rubric, which 
does not occur in the printed Massorah, is incorrect since 
Tprr^K occurs five times. The two passages omitted are Numb. 
22 256 and 2 Kings 9 33. As Tiw^is eight times combined with 
the preposition and moreover, as it is in three instances preceded 
by -«?? (comp. letter p, § 499, Vol. U, p. 403), this Rubric is 
designed to record the passages in which it is preceded by 
-'?K. We have thus here another of the uncommon instances 
in which the Massorah protects the majority. The minority, 
however, is safeguarded in a separate Rubric. (Comp. letter p 
§ 499, Vol. II, p. 403.) 



mn = § 611. 

' Mfp"^^ to t^ «nd or border of, occurs six times. Of this 
Rubric I collated five Lists, three in MSS. and two printed: 
(I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 236, on Judg. 7 11 which I have 
printed; (H) Add. 15,260, foL 2376, on Isa. 62 11; (III) Add. 21,160, 
fol. 926, on Exod. 16 35; (IV) the printed Massorah on the same 
passage and (V) the same on Josh. 18 16. 



mn = § 612. 

wH \ VJjt to the top of, occurs twice .... and wherever it is 
combined with ^. mountain it is likewise so except in five 
instances. 

The design of this Massorah is to record the instances in 
which t¥h without -rn is preceded by -^ and thei passages in 
which though combined with this noun it is preceded by -bv: 
{\) the phrase xdvh-b>k occurs altogether eight times. In six 
instances it is combined with mrii and in two only is it without 
this noun. Hence the Massorah registers the exception-, (2) The 
phrase nrn tfKh which occurs altogether eleven times in combination 
with the preposition is in six instances preceded by -•?« and in 
five by -"jp.* The Massorah, therefore, in this case records the 
minority. 

Of this Rubric I coUated six Lists, five in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Harley 5710— 11, Vol I, fol. 234a, on 1 Kings 18 42 
which I have printed; (II) Orient 4445, fol. 1436, on Numb. 23 14; 
(HI) Arund, Orient 16, fol. 936, on l Kings 18 42: (IV) Orient 
2349, foL 115a, on Numb. 23 14; (V) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah. I, 
§ 159, and (VI) the printed Massorah Finalis, letter -1, § 83. 
List IV gives the first part of this Rubric only. 

' Comp. Exod. 19 20, 20; Numb. 14, 40, 44; Josh. 15 8; Judg. 16 8. 
2 Comp. The Maatmah, letter )>, § 600, Vol. II, p. 403. 

r»'Vr^ ^ 613. 

TtTK I >X at or on his head, occurs twice in this combination 
in the Scriptures. W¥h occurs thirty times in combination with 
the preposition. In twenty-eight instances it is preceded by -bf^ 
and in two only by 'b*. Hence the Massorah safeguards the 
exceptional combination, which excludes the ancient reading -«?? 
exhibited in some MSS. of the Samaritan recension of the 
Hebrew text 

Of this Rubric I collated seven Lists, six in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, foL 2446, on 2 Kings 9 6 
which I have printed; (II) Orient 4445, fol. 80a, on Exod. 36 29; 
(III) Arund. Orient, 16, fol. I04a, on 2 Kings 9 6; (IV) Add. 15,251, 
fol. 626, on Exod. 36 29; (V) Orient 2349. foL 796, on the same 
passage; (VI) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah I, § 159, note and (VH) 
the printed Massorah Finalis, letter -1, § 85. List V adds at the 
end of the Rubric dwkt^k nm (Neh. 3 36) to distinguish it from 
the seven instances where this noun with the suffix third person 
plural is preceded by -bv. (Josh, 7 6; Isa, 35 10; 61 11; Ezek. 
1 25, 26; 44 18; Lament 2 10). 

« Comp. iCxT^ Gen. 48 18; Exod. 26 24; 29 6, 7; Levit. S 13; 4 11 ; 8 9; 21 10 ; 
24 14; Numb. 6 6, 7; Judg. 13 ft; 1 Sam. 1 11; 4 12; 10 1; 17 fi, 38; 2 Sam. 
1 2, 10; 15 32; I Kings 2 32; 2 Kings 9 3; Jonah 4 6; Zech. 3 6, 6; ProT. 26 22; 
Esther 9 26; 2 Chron. S 15. 



T'ln = § 614, 

rnUT?R to or into the field of, occurs twice. In the other 
two instances where this noun occurs in the construct, it is 
preceded by -bv (Levit 25 31; Prov, 24 30). This Rubric, which 
does not occur in the printed Massorah, is from Arund. Orient 16, 
fol. 386, on 1 Sam. 6 14. 



K — K § 616— 6l7o— d. 



78 — 



§ 618a— c— 620. 



K-K 



,Tnn = § 615. 

D^t^rrtK to, or in heaven, occurs jive tinves in the Scriptures. 
In the other seven instances where B'0*n is in combination with 
the preposition it is -bs (Exod. 9 22, 23; 10 21, 22; Ps. 8 2; 
67 6; 113 4). Hence the Massorah safeguards the minority. 

'of this Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, 
I collated five Lists: (I) Harley 5710-11, Vol. II. fol. 286a, on 
Dan 12 7 which I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient 10, fol. 296«, 
on Ps. 50 4; (III) Add! 15,451, fol. 4096, on tlie same passage; 
(IV) Vienna Codex No. 35 on the same passage and (V) Halle 
Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, § 279. 

rnn = § eie. 

"•JttH^K to, or upon two of, occurs three times. The sign thereof 
in Chalkee t^ and the Youth in the first shoul^r. The construct n.B> 
occurs nineteen times in combination with the preposition. In 
sixteen instances it is preceded by -by^ and in three only by ->?»». 
Hence the Massorah safeguards the exceptional combination. In 
this Rubric, therefore, the Massorah militates against the ancient 
recension which reads -^y in Exod. 28 7 as exhibited in the 
Samaritan text and in the Septuagint and which is confirmed 
by the parallel passage in Exod. 39 4. 

Of this Rubric I collated four Lists, three in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Harley 5710-11, Vol. I, fol. 52a, on Exod. 28 7 whixsh 
gives the mnemonic sign only and which I have printed; (II) 
Orient 2348, fol. 836; (HI) Orient 2349, fol. 736, both on the 
same passage and (IV) the printed Massorah Finalis, letter w, 
§ 343. 

1 Comp. •JB'-SP Gen. 40 2; Exod. 25 19; 28 28, 26; 90 4; $7 27; 89 4, 
16, 19; Levit. tt's; 2S 20; Numb. 7 8; Deut 4 18; i 19; 1 Kings 7 20, 26. 



Lists 1 and prefixed to it the heading stating that there are forty- 
five such instances.* Apart from these additions and catchwords, 
this List is almost identical with List L The reviser, however, omitted 
3Kl'-'??i which is given in the other Lists and which does not 
occur in the received text 

(V) The printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 403. Though 
this List like the former one catalogues forty-five instances of 
this combination, it differs in this essential point that it fixes 
no number in Ifce, heading which simply states: The folhtcing 
words respectively occur once only preceded by -bwi.'^ With the 
exception of nn^-'^Ki Numb. 31 12 and n'pnsc-'?^ Jerem. 27 12 it 
embodies all the additional instances which are given in List IV 
and makes up the forty-five by substituting two others, viz. 
^irrb)^ Jerem. 47 7 and rnh«fe-'?Ki Ezek. 31 13. The pernicious 
addition to the heading of the words -b\^ proa nn n^"?! which is 
against the import of this Massorah is due to the editor of the 
second edition of Jacob b. Chayim's Rabbinic Bible, Venice- 
1546—48 and not to Buxtorf, Basle 1618—19, as is stated by 
Frensdorff, Paris Ochlah Ve-Ochlah, p. 26, notes. 

That all the early Lists are simply fragments and that the 
later expansions with the headings fixing the number are due 
to revisers who mistook the import of this Massorah, is evident 
from the fact that there are no fewer than one hundred and 
forty-eight such unique combinations. The later Nakdanim simply 
shaped the different headings in accordance with the number of 
instances catalogued in the Lists, , which they severally copied 
without investigating how many times the combination in 
question really occurs in the Bible. 

1 Viz 'BS"^*" Exod. 12 22; mj,-^!*^. Numb. 31 12; WT^^] Deut. 9 27; 
IfiKBn-SKi Dout 9 27; '»'??>. 2 Kings 3 13; nji?-i!r-S»l Jerem. 27 12; o^^^^ 
Ezek. 28^42; D^»n-h^ Isa.W.'J; ninhn-'jKi Isa. 19- 3 : n-.b'-^Ki Isa. 51 2; »^rf,H-b\p^ 
Isa 56 7- nilv-Wi Hos. 4 8; nanr"?*". Neh. 2 14; a^-^w Ezek. 11 21. 

' ^ ■■' -■ ■ '^ddTm-Ski nrn nn p n'D » 



jM«in s § 617a— d. 
"hif]* Words which respectively occur once only preceded % 
this predion with the prefix Vav. That is, these combinations with 
-bm are either unique or when the words in question occur 
again with the preposition they are preceded by -b^ without the 
prefix Vav.^ . . . 

The three Lists marked § enh-d which respectively record 
four twelve and thirteen instances of this combination again 
show the gradual manner in which the Massorah was developed. 
They are simply fragments intended to be completed by 
successive Massorites. Hence they are as yet without headings 
fixing the number of the passages where this combination occurs 
and without catchwords. Exactly the same is the case with the 
two fragments given in the ancient Codex Orient, m^, fols. 656, 
138a, on Exod. 24 14 and Numb. 28 26, the one vocovding sixteen 
instances and the other fifteen. The most developed Lists of this 
Rubric are the following: ^. t t 

(I) Harley 5710-11, VoL I, foL 16a, on Gen. 18 7 which I 
have printed and which is marked § 617a. This List records 
thirty-one instancea 

(H) Orient 4445, fol. 65a, on Exod. 24 1 which records twenty- 
seven instances. Of these, twenty-five are identical with those 
in List L Two are new, viz. rrnfrbr^, Gen. 34 11, *^:?^bwi l Sam. 
26 6, and the following six are omitted: inpr"?.*? t Sam. 10 14; 
•wn-yxa-bw^ Jerem. 25 9; ^T^b«] Jerem. 50 18; rnvr-^ Jerem. 30 4; 
pKri^'^Ps.' 50 4 and vspp-bm, EccL 1 5. Botii these Lists have 
neither headings nor catchwords. 

(HI) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah I, § 166. Like List I it gives 
thirty-one instances with this difference, that it has one instance 
('«^3R-'?«1 1 Sam 26 6) which is not in List I, though it is in 
List II 'and it omits one (ncr"^ ^^' ^ *> ^^^^'^ ^ ^^^ T*!t 
in List n The essential difference between this List and the 
two preceding Lists consists in the addition of the heading which 
fixes the number at thirty-two.« though thirty-one only are 
catalogued and in adding the catchwords. That this is simply a 
later development of List I, is evident both from the fact that 
the passages are recorded in almost the same order of the books 
and from its giving ^^m as one of the combinations though 
it does not occur in the textus reeeptus. 

(IV) Paris Ochlah Ve-Ochlah, § 85. This List exhibits a 

still further development A later reviser added no fewer 

than fourteen instances which do not occur in the previous 

1 In confirmation of thi. fact I simply adduce the t«wii«t«ceB with 

Which this RubHc b^. The ^^^^^^l^'^^^^J'^.^T T^. 
• In Oen 4 6, 9; I'TW-b* Gen. 87 28, 26. 30 &e.; a{)^« Gen. 28 30, -7 6, zi «c. 

.Ski nmnn 10 a-S p w > 



n'nn = § 6i8a— c 

^^ '^Kl* Nine tcords which respectively occur twice in 
combination with the preposition, are once preceded by -bKi and once 
by -bv)- The difference between this Rubric and the one recorded 
in K, § 524 a— fc, is that here the prepositions with which these 
words are severally combined have in both instances the Vav 
conjunctive, whilst there the same prepositions are without the 
Vav in both instances. 

Of this Rubric I collated twelve Lists, nine in MSS. and 
three printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, fol. 69a, on Levit 10 16 
which I have printed; (II) Orient 4445, fol. 956, on Levit 12 4; 
(III) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 103a, on 2 Kings 8 3; (IV) the same MS., 
fol 232a, on Job 32 21; (V) Orient 2349, foL 1626, on Numb. 4 49; 
(VI) Add. 15,451, fol. 76a, on Levit 12 4 ; (VH) the same MS., foL 285a, 
on Jerem. 26 15; (VHI) Add. 21,160, fol. 1936, on Numb. 4 49; 
(IX) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah I, § 156; (X) Paris Ochlah Ve- 
Ochlah, § 86; (XI) the printed Massorah on Numb. 4 49 and 
(XII) the printed Massorah Finalis, letter p, § 166. 

Though List I distinctly states that there are nine such 
pairs it enumerates eight only. I have, therefore, added the ninth 
pair from the other Lists, and indicated this addition by the 
Massoretic term rn^"- List lU not only states in the heading that 
there are .ten pairs, but enumerates ten, giving wa as the first 
of these combinations.* But this pair does not occur m the 
textus receptus. As to the two fragmentary Lists, marked, § 6186 
and § 618c, the one is from Orient 2849, foL 88i, on Levit 12 4 
and the other from Arund. Orient 16, foL 216a, on Hag. 1 1. 
They exhibit the first attempt to catalogue this phenomenon 
and are, therefore, as yet without headings. A third incipient 
List recording seven out of the nine pairs is given in the ancient 
Codex Orient 4445, fol. 121 6, on Numb. 4 49. 

.^31 b nn«a Syi -S nn'3 Sw "jynm bm ti \>m •♦ p nn t 

B«nn = § 619. 

nt^irtKl and to a woman, occurs twice. That is, to distinguish 
it from' the other two instances where this combination occurs 
and where the preposition is without the prefix Vat (Exod., 
19 15- Ezek. 23 44). This Rubric, which does not occur in the 
printed Massorah, is from Harley 5710-11, Vol. I, foL 756, on 
Levit 18 19. 

ann = § 62o. 

'ri"?'^ and to his house, occurs three times. In the other 
three instances where this combination with the preposition and 



K — 8 § 621—624. 



79 — 



§ 626— 631a- 



the prefix Vav occurs it is -bj?!.* Of this Rubric I collated nine 
Lists, eight in MSS. and one printed: (I) Arund. Orient 16, foL 146, 
on Josh. 20 6 which I have printed; (II) the same MS., fol. 63a, 
on 2 Sam. 11 13; (III) the same MS., fol. 91o, on 1 Kings 16 7; 
(IV) the same MS., fol. 161a, on Jerem. 23 84 where it is given 
as a contrast to in'S"*?^!; (V) the same MS., fol. 249&, on l Chron. 
17 23 where too it is given as contrast to safeguard it against the 
combination with -«??i; (VI) Add. 154,51, fol. 158&, on Josh. 20 6; 
(Vn) the same MS.,' fol. 3286, on 1 Kings 16 7; (Vni) Halle 
Ochlah Ve-Ochlah I, § 169, and (IX) the printed Maasorah 
Finalis, letter k, § 426. 

> €k>mp. TfM Mauorah, letter V, % 614, Vol. II, p. 404. 

K'ain - § 621. 

IbKb lanri h^^. "i?"^. ^^^ ^^ ^ chmrm of Im-a^l 
thou »kaU tpeak tdying, oeeurs four HmM tkua combined. The design 
of this Massorah is to safeguard these exceptional instance 
against being made conformable to the normal phrases nj*^ 
Tfa»6 Sr^ na-*3K (Levit 4 2; 7 2», 29; 12 2; 23 24, 34) and nj^ 
Dr6i| n-jaw "Winter '3|i-^k (Levit 18 2; 23 2, 10; 26 2; 27 2; Numb. 6 12; 
6 2, 15 2^ 18,' 38; 33 51 ; 36 10) which are used in this connection, 
and which begin the verse. Of this Rubric I collated six Lists, 
five in MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, 
foL 104a, on Numb. 27 8 which I have printed; (II) Orient 4446, 
foL 736, on Exod. 30 31; (III) Orient 2340, fol. 766, on the. 
same passage; (IV) Add. 15,251, foL 696, on Levit 9 8; (V) 
Add. 21,160, fol, 1176, on Exod. 30 31 :and (VI) the printed 
Massorah on the same passage. 

As these four instances occur in the Pentateuch and always 
begin a verse, the heading in List IV is 'iina 'n - four times in 
the Pentateuch and in List V D'plDB 'rtn 'T = four timet at the 
beginning a verse, ought more correctly to be -iirai "i four 
times and in the Pentateuch or trpiDB twni "i -= four times and at 
the beginning of a verse. But we have seen that the Vav is not 
unfrequently omitted in the headings. 

3-3nn = § 622. 
^ri'^^^KI and to the rest, .of, occurs twice. In the other two 
instances where this combination occurs, the preposition is 
without the prefix Vav. {Vide supra, letter k, § 564.) This Rubric, 
which does not occur in the printed Massorah, is from Arund. 
Orient 16, fol. 381 6, on Neh. 4 8. 

rain = § 623. 

^■^Kl and to whom, occurs four times ihus combined in the 
Scriptures. In the other three instances where "p is preceded by 
this preposition it is without the prefix Fat>. {Vide supra, letter m, 
§ 582.) The necessity for fixing the number at four is due to 
the fact that some Codices read -o-'jki instead of 'b^ in Isa. 46 5 
in conformity with the parallel passage in Isa. 40 25. 

Of this Rubric I collated ten Lists, seven in MSS. and three 
printed: (I) Harley 5710— 11, VoL I, fol. 177a, on 1 Sam. 6 20 
which I have printed; (II) the same MS., Vol. II, fol. 196, on 
Isa. 40 25; (HI) the same MS., Vol. II, fol. 2236, on Job 6 !; 
(IV) Arund. Orient 16, foL 136a, on Isa. 40 25; (V) the same 
MS., fol. 323a, on Job 6 1; (VI) Add. 15,261, fol. 230a, on Isa. 
40 25; (Vn) Add. 21,160, foL 3206, on Job 6 1 ; (VIII) the 
printed Massorah on l Sam. 6 20; (IX) the same on Job 6 1 
and (X) the printed Massorah Finalis, letter m, § 400. 

It is important to remark that List VII not only states in 
the heading that there are five instances of this combination, 
but gives Isa. 46 5 as one, thus showing that the Massorites 
from whom this Rubric emanates worked upon Standard Codices 
which exhibited this reading. 

ram = § 624. 

n3T)ISn' T'KI and to, or upon the altar, occurs three times thus 
combined. In the other nine instances where na]^n is preceded by this 
preposition it is without the prefix Vav. {Vide supra, letter it, § 579.) 

Of this Rubric I collated eleven Lists, nine in MSS. and 
two printed: (I) Harley 6710—11, VoL I, fol. 636, on Levit 2 12 
which I have printed; (II) the same MS., fol. 776, on Levit 21 23; 
(HI) the same MS., Vol. I, fol. 976, on Numb. 18 3; (IV) Orient 
4445, fol. 86a, on Levit 2 12; (V) the same MS., fol. 107a, on 
Levit 21 23; (VI) Add. 15,251, fol. 77a, on the same passage; 
(VII) Add. 21,160, fol. 1386, on Levit. 2 12; (VIII) Orient 2349, 
foL 88a, on the same passage; (IX) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah I, 
§ 159; (X) the printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 421, and 
(XI) the same letter t, § 21. 



As all the three instances occur in the Pentateuch, List VIII 
heads this Rubric 'na 'a = three times in the Pentateuch, which 
ought more properly to be -ran % but the Vav, as is often the 
case, is omitted. 

n-D^n « § 625. 

"1BPT?K1 and into the dust, occurs twice. In all the other ten 
instances where n^ is preceded by the preposition it is -hn 
without the prefix Vav or with it* Of this Rubric I collated 
three Lists, two is MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 5710-11, 
VoL I, fol 3a, on Gen. 3 19 which I have printed; (II) Arund. 
Orient 16, foL 826 a, on Job 10 9 and (UI) the printed Massorah 
on Gen. 3 19. 

1 Comp. -W^ Iia. 47 1; Job 17 16; 19 26; 30 11; 21 26; 22 24; S4 16; 
41 26; 48 6; "WT^. 'o^ '' ^^' 

vann = § 626. 

^|lB"^tO and to the face of, or before, occurs three times. In 
the other three instances where 'jb is preceded by the preposition 
with Vav conjunctive, it is -•jpi (Gen, 16 12; Levit 10 3; Ezek. 
40 16). The import of this Rubric is discussed in letter x, § 605. 
This Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, is 
from Orient 1474, foL 1266, on Ezek. 46 7. 

r"3in - § 627. 

TP^TxKI and to the gates of, occurs twice. In the other four 
instances, where this noun is preceded by the preposition with 
the prefix Vav it is -bpi (Neh. 12 37, 39, 39; 2 Chron. 26 9). 

Of this Rubric, which does not. occur in the printed 
Massorah, I collated two Lists: (I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 3806, 
on Neh. 2 13 which I have printed anl (II) Harley 6710—11, 
VoL I, foL 1266, on Deut 21 19. 

n'Din - § 628. 

"yK occurs four times. That is, this lengthened and poetical 
form of the preposition -^ The design of this Massorah is to 
safeguard this abnormal form which occurs in Job only against 
the various readings which obtained in the ancient Codices, as 
is evident from the Septuagint Thus in Job 16 22 ••**?» according 
to the reading exhibited in this ancient Version elg xslgag evdi^Qov 
is an abbreviation of *t^i* which is now accepted by some of 
the best textual critics. 

Of this Rubric I collated two Lists: (I) Add. 15,260, 
fol. 354 a, on Job 29 19, and (11) the printed Massorah on 
Job 6 26. 

ts'jnn - § 629. 

^K1 and to or against me, occurs three times. That is, with 
the prefix Vav. In the numerous other instances where this 
preposition with the suffix first person occurs, it is without 
this prefix. 

Of this Rubric I collated seven Lists, five in MSS. and two 
printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, VoL II, foL 1056, on Hos. 7 15 
which I have printed; (H) the same MS., VoL II, foL 2236, on 
Job 4 12; (HI) Arund. Orient 16, foL 201 6, on Hos. 7 15; 
(IV) the same MS., foL 378a, on Ezra 9 4; (V) Vienna Codex 
No. 35 on the same passage; (VI) the printed Massorah on 
Hos. 7 15 and (VH) the same on Job 4 12. 

List II states in the heading (mpa typiOB 'nwn 'j) that it 
occurs three times at the beginning of a verse in the Scriptures. 
As it begins a verse twice only in the textus receptus, the Massorah 
in this carefully written MS. probably proceeds from a School 
of Massorites in whose text ^^tti also commenced the verse in 
Hos. 7 15. 

ynn = § 630. 

^fpT^KI and unto thee, occurs three times. In the numerous 
other instances where this preposition with the suffix second 
person occurs, it is without the prefix Vav. This Rubric, which 
does not occur in the printed Massorah, is from Add. 15,461, 
fol. 2606, on 2 Kings 8 27. 

K'^in = § 63 la -6. 
"DK is the Kethiv or textual reading in three instances for 
which the Keri or the official reading, is rbvi. That is, the preposition 
^ with the suffix third person which has normally Yod before 
the Vav, is in these three instances without it Hence the Massorah 
substitutes for it the ordinary orthography in the official Keri. 
In this form the first part of this Rubric is simple. It is from 



K — K § 6l»lk-634 



— 80 



§ 635—638. K — K 



Orient 2210, foL 81 6, on 1 Sam. 22 18. To the same effect are 
the two RubricB in Harley 5710-11, VoL I, foL 1896, on the same 
passaire. and VoL H, foL I2l6, on Zech. 2 8. It is the addition 
at the end of the Rubric and throughout the Model of the Temple 
r- Ezek.40 &c] it xm Ukewiee so, which introduces, a difficult 
element ^ere i^ is not the prepositon «?*» without the Yod 
before the suffix For, but the noun h^ po$t, buttress, with or 
without the radical Ycd after the Aleph and with or without the 
prefix Vav. The fact, however, that in all the eleven instances 
in Vhich it occurs throughout this chapter it is without the 
Yod before the suffix Vav,^ that it is n«? instead of r^. made the 
Maasorites include this homonym in the same Rubric. 

. Comp. 1^ Ewk: 40 86; ^ 4* 24, 26, 31. 34, 37; i^»« 40 29, 33; ^, 
40 9, 21, 37. 

V K-^in = § fi3l5. 

I^K* Throughota the deseription o/ the Model of the Temple, 
y^ U^mntten i^ except in one instance ....and throughout the 
£nptures it is Wcewise 1^ except in three instances. Whilst the 
preceding Rubric records the abnormal ori;hography^ outside 
Ezekiel chap. 40, this Massorah safeguards the single normal 
instance of rb|».in this chapter. It will be seen that the solitary 
instance is the preposition b^ with the suffix third person, whilst 
in all the other passages with which it is contrasted it is the noun. 
Of this form of the Rubric I collated two Lists: (I) Arund. 
Orient 16, fol. 193b, on Ezek. 40 49 which I have printed and 
(H) the printed Massorah on the same passage which enuAierates 
the three exceptional instances in the Bible. (Vide supra, letters, 
§ 631 a.) 

a"!?*Tn = § 632. 

n^K unto you, is six times defective in the Pentateuch. This 
determines" the fact that in all the other, twenty-one passages 
where the preposition ^ with the suffix second person plural 
masculine occurs, it is b^'^k plene» according to tiiis Massorah. 
This is in harmony with the Jerusalem Codex. According to the 
HeUali Codex, however, and the School of textual redactors 
from which it proceeds, d^bj} is also defective in Exod. 11 9 and 
thus exhibits another instance of the primitive ortiiography. 

Of this Rubric I coUated six Lists, five in MSS. and one printed 
(I) t)rient 2349, foL 61a, on Exod- 7 4 which I have printed: 
(m Add. 15,451. fol. 1196, on Deut 1 9; (III) Add. 21,160, 
foL 476, on Gen. 42 14; (IV) tiie same MS., fol. 73a, onExod. 7 4; 
(V) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah, supplement fol. 130 6, and (VI) the 
printed Massorah on Gen. 42 14. 

. Comp. By«?l. Gen. 19 8; » 6; 4S 22; 4» 12; Exod. J 1.% 14, 16; 11 9; 
18 26; 2S 13; 84 14; Leyit » 4, 6; 26 9; Numb. 15 28; 18 4; Deut 1 43, 45; 
4 12, 16; 10 4. 

J-^in - § 633. 

BT^K unto them, is in five instances misleading. This Rubric, 
which doe"8"'not occur in the printed Massorah nor in any other 
MS. which I have hitherto collated, is from the St Petersburg 
Codex of A. D. 916 on Ezek. 16 37. 

Though this Massorah does not give the alternative reading 
to which tiie Massorite refers as misleading, two of the five 
instances indicate what it is. In Ezek. 16 37 some MSS. most 
probably read en^? in harmony witii the preceding clause 
instead of bt^ That this was the reading in Esther 9 23 is attested 
by Harley 5710—11, VoL II, foL 2756, where this important 
Codex has it actually in the text We may, therefore, reasonably 
conclude tiiat in the other three passages some Codices 
also read trn^y instead of tsrr^ and that this is tiie import of 
the Rubric before us. wnsT is an abbreviation of nrwen which 
frequently occurs in the Massorah of the important MS. No. 1—3 
in the Paris National Library both in its abbreviated form (irbn) 
and fully written out It is used interchangeably for r»^isn and 
fTscru 

ri-vi - § 684. 

BTb»K is seventeen times plene in the Pentateuch. Though the 
preposition" "jK with tiie suffix third person plural masculine 
occurs no fewer than one hundred and one times in the 
Pentateuch, it is in these seventeen instances only where the 
later plene orthography has been introduced. In the other 
eighty-four passages it still exhibits tiie primitive spelling. 
The Massorah, therefore, records the exceptional orthography 
which is aU the mow necesftary sinoe acme of the Standard 



Codices of other Massoretic Schools have retained the primitive 
spelling in still more instances, as is attested by the Jerusalem 
Codex which reads unb^ in Gen. 37 6; 42 7; Numb. 20 6 or in 
at least three of the seventeen passages catalogued in this Rubric 
as plene. 

Of this Rubric I collated ten Lists, nine in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Orient 2349, foL 876, on Levit 10 11 which I have 
printed; (H) Add. 15,250, fol. 136, on Gen. 19 10; (HI) Add. 16,251, 
fol. 21a, on the same passage; (IV) the same MS. fol. 70a, on 
Levit 10 11; (V) the same MS., foL 946, on Numb. 20 6; (VI) 
Add. 21,160, fol. 33a, on Gen. 34 14; (VH) the same MS., fol. 150 6, 
on Levit 10 11; (VIH) the same MS., fol. 242a, on Numb. 31 16; 
(IX) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah, Supplement, foL 1306, and (X) the 
printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 515. 

List I which I have printed omits Numb. 31 15 and hence 
enumerates sixteen only, but this is manifestiy due to a clerical 
error, since it not only states in the heading that there are 
seventeen instances, but all the other Lists record seventeen and 
List Vni is on Numb. 31 15. List III concludes this Rubric with 
n-aa "on bw«iv^ D-ttBri rmr ^i and gives the eight instances which 
constitute the two separate Rubrics, viz. §§ 635, 636. 

iT^nn - § 635. 

On'?^ M in ttoo instances defective in Joshua. In this book, 
where it occurs altogether fifteen times, the primitive orthography 
is retained in two passages only, whereas in thirteen instances 
the plene spelling prevails.* Hence the Massorah safeguards the 
exceptional spelling. 

In Jeremiah [where this preposition with the suffix third 
person masculine plural occurs no fewer than forty times] and 
Isaiah [where it occurs five times] it is invariably plene in the 
correct Codices. Here, therefore, the later orthography uniformly 
prevails. This Rubric is from the printed Massorah Finalis, 
letter m, § 516. 

' an'b* plene Josh. 4 12; 7 2; 9 8, 11, 21, 22; 10 9, 26; 17 16; 20 4; 
81 2; 88 2, 8. 

r^nn = § 636. 

Sfp^ is ^ times defective in Judges. In Judges, where it 
occurs sixteen times and is plene in ten passages * and defective 
in six only, the Massorah records the minority. Accordingly the 
reading on^K Judg. 19 25 which is to be found in sojne MSS. 
and editions is against this Massorah. 

Of this Rubric I collated eight Lists, seven in MSS. and 
one printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, VoL I, fol. 1576, on Judg. 3 28 
which I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient 16, foL 206,' on the 
same passage; (III) the same MS., fol. 246, on Judg. 8 23; 
(IV) the same MS., foi 31a, on Judg. 18 2; (V) Add. 15,261, 
fol. 140a, on Judg. 3 28; (VI) the same MS., fol. 148a, on 
Judg. 18 2; (VII) Vienna Codex No. 35, on Judg. 3 28 and 
(VIII) the printed Massorah on Judg. 18 2. 

« Comp. arv^* plene Judg. 7 17 ; 8 2, 8 ; 9 1 , 67 ; 12 2 ; 18 18 ; 19 23, 26 ; 21 22. 

r^nn = § 687. 

Drf?K is thirteen times defective in Kings. In Kings, where it 
occurs altogether thirty-three times, it is plene in no fewer than 
twenty • instances and defective in thirteen. Hence the Massorah 
records the minority. Of this Rubric I collated seven Lists, six 
in MSS. and one printed: (I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. .886, on 
1 Kings 13 12 which I have printed; (H) the same MS., foL 976, 
on 2 Kings 1 7; (HI) the same MS., fol. 1056, on 2 Kings 10 18; 
(IV) the same MS., foL 112a, on 2 Kings 18 18; (V) Add. 15,251, 
fol. 193a, on 1 Kings 13 12; (VI) Vienna Codex No. 35 on the 
same passage and (VII) the printed Massorah on the same passage. 

It will be seen that though the heading of the List which 
I printed, distinctiy states that there are thirteen plene instances, it 
enumerates twelve only. The passage omitted is 2 Kings 10 18, 
but this is manifestly due to a clerical error, since thif very 
Codex not only gives it in the other Lists, but one 'of the 
Rubrics, viz. List IV is on this very passage. 

t Comp. on'!?»t plene 1 Kings 8 52; 13 6, 7, 9, 10, 14; 21 11, M; 2 Kings 
1 6, 12; 6 11; 911, 20; 10 6, 7; 11 16; 18 23; 18 19, 27; 22 16. 

n"V-in - § 638. 
IDTI^K is seven times defective in BsekUl In Ezekiel, w^ere it 
occurs ' altogether forty-one times, it is plene in thirty-four 



S — K § 639—641. 



81 



§ 642—646. K 



instances' and defective in these seven passages only. The 
Massorah, therefore, safeguards the exceptional orthography. 

Of this Rubric I collated six Lists, five in MSS. and one printed : 
(I) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 1766, on Ezek. 16 37 which I have 
printed; (II) the same MS., fol. 1786, on Ezek. 20 3; (III) the 
same MS., fol. 188 or, on Ezek. 33 27; (IV) Vienna Codex No. 35, 
on Ezek. 16 37; (V) the same Codex on Ezek. 20 3 and (VI) the 
printed Massorah on Ezek. 16 37. 

1 Comp. on'^K plene Ezek. 3 4, 4, 7; S 6, 11, 11, 27; 6 2; S T; 12 10, 23^ 
23, 28; 14 4; Ic'sT; 20 5, 9, 27; 28 16, 27, 40; 24 3, 20; 33 2, 11; 34 2, 20; 
37 4, 12, 21; 40 39, 41, 42. 

B'^in = § 639. 

DH/K i» twice defective in Ecclesiastes. This Rubric is from 
the printed Massorah on Eccl. 8 14. As there are two instances 
only where this preposition with the suffix third p^pson plural 
masculine occurs in Ecclesiastes and, moreover, as they are both 
defective the heading ought more properly to be '-iron 'om '3 it 
occurs twice in Ecclesiastes and both times defective. 

ann = § 64o. 

OnpKI is fifteen times defective, seven of iohich occur in this 

hook [i. e. Chronicles] and eight in the rest of the Hagiographa and 

the others are plene. 

Of this Rubric I collated seven Lists, six in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 159a, on 2 Chron. 18 5 
which I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 2636, on 
2 Chron. 10 5; (III) the same MS., fol. 2676, on 2 Chron. 18 5; 
(IV) the same MS., fol. 27 la, on 2 Chron. 23 14; (V) Add. 15,251, 
foL 833 a, on 2 Chron. 10 5; (VI) Vienna Codex No. 35 on the 
game passage and (VII) the printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, 
§ 516. 

As is frequently the case, these Lists emanate from different 
Massoretic Schools where they were compiled from the Standard 
Codices which were preserved by the respective custodians of 
the text. Hence the conflicting headings and the variations in 
the contents of the several Rubrics. Thus (l) Lists I, V and VI 
emphatically state that there are fifteen instances only of the 
defective orthography in the Hagiographa though it is Lists I and 
VI alone which give this number. List V omits the second instance 
in 2 Chron. 10 7, which is often the case when two instances occur 
in the same verse, and 2 Chron. 18 5. The heading of List I 
which I have printed is incorrect and is manifestly due to a 
clerical error "sinas 'm 'bd2 pnso 't ought to be "sinDS 'm 'con proa 'ts 
as is evident from the contrast. (2) Lists IV and VII state as 
clearly in the heading that there are sixteen such instances. These 
sixteen instances are made up in List VII by the addition of Ezra 
6 21 and Neh. 13 21 and the omission of one of the two instances 
in 2 Chron. 10 7. List IV, which belongs to the same School, is 
incomplete. It enumerates thirteen passages only, though it states in 
the heading that there are sixteen. It omits Eccl. 8 4, 4; Ezra 6 21; 
Neh. 1321. (3) Lists II and III state as emphatically in the heading 
that there are seventeen instances of defective orthography in the 
Hagiographa. Like List IV, however, they enumerate the same 
thirteen passages only. Now if we add the two instances in List 
Vn (Ezra 6 21; Neh. 13 21) to the fifteen in Lists I and IV we 
actually obtain the seventeen passages which are mentioned in 
the headings of Lists II and III. 

It is to be remarked that this preposition with the suffix 
third person plural masculine occurs altogether twenty-seven 
times in the Hagiographa. According to the School, therefore, 
which acknowledges fifteen defectives only, there are twelve 
plenes.1 According to those which register sixteen there are 
eleven, whilst according to those which catalogue seventeen there 
are ten only of the plene orthography. It will, therefore, be seen 
that the defectives constitute the larger number and that the 
Massorah here, contrary to its usual practice safeguards the 
majority. 

' Comp. Ps. 119 7; Job 42 9; Esther 3 4; 9 23, 2C; Ezra 6 21; Neh. C 17; 
IS 21; 1 Chron. 12 40; 2 Chron. 8 11; 14 8; 24 17. 

K"0"in = § 641. 

BTT'KI and unto them, occurs twice once plene and once defective. 
The design of this Massorah is to safeguard the abnormal use 
of the suffix third person plural masculine in construction with 
the feminine noun in 2 Sam. 20 3 against the School of textual 
redactors which read yrr^Ki with the feminine suffix. Not only is 
the feminine suffix exhibited in some MSS. (comp. Add. 21,161), 



I'T*?? 



but it is the reading in the editio princeps, Soncino 1485 — 1486, as 
well as in the first and third, editions of the Bible, Soncino 1488, 
Brescia 1494. 

Of this Rubric I collated six Lists, five in MSS. "and one 
printed: (I) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 71a, on 2 Sam. 20 3 which I 
have printed; (II) Add. 21,160, fol. 1656, on Levit. 17 8; (III) 
Orient. 2349, fol. 926, on the same passage; (IV) Vienna Codex 
No. 35 on the same passage; (V) the same Codex on 2 Sam. 20 3 
and (VI) the printed Massorah Parva on the same passage. 

'X unto them [feminine], occurs five times. It is a remark- 
able feature of the Hebrew Scriptures that whilst the masculine 
form D,T^K occurs more than two hundred and ninety times, the 
feminine jrrbK occurs five times only. 

Of this Rubric I .collated ten Lists, nine in MSS. and One 
printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. L fol. 35a, on Exod. 1 17 
which I have printed; (II) the same MS., Vol. IT, fol. 98a, on 
Ezek. 41 25; (HI) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 1946, on the same 
passage; (IV) Add. 15,451, fol. 119*6, on Deut. 1 22; (V) Add. 
21,160, fol. 646, on Exod. 1 17; (VI) the same MS., fol. 2546, on 
Deut. 1 22; (VII) Add. 15,251, fol. 2896, on Ezek. 41 25; (VIII) 
Orient 2349, fol. 58a, on Exod. 1 17; (IX) Halle Ochlah Ve- 
Ochlah 11, § 68, and (X) the printed Massorah on Exod. 1 17. 

With the exception of two Lists (1 VII) all the others 
properly head this Rubric 'on 'j«i '^o "i 'n it occurs five times, four 
plsne and one defective, since it is |nbK defective in Exod. 1 IS. 

ro"in = § 643. 

^K God, is twice with the accent Zakeph-Gadol. This Rubric 
is from the printed Massorah on Numb. 16 22. 

l"a"in = § 644 a— d 

^K* The following proper names compounded with b» God, 
respectively occur once only. This heading, which is in brackets, 
I have affixed. In these four incipient Lists we have the first 
attempts on the part of the Massorites to collect the proper 
names which are not only compounded with, but end in ^r. 

The first List marked § 644 a which gives twenty- four names 
is from Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, fol. 248o, on 2 Kings 14 7. The 
second marked § 6446 which gives ten only is from Orient. 2349, 
fol. 606, on Exod. 6 25. The third marked § 644c which records 
eight is from the printed Massorah also on Exod. 6 25. By an 
oversight I omitted ^Kine which is the first name in this fragment. 
The fourth, viz. § 644e which gives four instances only is also 
from the printed Massorah on Joel 1 1. 

It is necessary to remark that these fragmentary Lists not only 
register the names which occur once only in this composition, 
but the forms with a prefix which are unique. Hence b^rp" 
Joktheel (2 Kings 14 7) is given as unique though this name 
occurs again with the prefix Vav '?Knp;i (Josh. 16 38). bK"it?»n and 
Azriel occurs only once with the prefix Vav (Numb. 26 31), whilst 
it occurs twice more without the prefix (Josh. 17 2; 1 Chron. 7 14). 
The same is the case with bvfot^ and Shehuel (1 Chron. 26 24) 
which is described as unique though it is to be found twice 
more without the prefix Vav (1 Chron. 23 16; 25 4) and several 
other names. As the design of this Rubric is to catalogue the 
proper names in composition with bK the solitary instance of 
bHrn (Isa. 5 16), which is not a compound name, has manifestly 
been added in § 644a, by a later Massorite who mistook the 
import of this Rubric. The List was left open for other Massorites 
to complete and hence the first compilers of it affixed to it 
neither heading nor number. Hitherto I have not been able to 
find a complete List in any MS. I have, therefore, tried to 
complete it in § 644e and as usual have indicated my additions 
by the Massoretic phrase KnniDDa inb = apart from the Masaoi-ah. 

|-"Oin = § 645. 
n)T Q^T^illl ?K God, God, Jehovah, occurs three times. That 
is this triple name. Of this Rubric I collated four Lists, three in 
MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol, II, fol. 188a, 
on Ps. 50 1 which I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 296a, 
on the same passage; (III) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah I, § 153 and 
(IV) the printed Massorah on Ps. 50 l. 

rann = § 646. 

"•^^ T?K") and God Almighty, occurs twice. In the other four 
instances where this combination occurs, it is without the prefix 
Vav (Gen. 17 1; 35 11; 48 3; Ezek. 10 5). This Massorah is 
designed to exclude the reading '^ Sri in Gen. 49 26 which 



K — S § 647-6M. 



82 



obtained in some Schools ot textual redactors and which is 
exhibited in some MSS. as well as in the Samaritan, the Septuagmt 
and the Syriac. Hence the addition at the end of this Rubric 
and in one passage it i» ^ tWr This Rubric, which does not occur 
in the printed Massorah, is from Add. 21,1C0, fol. 22a. on Gen. 28 3. 

r'oin = § 647. 

bKS like God, occurs twice. In the other three instances 
where the Caph comparison is prefixed to the Divine name it 
is the longer form D-ribio (Gen. » 5; Zech, 12 8; Ps. 77 14). This 
Rubric, which does not occur in the printed MUssorah. is from 
Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 835a, on Job 40 9. 
n'OTfl = § 648. 

bvh unto God, occurs eleven times. That is, with Kametz under 
the Lamed to distinguish it from byh with Shevn under the Ijxmed 
which occurs fifteen times. 

Of this Rubric I collated twelve Lists, eleven in MSS. and 
one printed: (I) Harley 5710-11, Vol. I, fol. 85a, on Numb. 3 24 
which I have printed; (U) the same MS., Vol. I, fol. 23a on 
Gen. 36 l; (III) Aruiid. Orient 16, foL 2976, on Ps. 67 3; (IV) the 
same MS., foL 325fe, on Job 13 8; (V) the same MS., iohZ2%h, 
on Job 21 14; (VI) Add. 15,261, foL 31a, on Gen. 36 1; (VII) the 
same MS., fol. 357a, on Ps. 67 3; (VIH) the same MS., ^ol-JTi^h, 
on Job 13 8; (IX) Add. 21,160, fol. 34a, on Gen. 35 1; (X) Jhe 
same MS., foL 323a, on Job 13 8; (XI) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah 
Supplement, fol. 1306, and (XH) the printed Massorah on Ps. 67 3. 

It will be seen that ^ in Numb. 3 24 is a proper name 
iM^l, but, as we have already i^marked, the Massorah includes 
homonyms in the same Rubric or words which are spelled 
alike and have the same voAl-points irrespective of their 
difference in sense. This explains the brief form of this Rubric 
in Orient 2349, foL 48a, on Gen. 36 1, viz. nnaiK '.n'riavpa K- '?k«? 
•»6 p ICtHk W3 -n DW ^n to it occurs eleven times in the Scriptures and 
,> always the Divine name except in one instance where it is the name 
of a human being Numb. 3 24. 

tt'onn = § 649. 

^"feK wy God, occurs twice. That is, this Chaldee form with 
the suffix" first person singular. This Rubric is from the printed 
Massorah on Dan. 6 23. 

y-tn = § 650. 
trrf?K God, begins a verse thirty-one Umes. Of this Rubric, 
which is one of the oldest constituent parts of the Massorah, as 
is evident from the fact that it is given in the ancient Codex 
Orient 4445, 1 collated seven Lists, six in MSS. and one printed: 
(I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 300 6, on Ps. 69 6, which I have printed; 
II) Orient 4445, fol. 64a, on Exod. 22 27; (III) Add. 21,160, 
fol. 1016, on the same passage; (IV) Orient 2348, fol. 1356, on 
Deut 4 21; (V) Orient 2349, fol. 1256, on the same passage; 
(VI) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah, Supplement, fol. l33o, and (VII) 
the printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 431. 

The design of this Massorah is to distinguish between and 
thus to safeguard, the vei-ses which begin with this Divine name 
and those which commence with the Tetragrammaton. This is 
set forth in the headings of Lists IV and V which are on a 
verse beginning with Jeh^^h, viz. Deut 4 21. These headings 
are as follows: trn^K «•«? to - 'amai -raji -ni»n 'id-b 'm bz throughout 
the Law, the Prophets and the Hagiographa Jehovah begins a verse 
except in thirty-one instances where it is Elohim. 

On looking at Hab. 8 19 and F^ 140 8 it will be seen that 
though these two verses begin with the Tetragrammaton they are 
reckoned among the thirty-one verses which begin with Elohxm. This 
is due to the fact that in both these passages the Ineffable name 
is followed by ^^^ Adonai, and that in such combinations m-r 
is simply the Ketkiv with the vowel-points of D-ri^|< which is the 
Keri or the official reading. {Vide supra, letter % § 107, p. 27.) 
In the List which I have printed thirty instances only are 
catalogued though the heading gives it as thirty-one. The 
omission, viz. Ps. 71 17, which is manifestly due to a clerical 
error, is supplied in the other Lists. 



x-i-in ~ § 651. 

D*n^K God, has in seven instances tfu acc«n« [Dechi] at the 
beqinning oTthe ve^-se. This Rubric, which does not occur in the 
printed Massorah, is ft-om Harley 5710-11, Vol. II, fol. 176a, on 
P8 7 12 Though the heading distinctly states that there are 
seven instances, six only are enumerated. The seventh which is m 
Ps 64 4, has maiiifestiy been omitted by an oversight because of 



§ 6.52-664. K K 

its Close proximity to verse 3. It is to be remarked that one of 
the instances is irrf?ir with the prefix Vav (Ps. 74 12) and that 
the expression 'roa = in the book of Psalms has been omitted from 
the heading which is frequently the case, since crr^jf^with the 
accent at the beginning of the verse also occurs in Job 28 23. 

T:"in - § 652. 

Q««|^^^ Forms of the Divine names o'ri'jiji God and ^ which 
respectively occur once only. The six words which constitute 
this Rubric are irom Harley 5710—11, VoL I, foL 485, on 
Exod. 22 19. The heading I have added. It will be seen that it 
simply exhibits the first attempt to collect the forms of bi$ and 
D'T^K which are unique and that the Massorite had not as yet 
affixed any number because the List was still open for additions. 
This explains the fact that b¥& Exod. 6 3;^ Isa. 6 16; ^ 
Ps. 146 5; Tt'jK^i Isa. 48 l; ^rHa 2 Chron. 32 17 which are also 
unique forms are not as yet included. Later Massorites, however, 
instead of completing the incipient List regarded it as final and 
hence put a heading to it fixing the number of instances at six. 
This is the case in the three Lists which I have found of this 
Rubric, viz. (I) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah I, § 153; (H) Paris 
Ochlah Ve-Ochlah, § 190, and (III) the printed Massorah Finalis, 
letter*, § 489. In the List which I have printed bt6ko is with a 
query and without a reference. It is a mistake for tn^hf^ Ps. 86 8. 

yV\r\ = § 653 a. 

D^'lSX* In nine groups which respectively consist of two words 
the second it^rd is in a uniqtte manner DTlbit without the article. That 
is, in all other instances where these words are combined with this 
Divine name it is invariably nribtn with the article.. Of this Rubric, 
which does not occur in the printed Massorah, I collated four 
Lists: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, fol. 23a, on Gen. 36 5 which 
I have printed; (H) Orient 4445, fol. 74a, on Exod. 32 16; 
(III) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 18a, on Josh. 24 26 and (IV) Halle 
Ochlah Ve-Ochlah I, § 153. 

It is remarkable that whilst trrtbtt iqt (1 Sam. 4 7) and lan 
g^^ (Jonah 4 8) which strictly belong to this Rubric since we 
have trrt'sjn t^ in Exod. 20 20 and arh\a \Br\ in Jonah 4 7 are here 
omitted^ all the Lists give cri^ npn as one of the nine instances 
of this exceptional combination without the article though it is 
the only phrase which does not occur again with the article. It 
was most probably added by a later Massorite as it does not 
belong to this category. That later Massorites were not always 
careful in handling this Rubric is, moreover, evident from List H 
which records ten instances of this unique combination giving 
•^ a'Thvt yaatxa as one, though this phrase occurs twice, viz. Exod. 
31 18 and Deut 9 10. This List, however, has not as yet any 
heading and gives no fixed number of passages in which words 
are thus combined with crrtbjj in an exceptional manner. 

r:"in = § 6586. 

DTt^K* The following words are combined with a^ and have 
no paralleC The difference between th^s Rubric and the former 
one is that here the Massorah catalogues: (1) the words which 
respectively occur once only in combination with twibK and which 
in all other passages are combined with ori^; (2) worda 
combined with err^ and which in all other passages are combined 
with mrr and (3) words combined with DT6}t which are never 
again combined with either crrt^jn or with njrr. Hence this Rubric 
not only includes all the nine instances which are given m the 
former Rubric, but registers seven words which in all other 
passages are combined with the Tetragrammaton and four which 
also do not occur again either in combination with orrtfn or with 
nirr. This Rubric is from the printed Massorah FinaliB, letter t^ 
i 489. The heading does not specify the number of instances m which 
this combination occurs, as the List was left open to be completed 
by other Massorites. This accounts for the omission ota^rfb^^ 
Ps. 66 5 which is unique (in the only other instance where this 
noun is combined with the Divine name it is nirr nlb??p Ps. 4j 9) 
and of D^^jt-9 P8. 46 5 which is also unique. The other 
combinations are u^h^^^V Ps. 87 8 and nyrn^y Isa. 60 14. 
Wn - 8 654. 
D^■f?K♦ Nine groups which respectively eonsiet of the same three 
words and in which the second word is crrtbij. Stripped of its artificial 
language the import of this heading is that nme words 
respectively occur three times combined with this Divine name^ 
Of this Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, I 
collated two Liste: (I) Harley 57lO-lI,Vol.II, fol 188a, onPs.601 
which I have printed and (H) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah I, § 168. 



K § 655—656. 



— 83 



§ 657—663. K 



It will be seen that, though the heading of both Lists 
distinctly says that there are nine such groups, the Rubric itself 
records ten. List I, moreover, gives at the end two groups which 
respectively consist of two instances where a word occurs twice 
in combination with this Divine name, whilst List n gives one 
only of these two groups. The conflict between the statement of 
the heading and the contents of the Lists, is manifestly due to 
later Massorites, who mistook the import of this Rubric and 
appended the tenth (o'rbx?), as well as the two pairs which are 
in manifest conflict with the original design. 

Each of these nine groups is the subject of a separate 
Rubric: (1) k-q letter a, § 455; (2) n>n? letter % § 576; (3) na^ 
letter n, § 87;"<4) nsTi letter i, § 60; (5) -iinyi letter a, § 498; 
(6) 'a letter a, § 139; (7) b» letter k, § 645; (8) pjti letter k, 
§ 399 and (9) poif^ letter v, § 715. 

These however, by no means exhaust these triplet groups, 
as is evident from the fact that D-rti^K "sin also occurs three times 
(comp. letter n, § 320), so also does n%ibK-D? (comp. letter p, 
§ 636). It is, therefore, more than probable that the original 
compilation simply exhibited the first attempt to collect these 
instances and that, as is usual with these incipient Lists, the 
Massorite left it open for other Massorites to complete it. Instead, 
however, of completing they not only affixed a heading to it, 
but supplemented it with groups which do not belong to this 
Rubric. 

.T3in = § 665. 

D'^ri'^Kn /D^'^bK♦ words winch respectively occur twice once 
combined with B\t'?K without the prefix He and once with it. This 
heading I have added to this incipient Rubric which is as yet 
without any heading and without catchwords. Of this Rubric, 
which does not occur in the printed Massorah, I collated three 
fragments: (I) Orient. 2349, fol. 31 6, on Gen. 6 1 which I have 
printed; (II) the same MS., fol. 69a, on Exod. 20 20 and (III) 
Orient. 2348, foL 41 fc, on Gen. 6 1. 

With the exception of omitting the companion to the first 
pair, viz. D-ri'?»n yra which does not occur in the textus receptvs 
Lists I and III are exactly alike. List II, however, consists of a 
smaller fragment. It simply gives three pairs of which two are 
not in the other Lists, viz.: 

Ps. 46 6 '": o^rhn Ty Jonah 4 8 6 n'rlS? fO|i 

„ 87 3 h D'rtbKn Ty - „ „7 "h o^rh»n jo'i 

These fragmentary Lists, however, do not seem to have 
been completed. Hence the omission of cribK ■^k^»? ( l Sam. 29 9) 
ffii^Kn iK^aa (2 Sam. 19 28). 

mn = § 656. 

(Tin^ »D^n^K* Three pairs of verses which severally contain the 
same two wards in the same connection and in which this wm'd is 
follmoed in the first instance by God and in the second by the 
Tetragrammaton. That is, in each pair of verses or in each 
of the three groups there is a word which in the first instance 
is in combination with the Divine name Elohim and in the second 
instance it is in combination with the Ineffable name. This 
Rubric is designed to safeguard these passages against the 
variations which obtained in other Schools of textual redactors, as 
will be seen from the notes in my edition of the Hebrew 
Bible. 

Of this Rubric I collated three Lists, two in MSS. and one 
printed: (I)*" Add. 21,160, fol. 71a, on Exod. 5 17 which I have 
printed; (II) Orient. 4445, fol. 46a, on Exod. 6 8 and (III) the 
printed Massorah on Exod. 5 17. 

Though the wording of the heading in List II is somewhat 
different, viz. wrhk "im mn" in 'rsr nna paiT '3 thre& groups in the same 
connection have once Jehovah and once Elohim, ' yet the List itself 
gives the same three pairs only. As this List is from the oldest 
Codex extant, it is evident that the original. Massorites catalogued 
three such pairs only. As List III, gives five pairs, there can 
hardly be any doubt that they are the addition of later Massorites 
who completed the Rubric and altered the heading frofti "j = three 
into n = five. I have, therefore, added these two pairs to the 
original Rubric with the usual term p-vtrt. It is to be remarked 
that the heading in List II a^ well as in List III which is nn 
ttrh» nm rrcf or m-r "im dvt^k in instead of rtirr -rsn d\-i'?k 'Katp is 
more correct, since in two only of the three pairs or in three 
of the five pairs does o-ribK occur first, whilst in one pair 
according to Lists I and II and in two pairs according to 
List III (Ps. 14 7 ; 63 7 and Ps. 36 27 and 70 5) nirr occurs 
fird and o'.i'pjt second. 



r:nn = § 657. 

D']Krf"nK D^'1^1N^ God with men, occurs twice. Of this Rubric, 
which does not occur in the printed Massorah, I collated two 
Lists: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, foL 152a, on 2 Chron. 6 18 
which I have printed and (II) Orient. 2349, fol. 1266, on 
Deut 5 21. 

n'3in = § 658. 

DTlK D^^K ye are gods, occurs twice. This Rubric, which 
does not occur in the printed Massorah, is from Orient 1474, 
fol. 1876, on Isa. 41 23. 

6D'':ifl = § 659. 
^nHDt D^'^^K God has cast us off, occurs three times in this 
combination in the Scriptures. Of this Rubric I collated three Lists, 
two in MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, 
fol. 191a, on Ps. 60 12 which I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient 16, 
fol. 2986, on the same passage and (III) the printed Massorah 
on Ps. 60 3. As this phrase not only occurs three times in the 
Bible, but as all the three instances are confined to the Psalms, the 
heading of* this Rubric in the printed Massorah (List III) is 
K"iB''Dai '3 three times and in this book, i, e. the Psalter. 

D'ln = § 660. 

^'^INDtS^^? C3^'ibK God unto Israel, occurs three times thus 
combined in the Scriptures. On referring to the notes in my edition 
of the Hebrew Bible it will be seen that in 1 Sam. 17 46 
both MSS. and early editions read it b)r\xrs d'.'1'?r. Hence this 
Massorah militates against the School of redactors which have 
preserved this reading. 

Of this Rubric I collated four Lists, three in MSS. and 
one printed: (I) Harley 5710— 11, Vol. I, fol. 1856, on 1 Sam. 17 46 
which I have! printed; (II) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 47a, on the same 
passage; (III) Add. 21,160, fol. 546, on Gen. 46 2 and (IV) the 
printed Massi^rah Finalis, letter k, § 548. As one of the three 
instances occurs in each of the three divisions of the Bible, List III 
has at the end of the Rubric o-ainaa 'x D'-K'-asa 'K mina 'k one occurs 
in the Law, one in the Pi'opheis, one in the Hagiographa. 

K'D-in = § 661. 

DptSP D'^n^K God loith you, occurs twice. In all the other 
eleven instances where the Divine name precedes this preposition 
with suffix second person plural masculine it is nirr and not 
D'.-i^K.^ Of this Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, 

1 collated two Lists: (I) Orient 2349, fol. 566, on Gen. 48 21 
which I have printed and (II) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 1246, 
on Zech, 8 23. 

» Comp. astt'; nw Exod. 10 10; 24 8; Numb. 14 43; Deut 6 4; 9 9, 10; 

2 Sam. 2 6; Ruth. 1 8; 2 4; 2 Chron. 15 2; 20 17. 

TDin ='§ 662. 

IDBltt^ D^"17hl God. is judge, or Judgeth, is three times thus 
combined in the Scriptures. The design of this Massorah is to 
safeguard these three passages against being made conformable 
to the instance in which o'-i*?!* is followed by D'BBW the participle 
plural (Ps. 68 12). 

Of this Rubric, which does not occur in the printed 
Massorah, I collated two Lists: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, 
fol. 1886, on Ps. 50 6 which I have printed and (II) Vienna Codex 
No. 35, on Ps. 7 12. As all the three instances occur in the Psalms, 
the heading ought more properly to be 'c'Dai '3 three times and in 
the same book, i. e. the Psalter, but this more precise description 
is often omitted. 

3"Din = § 663. 

D^'1v'K3 in God, begins a verse six times. As all the six 
instances are in the Psalms, the heading ought properly to be 
B^Hnnai B"n "\ six times at the beginning of a verse and in this book, 
i. e. the Psalter, but as we have seen, this expression is not 
unfrequently omitted. Of this Rubric I collated three Lists, two 
in MSS. and one printed: (I) Add. 15,250, fol. 329a, on Ps. 66 5 
which I have printed; (II) Add. 15,451, fol. 411a, on Ps. 66 5 
and (III) the printed Massorah on the same passage. It will be 
seen that the Vav which expresses the number is closely united 
with the abbreviation b"-i thus making of it as it were one word. 
This is often the case. 



lib 



K — K § 664- 



— 84 



§ 670. H-H 



TD"in = § 664. 

D^'^^Km and God, occurs seven times in the Scnptures. Of this 
Rubric, I collated eleven Lists, eight in MSS. and three printed: 
(I) Harley 5710—11, Vol.1, fol. 13a, on Gen. 22 1 which I have 
printed; (II) the same MS., Vol. II, fol. 157fc, on 2 Chron. 13 15; 
(III) Arund. Orient. IG, fol. 255&, on 1 Chron. 28 3; (IV) the same 
MS., fol. 265oy on 2 Chron. 13 16; (V) the same MS., fol. 352a, 
on Eccl. 3 14; (VI) Add. 15,251, fol. 226, on Gen. 22 1; (VII) 
Add. 21,160, fol. 96, on the same passage; (VIII) Halle Ochlah 
Ve-Ochlah I, § 153; (IX) the printed Massorah on Gen. 22 1; 
(X) the same on Eccl. 3 14 and (XI) the same on 1 Chron. 28 3. 

iTDin = § 665. 

D^^7K1 and God, occurs five times in the Scriptures. Of this 
Rubric I collated twelve Lists, ten in MSS. and two printed: 
(I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, fol. 346, on Gen. 60 24 which I have 
printed; (II) the same MS., Vol. I, fol. 1946, on i Sam'. 28 15; 
(III) the same MS., Vol. II, fol. 107 a, on Hos. 13 4; (IV) the 
same MS., Vol. II, fol. 171 6, on 2 Chron. 36 21; (V) the same 
MS., Vol. II, fol. 196 a, on Ps. 74 12; (VI) Arund. Qrient. 16, 
fol. 55a, on 1 Sam. 28 15; (VII) the same MS., fol. 203a, on- 
Hos. 13 4; (VIII) the same MS., fol. 2806, on 2 Chron. 36 21; 
(IX) the same MS., fol. 302a, on Ps. 74 12; (X) Halle Ochlah 
Ve-Ochlah I, § 153; (XI) the printed Massorah, on Gen. 50 24 
and (XII) the same on 1 Sam. 28 15. 

From the remark at the end of List IV D-n^ic 'iKn and in 
all the other instances it is D-ri'jK it is evident that the design of 
this Massorah is to safeguard these exceptional five instances 
where this Divine name has the prefix Vav, from the numerous 
instances in which it is without this prefix. 

VDin = § 666. 

C3^'^7K3 as God, occurs three times in 9ie Scriptures 

once in the Law, once in the Prophets and once in the Hagiographa. 

Of this Rubric I collated ten Lists, eight in MSS. and two 
printed: (I) Harley 5710— U, Vol. II, fol. 1256, on 2ech. 12 8, 
which I have printed; (II) the same MS., Vol. II, fol. 197a, on 
Ps. 77 14; (III) St Petersburg Codex of A. D. 916, on Zech. 12 8; 
(IV) Arund- Orient 16, fol. 221a, on the same passage; (V) the 
same MS., fol. 303 a, on Ps. 77 14; (VI) Add. 15,251, fol. 3116, on 
Zech. 12 8; (VII) Vienna Codex No. 35, on Ps. 77 14; (VHI) 
Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah I, § 163; (IX) the printed Massorah, on 
Zech. 12 8 and (X) the same on Ps. 77 14. 

r-Din = § 667. 
D'^rfT'Kntt from God, occurs twice. Of this Rubric, which 
does not occur in the printed Massorah, I collated two Lists: 
(I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 133 a, on 1 Chron. 5 22 which 

1 have printed and (II) the same MS., Vol. U, fol. 164a, on 

2 Chron. 25 20. 

n'Dlfl = § 668. 

''rt^K the God of, has three times the accent on the penultimate in 
the Pentateuch, and ^e mnemonic sign thereof is, the name of stiver 
is from of old, i. e. is mentioned very early in the Bible. 

Of this Rubric, I collated eight Lists, five in MSS. and three 
printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, foL 476, on Exod. 20 23 
[= 20] which I have printed; (II) the same MS., Vol. I, fol. 185a, 
on Deut 33 27; (III) Add. 15,250, fol. 9 a, on Gen. 9 26; (IV) 
the same MS., fol. 1166, on Deut 33 27; (V) Orient 2349, 
foL 336, on Gen. 9 26; (VI) the printed Massorah on the same 
passage; (VII> the same on Exod. 20 23 [-20] and (VIH) the 
same on Deut 33 27. The mnemonic sign I have found in the 
printed Massorah only where it is given twice, once on Deut 33 27 
and once without the record of the passages in the Massorah 
Finalis, letter k, § 478. 

B"D"in = § 669. 

DTlbK ''rt^S God of their fathers, occurs four times. That is, 
the combination" of this Divine name with the shorter form 
Dnb)t with the suffix third person plural masculine instead of 
the longer form orrrnajt with which it is normally combined and 
which occurs no fewer than fourteen times.* 

Of this Rubric I collated eight Lists, six in MSS. and two 
printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 1656, on 2 Chron. 28 6, 
which I have printed; (H) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 196, on 

1 Comp. Bn'nlaK rrl^jj l Chron, 29 20; 2 Chron. 7 22; 11 16; IS 18; 14 3; 
15 12; 19 4; 34 18, 24; SO 7, 22: S4 it, SH; SS 16. 



Judg. 2 12; (tn.) Add. 15,250, fol. 1326, on the same passage; 
(IV) Add. 15,251, fol. 1396, on the same passage; (V) Orient 2349, 
fol. 59a, on Exod. 4 5; (VI) Vienna Codex No. 35, on Deut 29 24; 
(VII) the printed Massorah on the same passage and (VIII) the 
same on Judg. 2 12. 

As the Tetragrammaton precedes "rib* in all the four 
instances. List VIII heads it n Dm:M« TibK mrr. {Vide infra, letter % 
§ 183.) 

»nn == § 670. 

7X1^^ "'iT^I?!' f'^^ ^^^ ^f Isi-ael, occurs twenty-eight times in 
an exceptional manner That is, without being preceded by the 
Tetragrammaton or by niKSX rTi.T with which it is normally 
combined. 

Of this Rubric I collated five Lists, four in MSS. and one 
printed, apart from the one which I have printed and the 
reference to which I have mislaid: (I) Orient 2348, fol. 120a; 
(II) Orient 2349, fol. 110a, both on Numb. 16 9; (III) Arund. 
Orient 16, fol. 1366, on Isa. 41 17; (IV) Add. 21,160, fol. 104a, 
on Exod. 24 10 and (V) the printed Massorah on the same 



These five Lists together yield no fewer than thirty-six 
passages in, which this phrase occurs without being preceded by 
either rilrr or niKast nin^» since some give instances which the others 
omit and vice versa. These exclusions and inclusions, however, 
are by no means arbitrary ; they are based upon definite systems 
which obtained in the several Massoretic Schools and indicate 
two distinct recensions. Among the thirty-six passages there are 
four in which 'rt*?!* has the prefix Lamed, viz. bK"*: ^'?'?x^. These 
constitute a separate Rubric. (Vide infra, letter k, § 675.) There 
are, moreover, seven instances in which the phrase '?K"T.to' ""ri^K is 
preceded by piif and these too are the subject of a separate 
Massorah. {Vide infra, letter k, § 1070.) This fact supplies the clue 
to the two recensions as will be seen from the following Table: 



29 



26 



27 
27 I 24 



81 28 23 



oyDn 

3D' 






130«1 

won 



fnif when 

tiSk nnjn 

inma »3 

D»'3yn 

tmpn 

nriM pK 

-I've »3 

DSfiCMSI 

DB' nam 

'nSu ni33i 

caian wrn 

n»nn k'h 

B'anan ii«e"i 

mas njm 

wa» ^K 

yiB^ npi 

^thuh D'Man 

v^huh »npi 

»rtS>^ njD DJ 



Gen. 
Exod. 
Numb. 
Josh. 
1 Sam. 



S3 20 
24 10 
16 9 
22 16 
1 17 
5 7 



2 Sam. 
1 Kings 
Isa. 



Esra 

1 Chron, 

2 Chron, 



25 32 
23 3 

8 26 
29 23 
41 17 
45 3 

„ 16 
48 1 

» 2 
S2 12 

8 4 

9 3 
10 19 



69 7 
S 2 

8 S6 

9 4 

4 10 

5 26 
29 7 



To facilitate the deciphering of the two recensions, I have 
put the expression "rh*. with the prefixes as well as the word 
|l-ilt against the catchword of the respective passages where they 
occur. By this means it becomes apparent that Lists I, 11 and III 



H — K § 671—678. 



— 85 



§ 674a— 6— 678. H "~ K 



proceed from a Massoretic School which excluded the passages 
in combination with ii-i^e, viz. b»n^ '-tt^K p-iK, whilst Lists IV and V 
represent a recension which includes these passages, but excludes 
the instances in which 'ri'?K is with the prefixes, viz. bvriitr "^bvh &c. 
We have still to consider some of the peculiarities in each 
of the five Lists. The headings in Lists I and II differ. The 
furst has bvnvr "nh^ 'pa 'iiro to and the second pnrra re '?»nr'.%ibK. 
But they both agree in making up the twenty-eight instances 
by giving l Sam. 26 32 as the fifth passage and omitting 
Ezra 3 2. As the Tetragrammaton precedes btr/en -rt^ in 1 Sam. 
25 32 in the textm receptm, these Lists must be based upon a 
textual recension which had not rrirr in this passage, but had it 
in Ezra 3 2. That the passages which constitute this Rubric 
exhibited various readings in the Codices and that this gave 
rise to the Massorah before us, will be seen from the notes on 

1 Kings 8 26 in my edition of the Hebrew Bible. 

List ni which exhibits the same recension heads it re bvrw "n^K 
and though it thus states that there are twenty-four instances, it 
enumerates twenty- three only, the omission of 1 Sam. 6 3 being 
manifestly due to the Scribe. It gives, however, Ezra 3 2 and 
not 1 Sam. 26 32. 

List IV which exhibits the second recension is by far the 
most complete. The omission of Gen, 33 20, which is given in 
all the other four Lists, is due to the fact that the phrase 
■jinir vh^, is here preceded by another Divine name, viz. •rr'pK ^K 
htnv and is, therefore, put in the same category with \-i'3K D-ri^K 
•jnr (Ps. 68 9) and, hvne^ "rh^t n'ri'?Kn (Ezra 6 23) which are 
excluded from this Rubric. 

List V, which also exhibits the second recension, has inad- 
vertently inserted ^¥h (l Sam. 6 5) against the principle upon 
which it is based and gives i Sam. 1 17 twice as Nos. 10 
and 81. 

K'Pnn = § 671. 

*131) ^'!!^K ttrange gods, oeeurg three HmM, twice vrith Kametz 
and (mee with Buhaeh. That is, in two instances the noun is 153 
the absolute and in one instance it is res the construct. This 
phrase, which occurs altogether nine times, has in six instances 
the prefix He before the noun, i. e. rejn * and it is in these three 
passages only that -9s is without the article. Hence the Massorah 
safeguards this exceptional usage. In the only other instance 
where this phrase occurs -153 is in combination with aibK the 
singular, viz. re? pfib» Dan. 11 39 for which reason it is excluded 
from this Rubric. Of this Rubric, which does not occur in the 
printed Massorah, I collated ttro Lists: (I) Orient. 2348, fol. 151a, 
on Deut. 31 16 which I have printed and (II) Orient 2349, 
foL 141a, on the same passage. 

> Comp. "Otn ^hSk Oen. S5 2, 4; Josh. U 23; Judg. 10 16; 1 Sam. 7 S; 

2 Chron. SS 16. ' 

yrin = § 672. 

D''*l!3J?n fl7K» God of the Hebrews, occurs jive times .... and 
once it is D'nayri. That is with two Yods. Of this Rubric I collated 
five Lists, four in MSS. and one printed: (I) Orient 2349, fol. 620, 
on Exod. 9 13 which I have printed; (II) Add. 21,160, fol. 776, 
on the same passage; (III) Vienna Codex No. 85 on the same 
passage; (IV) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah, fol. 60a, margin and 
(V) the printed Massorah on Exod. 5 3. Though all these instances 
are restricted to Exodus, the expression 'coai and in this bock is 
omitted from the headings in all the five Lists. 

rrin = § 673. 

nlKDHCl ^'1bKI the Ood of hosts, occurs four times. That is, 
in these four instances only has niKSSt the prefix He in combination 
with the construct "rib*. Normally it is niKas '.ibn without the 
article.' 

Of this Rubric, which does not occur in the printed 
Massorah, I collated three Lists: (I) Harley 5710—11, VoL II, 
foL 1066, on Hos. 12 6 which I have printed; (II) Add. 15,260, 
foL 303a, on Amos 3 13 and (III) Add. 15,251, fol. 299&, on the 
same passage. 

It will be seen that List I not only states emphatically in 
the heading that this combination occurs four times, but gives 
Amos 9 5 as one of the four instances. The Codices, therefore, 
from which the Massorite compiled this Rubric read it here 

1 Comp. niMSS tr6M 2 Sam. 6 10; 1 Kings 19 10, 14; Jerem. S5 17; S8 17; 
44 7; Amot 4 IS; ft 14,''l6, 16, 27; 6 8; Ps. 89 0. 



niKaatn •fl'?^ mm as it is given in the catchword. The other two 
Lists state in the heading that there are three such instances only 
and omit Amos 9 5. Their Massorah, therefore, is based upon 
a recension which exhibited the present textus reeeptus. 

Tjnn = § 674a -6. 

B^tott^n "'H^K the God of heaven, occurs three times in an 
exceptional manner. That is, without being preceded by the Tetra- 
grammaton. Normally the phrase is EPO*n rib^ rrtrr. Of this Rubric 
I collated two Lists: (I) Add. 15,451,' foL 3816, on Jonah 1 9 
and (11) the printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 480. 

Rubric 6746 which is so given in some MSS. properly 
belongs to the combination orafn 'r6K rrfrr Jehovah the God of hosts 
and I have, therefore, printed it with its correct heading under 
letter \ (Vide inft-a, § 186, p. 711.) 

n'VV) = § 675. 

T'K*lt£^ ''<!!'^^? *o **« God of Israel, occurs four times in this 
combination in the Scriptures. In all other instances where the prefix 
Lamed precedes the Divine name in connection with Israel it is the 
double union, viz. binto^ 'n^K nirr^ to Jehovah the God of IsraeU 

Of this Rubric I collated seven Lists, six in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 2916, on Ezra 8 36 
which I have printed; (II) the same MS., Vol. II, foL 132a, on 

1 Chron. 4 10; (III) the same MS., Vol. II, fol. 166a, on 

2 Chron. 29 7; (IV) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 2396, on 1 Chron. 4 10; 
(V) the same MS., fol. 275a, on 2 Chron. 29 7; (VI) Add. 15,251, 
fol. 3156, on 1 Chron. 4 10 and (VII) the printed Massorah 
Finalis, letter m, § 499. 

The four instances which constitute this Rubric are 
according to one recension included in the Massorah given in 
§ 670. 

* Comp. Josh. 7 19, 20; 8 30; Judg.S 3; Ezra 41, 3; 6 21; 1 Chron. 28 6; 
2 Chron. 16 18; SO 1, 6; 38 17. 

vrin = § 676. 

^*Ti^K the God of, is in one instance plene. As this plural 
construct of the Divine name which occurs in numerous passages 
without the Vav is plene in this single instance, the Massorah 
safeguards this exceptional orthography. This Rubric is from 
Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah I, § 162. 

rpnn - § 677. 

\niT'K my God, is twice plene. As this Divine name with the 
suffix first person singular occurs no fewer than sixty-two times, 
and as it is plene in these two instances Only, the Massorah 
safeguards the exceptional orthography. 

Of this Rubric, I collated five Lists, fouk* in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Arund. Orient 16, foL 320a, on Ps. 143 10 which I 
have printed; (II) Harfey 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 220a, on Ps.l45l; 

(III) Add. 15,251, fol. 374o, on the same passage; (IV) Halle 
Ochlah Ve-Ochlah I, § 152 and (V) the printed Massorah on 
Ps. 143 10. The heading in List HE is 'v^a '^o '3 it occurs three 
times plene in this form, i. e. including the single instance which 
constitutes the preceding Rubric, whilst List V adds this third 
passage at the end, viz. 'ba 'rrt^ nm. 

n-Pin - § 678. 

^T?K iny God, is in eight instances with Kametz under the He. 
That is, apart from those passages in which this Divine name 
with the same suffix first person singular has the pausal 
accent 

Of this Rubric, I collated ten Lists, nine in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, fol. 2186, on 1 Kings 3 7 
which I have printed; (II) the same MS., Vol. I, foL 1006, on 
Numb. 22 18; (III) the same MS., VoLU, foLl50a, on 2 Chron. 2 3: 

(IV) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 786, on 1 Kings 3 7; (V) the same 
MS., fol. 92 a, on 1 Kings 17 21; (VI) the same MS., fol. 2676, 
on 2 Chron. 2 8; (VII) the same MS., foL 292a, on Ps. 35 24; 
(VIII) Add. 21,160, fol. 227a, on Numb. 22 18; (IX) Orient 2349, 
fol. 1376, on Deut. 26 14 and (X) the printed Massorah on 
Numb. 22 18. 

As eight out of the ten Lists have not 'pi « rpt in the 
heading and, moreover, as in two instances ri^ is in all the 
MSS. with Bevia or Retfia Mugrash (Ps. 36 24; 2 Chron. TS) there 



K § 679—682. 



— 86 



§ 688— 686a. H — H 



can hardly be any doubt that this expression has been added 
by a later Scribe. He was manifestly misled by the fact that in 
six instances \-i^K has actually Zakeph, just as another Scribe 
has added in the" heading of one of two Lists in question (List II) 
^^pa ,p, ,„ ,-,t,^ ^„ because in all the eight passages which 
constitute this Rubric 'rt'?K is preceded by the Tetragrammaton. 
(Vide infra, letter % § 18?!) 

And wherever this Divine name with the said suffix has the 
accent Athnach or Soph-Pasuk it is likevnse with Kametz ('rfrK) 
except in two instances where it has Pathach. That is, normally it 
is fl'jK with Kametz only where it has the pausal accent Athnach 
which occurs eleven times ' or Soph-Pasuk which occurs twenty 
times.* As the two instances form a rare exception to the rule 
they are thus safeguarded. These two exceptions are also given 
in a separate Massoretic Rubric in: (I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 305a, 
on Ps. 84 11; (II) Vienna Codex No. 35, on the same passage, 
and (III) the printed Massorah on Ps. 86 2. 

i Comp. 'ff?K Deut. 4 5; 1 Kings 5 19; 8 28; Hos. 9 8; Joel 1 13; Zech. U 4; 
Pb. 13 4; 30 3;*59"2; 109 26; Neh. 13 29; 2 Chron. 6 19. 

2 Comp. "rp* Gen. 31 30; Josh. 9 23; 14 8, 9; Isa. 7 13; 494; Jerem. 31 18; 
Hos. i 26; 9 8;"jonah 2 7; Micah 7 7; Zech. 13 9; Ps. 38 16; 43 4; 119 116; 
Prov. SO 9; Ruth. 1 16; Dan. 9 20; Ezra 9 6; 1 Chron. 22 7. 



o'rnn = § 679. 

^1bS my God, occurs thirteen times by itself or in an exceptional 
manner. It is very difficult to say with certainty what the 
import of this Massorah is. Apparently it is designed to 
catalogue the instances in which -ribK is not preceded by nin\ 
But as this Divine name with the suffix first person singular 
occurs about one hundred times, and is preceded by the Tetra- 
grammaton about thirty-seven times only and stands by itself 
in about sixty-three passages, the record of these thirteen 
instances alone can be explained on no other hypothesis than 
that it exhibits the first attempt to register this phenomenon, 
that the incipient List, as is not unfrequently the case, has not 
been completed by later Massorites, and that a Nakdan who 
mistook its import added the number in the heading. 

This Rubric I have found in the printed Massorah Finalis 
only, letter k, § 466. As is usually the case in Jacob b. Chayim's 
Massorah, the Rubric contains several blunders : (1) This heading 
states that there are fourteen such instances (t") and enumerates 
thirteen only; (2) the catchwords -[ow nn'sm = Ps. 46 18 which 
are apparently designed to give the fourth instance are wrong, 
since ■'rt'?K does not occur at all in the verse in question and 
(3) irro "-n^K nn»/3 which is given as representing one passage does 
not occur and these catchwords are manifestly a fusion of two 
passages. I have, therefore, divided them and altered -i"' in the 
heading into y. 

enn = § 6 so. 

lisp Vrl^K his God is with him, occurs five times thics combined. 
Of this Rubrici I collated seven Lists, six in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, foL 1016, On Numb. 23 21 
which I have printed; (U) the same MS., Vol. II, fol. 158a, on 
2 Chron. 15 9; (III) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 257a, on 2 Chron. 1 1; 
(IV) the same MS., foL 281 6, on 2 Chron. 36 23; (V) Add. 21,160, 
fol. 230a, on Numb. 23 21; (VI) Orient 2349, fol. 115a, on the 
same passage and (VII) the printed Massorah on the same 
passage. 

Lists IV and V have in the heading ler yrbn nirr which 
confuses this Massorah with the one given in letter % § 189. 

K'Din = § 681. 
DTiISK their God., occnrs seven [six] times in the Pentateuch. 
This form with the suffix third person plural masculine occurs 
thirteen times in the Pentateuch, but it is in these six instances 
only that it denotes the true God, {vfp), in the other seven 
passages it denotes false gods {b'\n) or idols, ^ and hence they are 
excluded from this Rubric. This List I have found in the 
printed Massorah Finalis only, letter m, § 4C5. The numeralt = 7 
in the heading is manifestly a mistake for i = 6. 

I Comp. Exod. 23 33; 34 15; Deut. 7 16, 25; 13 2, 3, 30, 

Tsnn = § 682. 

|^^'1'?K their Gods, occurs five times. That is, with suffix 
Third person plural feminine Avithout and with the prefix Lamed. 
Of this Rubric I collated seven Lists, five in MS. and two 



printed: (I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 86a, on 1 Kings 11 8 which 

1 have printed; (II) Orient 4445, fol. 77a, on Exod. 34 16; 
(III) the same MS., fol. 146a, on Numb. 26 2; (IV) Add. 16,451, 
fol. 233fe, on 1 Kings 11 8; (V) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah 11, 
§69; (VI) the printed Massorah on Exod. 34 16 and (VII) the 
same on Numb. 25 2. Though two of the instances are with the 
prefix Lamed yet List V alone has the expression 'erbs in the 
heading. 

J'Din = § 683. 

ft*DKn the curses, occurs three times, twice plene and once 
defective. Of this Rubric I collated three Lists, two in MSS. and 
one printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 1706, on 2 Chron. 34 24 
which I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 2796, on the 
same passage and (III) the printed Massorah on Deut 30 7. 
Though none of the three Lists states where the defective 
orthography occurs, yet the Massorah Parva as well as the MSS. 
give Numb. 5 23 as being without the Fat;. 

The ancient Codex Orient 4445, has also the following 
Massorah on the singular form of this expression: 

Numb. & 27 n»y a'lpa "'?»*'? pnjD'oi 'a rhi^h 

Numb. S 21 "pna nysv^ rh*': 

As this singular with the prefix Lamed also occurs three 
times in Jeremiah (29 18; 42 18; 44 12), it is evident that the 
expression RnniJO in the Pentateuch has been omitted in the 
heading. I have not found this Rubric in any other MS.^ 

» Comp. Orient. 4446, fol, 1226, on Numb. 5 21. 

TD"in = § 684. 

iT^K these, occurs seven times at the beginning of a verse in 
the Prophets. This pronoun without and with the prefix Fat; 
begins a verse in the Prophets twenty-four times. As it has the 
prefix Vav in seventeen instances* and is without it in seven 
only, the Massorah safeguards the minority. 

Of this separate Rubric I collated five Lists, all in MSS.: 
(I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, fol. 1476, on Josh. 13 32 which I 
have printed; (II) the same MS., Vol. I, fol. 2146, on 2 Sam. 23 8; 
(III) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 14 a, on Josh. 19 51; (IV) the same 
MS., fol. 736, on 2 Sam. 23 22 and (V) the same MS., foL 86a, 
on 1 Kings 9 23. 

> Comp, n^»i Josh, 8 22 ; 9 13 ; 12 1, 7 ; 14 1 ; Judg. S 1 ; 18 18; 1 Sam. € 17; 

2 Sam. 5 14; 23 1; 1 Kings 4 2; 20 19; Jerem. 29 1; SO 4; Ezek. 43 13; 48 16, 80. 

iTBin = § 685. 
ThVi* Throughout 'Mara n^Ki begins a verse except in fonr 
instances where it is n^K. In Essra-Nehemiah this pronoun begins 
a verse altogether twelve times. In eight instances it is with 
the prefix Vav^ and in four only is it without the Vav. Hence 
the Massorah records the minority. This separate Rubric I have 
found in Arund. Orient 16, only foL 2736, on Ezra 2 62. 

> Comp, n^Hi, Ezra 1 9; 2 1, 69; 8 1; Neh. 7 61; U 3, 7; 12 1. 

ronn = § 686 a. 

rhVi occurs ten times at the beginning of a verse in this section. 
That is, in 1 Chron. 1—22. As this pronoun without and with 
the prefix Vav occurs altogether thirty-five times at the 
beginning of a verse in Chronicles and, moreover, as it is in 
one part only of this book that n^Ki prevails and in the other 
part the two forms, viz. n^K and n^J?) are of equal occurrence, 
the Massorah divides Chronicles into two Sections to register 
this fact In the first Section which consists of 1 Chron. 1—22, 
where this pronoun begins a verse twenty-seven times, it has 
the prefix Vav in seventeen instances * and is without it ten times 
only. Hence the Massorah safeguards the minority. In the second 
Section, however, which consists of l Chron. 23—2 Chron. 36 
these two forms respectively occur four times.* 

For the instances in Ezra-Nehemiah which form the second 
link in this Massoretic Rubric see the preceding Rubric, viz. 
§ 685. In the rest of the Hagiographa which the third link of 
this Rubric registers, this pronoun begins a verse five times 
only. In three instances it is without the prefix Vav^ and in 
two with it Hence the Massorah records the minority. 

1 Comp. n^K) 1 Chron. 1 43; 3 1, 6; 4 3; 6 24; 6 2, 16, 18, ,36, 39; 8 6; 
9 33; 11 10, 11; 12 1, 23; 14 4. 

2 Comp, n^M 1 Chron. 23 24; 24 19; 26 19; 2 Chron. 17 19. 
^ Comp, nU Ps. 20 8; 42 6; 50 21, 



K — K § 686. 



— 87 — 



§ 687—6926. K — K 



Of this Rubric I collated two Lists: (I) Arund. Orient. 16, 
fol. 240 a, on 1 Chron. 4 38 which I have printed ^nd (II) the 
printed Massorah on 1 Chron. 1 29. In Jacob b. Chayim's edition 
1524—26, the first part of this Rubric has manifestly dropped 
out of the text, since the List is without heading and begins 
with the words -vik p '?''iTaK, the missing portion is ny 'bdt 'Wi jts 
r^K .1133 am^in nhn .pitn b¥ner ^33 nhn '&'bi n'?K ^-an 'db 'k-i rh*n pt ttti 
-33 rh» ,niow3 nion nb» ,3^3 '•sa rn. The first link of this Rubric is 
given as a separate Massorah in (I) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 237, 
on 1 Chron. 1 29 and (II> Add. 15,250, foL 4026, on the same 
passage. Another recension of this Rubric combines it with the 
two preceding Lists making §§ 684, 685 and 686 links of the 
same chain. In this form of it I collated three Lists: (I) Arund. 
Orient 16, fol. 383a; (II) Add. 16,250,~fol. 4246, and (III) Vienna 
Codex No. 35 all on Neh. 7 (). 

TDin = § G866. 

n*?X1 n^K» The separate Rubrics which record the instances 
wherein tliis |>ronoun without and with the prefix Vav begins a 
verse in each book or section of a book, are here combined 
into a List of seven members so as to exhibit a conspectus 
of the entire Bible. It is to be remarked at the outsfet that 
without and with the prefix Vav this pronoun begins a verse 
no fewer than one hundred and seventy-two times. According 
to the artificial concatenation of the seven links they are 
distributed as follows: 

The Pentateuch. — In the Pentateuch where this prono,un 
begins a verse ninety-seven times, it is in sixty-three instances 
without the prefix Vav, viz. nV»|t * and in thirty-four with it, viz. n^. 
Hence the Massorah safeguards the minority. Owing, however^ 
to its artificial arrangement this part of the Rubric excludes 
the seven passages in which n^jti at the beginning of 'a ~rt»ii«a.is 
followed by nii^>i and the nine in which it is followed by mo* a 
and, therefore, catalogues seventeen instances. This is due to the 
fact that in these combinations n^Ki is more numerous and n^K is 
the minority and hence in accordance with the general practice 
of the Massorites the majority is excluded and the lesser number 
is recorded. '■■ 

27k« JFSr>phet*, — In the Prophets, where this pronoun occurs 
twenty-four times at the beginning of a verse and where it is 
seventeen times with the prefix Vav and seven times only 
without it, the Massorah safeguards the minority. {Vide supra, 
letter it, § 684.) 

'J%e Hagiographa. — In the Hagiographa, where this pronoun 
begins a verse fifty-two times, it is in twenty-one instances 
without the prefix Vav and in thirty-one with it Instead, 
however, of allocating these instances to the several books which 
constitute this division of the Bible, the Massorites artificially 
divide the Hagiographa into four sections. Chronicles which 
heads the Hagiographa ejid which exhibits thirty-five instances, 
occupies two of the sections {vide supra, § 686a), Ezra-Nehemiah 
which has twelve instances forms the third section {vide supra, 
§ 685), whilst to the rest of the Hagiographa is assigned the fourth 
section. The artificial heading of the fourth section, however, is 
misleading, since it implies that in Psalms, Proverbs, Job, the Five 
Megilloth and Daniel which are comprised in all the rest of the 
Hagiographa (ra-ro nw tei) the pronoun n^|i without the prefix is 
of frequent occurrence at the beginning of a verse and that 
n^ is the rare exception. Whereas n^ does not occur at all at 
the beginning of a verse in any of these books except the 
Psalter. Three instances only of rrt^ still remain and these are 
restricted to the Psalms (20 8; 42 6; 60 21). 

Of this Rubric I collated three Lists, two in MSS. and 
one printed: (I) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, § 94 which I have 
printed; (II) Add. 21,160, fol. 2846, on Numb. 26 86 and (III) 
the printed Massorah which forms the square of three lines 
enclosing the wood-cut border within which n^ir Exod. 1 1 is 
contained. Lists I and II omit after the second section which 
records the four instances of nn'pp rh» the third section, viz. bai 
'^Ti'aa 'XTOi narn'?»ri. {Vide infra, letter k, § 694.) List II which 
has this section wrongly, gives five instances though it distinctly 
states that there are /<?«»• only in the Pentateuch. The fifth instance 

> Comp. n^M Oen. 3 4; 6 9; 10 20, 31, 32; 11 10; 25 16; 36 10, 16, 19, 20, 
27, 28, 29; 87 2; 46 16, 18, 22, 25; Exod. 6 14; 38 21; Levit. 11 81; 2S 4, 37; 
S«4C; 27 84; Numb. 1 18, 44; 3 32; 3 3; 4 37, 41, 46; 10 28; IS 16; 26 7, 14, 
18, 22, 26, 27, 30, 34, 88, 37, 41, 42, 47, 50, 61, 68, 63; 29 39; 30 17; 88 1; 
S4 17, 29; 3« 13; Deut. 1 1; 4 46; 12 1; 37 12; 28 69. 

s Comp. nn^h n^Hi Gen. 10 1; 11 27; 25 12, 19; 86 1, 9; Numb. 8 1. The 
(liglith instance in wliich this combination occurs (Ruth. 4 18) does not begin 
the verso. For wss» n\* and nio»' 7\\*) see below, letter n, §§ 694, 702. 



bKiam B-i3jn niOB> n'?K =* 2 Sam. 23 8 is against the import of this 
Rubric which catalogues the instances in the Pentateuch. 

rDin = § 687. 

n^K these, has four times the accent Tipcha in this section. Of 
this Rubric I collated four Lists, three in MSS. and one printed: 

(I) Orient 2349, fol. 116a, on Numb. 26 7 which I have printed; 

(II) Add. 21,160, fol. 2336; (III) Vienna Codex No. 35 and (IV) 
the printed Massorah, all on the same passage. List II adds at 
the end vt vh 'ts'oi and the sign is Rash Mash, sh represents pim 
and ppoip, whilst wo is formed of the initials rvna and rhrm, 
the four names in conaection with which r6»t has this accent 

n"D"in - § 688 a -6. 
I ipK has six times the accent Tevir at the beginning of the 
verse in the some section. List 088a is from the printed Massorah 
on Numb. 26 22. The mnemonic sign is 'itk iar and not 'xsk', they 
are the initials of rmrr ■"'^nfii ]byz^ -irk ni -iswtr the six names of the 
tribes which are in combination with rh*. Rubric .6886 is from 
Add. 15,451, fol. 1106, on Numb. 26 27. It will be seen that the 
six instances, are here made up by the omission of Numb. 26 25 
and substituting for it Numb. 26 37. 

O'Din = § 689. 
Dnnfi^^? « « » ^IQ n>JK ihese are ihe sons of . . . according 
to their families, occurs four times. In the description of the 
descendants of the eleven tribes in Numb. 26 1* — 48 two different 
phrases are used. In the case of seven the formula is simply 
onhlis^^ ••«'?? ^^ *<">' of so and so, after their families (Numb. 
26 il2, 23, 26, 28, 38, 44, 48), whilst in four instances only is this 
formula preceded by the pronoun n^K these. Hence the Massorah 
safeguards this exceptional phrase. The mnemonic sign na be 
consists of the abbreviation of the names of the four tribes in 
connection with which this exceptional phrase is used, db are the 
middle letters of onBK Ephraim and *)D1* Joseph, whilst "ia are the 
initials of p-a Benjamin and fn Dan. After the sign the Massorite 
added b'ys = "b rtun -p so it appears to me, since there are other 
recensions of this Rubric which I have printed from Harley 
6710—11, Vol I, foL 103a, on Numb. 26 35. The same 
recension is also given in Orient 2349, fol. 116 a, on the same 
passage. 

3C"in = § 690. 

D^3^n rr?K these words, occur five times ^us combined .... 
and once it is with the prefix Vav. Of this Rubric I collated ten 
Lists, six in MSS. and four printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, 
fol. 58a, on Exod. 35 1 which I have printed; (II) Orient 4445, 
fol. 776, on the same passage; (III) Arund. Or-ient 16, fol. 137a, 
on Isa. 42 16; (IV) the same MS., fol. 2196, on Zech. 8 16; 
(V) Add. 15,251, fol. 1306, on the same passage; (VI) Add. 21,160, 
fol. 2536, on Deut 1 1; (VII) the printed Massorah on Exod. 36 1; 
(VIII) the same on Deut 1 1; (IX) the same on Zech. 8 16, and 
(X) the printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 505. 

K'Xin = § 691. 

vSHtP^"^J5 ^'^P'? f^T^ these are the joumeyings of ihe children 
of Israel, occurs twii'e. Of this Rubric, which does not occur in 
the printed Massorah, I collated two Lists: (I) Add. 15,250, 
foL 80a, on Numb. 10 28 which I have printed and (II) the same 
MS., fol. 936, on Numb. 33 1. 

3"5Cin = § 692 a. 
nnfettTD n?K these are ihe families of [so and so]^ occurs 
twice thuc combined in this section. That is, in these two instances 
this phrase though followed by onhara'? after their families, is not 
combined with 'sa the sons of. The design of this Massorah, 
therefore, is to safeguard these exceptional instances against 
being made conformable to the phrase recorded in § 689. This 
Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, is from 
Orient 2349, fol. 1166, on Numb. 26 42. 

ritin = § 6926. 

In the ancient Codex Orient 4445, fol. 1466, on Numb. 26 18 
there is the following Rubric: 

Numb. 26 87 b'tbh pnao'ci 'J 'jiSfi '3a nntva rh» 

„ 47 itTK Numb. 26 18 1J 

This Massorah is designed to safeguard these three instances 
against the phrase recorded in § 693, where '33 sons of, does not 
occur in this combination. 



K -i^%^ 



88 — 



§ 699—702. X 



ritin = § 693. 

DTHpS*? ♦ ♦ ♦ nh^tt^ n^K <Aew are the familiea of 

according to those that were numhered of them, occurs three times. 
That is, though combined with aren^ith according to those that 
ioere numbered cf them, the expression 'sa sons of is absent from 
this phrase. The Massorah, therefore, safeguards these passages 
against being made conformable to those which are recorded in 
§ 6926 whe^e \3a tons of, occurs in exactly the same phrase. Of 
this Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, I 
collated two Lists: (I) Cambridge University Library. Add. 465, 
on Numb. 26 25, which I have printed and (II) Add. 21,160, 
foL 233 &, on the same passage. The mnemonic sign iwn is composed 
of the n in rrr'-rr Judah, the w in -amr Issachar and the initial 
letter in i^iat Zebulun, being the names of the three tribes in 
connection with which this phrase is used. 

TXVI = § 694. 

riDlitt^ n^K these are the names, occurs five times at the beginning 
if a verse ' in the Scriptures. Of this Rubric I collated two Lists, 
one in BiS. and one printed: (I) the printed Massorah Finalis, 
letter m, § 606, which 1 have printed and (II) Orient. 4445, 
fol. 1566, on Numb. 34 iT. In all the other ten instances where 
this pronoun is followed by matt? the names of, it has the prefix 
Vav. (Vide infra, letter k, § 702.) The necessity for safeguarding 
these instances will be seen from the notes on Numb. 3 3 in my 
edition of the Hebrew Bible. The four instances in which this 
phrase occurs in the Pentateuch are included in Rubric 6886. 

n"!i'V\ - § 695. 

rrt?h rhVl these are the generaHons of, occurs four timss thus 
combined. In alf the other eight instances in which rn^r is pre- 
ceded by this pronoun, it is n^jr with the prefix Fat?.' Of this 
separate Rubric I collated four Lists, three in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, foL la, on Gen. 11 10, which 
I have printed; (II) Orient 2349, fol. 30a, on Gen. 2 4; (HI) 
Add. 15,451, fol. 86, on Gen. 11 10 and (IV) the printed Massorah 
on the same passage. The mnemonic sign nwn the prince is 
composed of the initials of mb rri D'Ottn and apr, in connection 
with which the phrase occurs. As all the four instances begin a 
verse, List II properly heads the Rubric MDU.'Bn "BOTI. This 
Rubric is part of the lengthy Massorah give6 above, viz. § 6866. 

' For the instances in whicli the combination nn^h n|»n with the prefix 
Vav occurs, see § 6866 note. 

TXnn « § 696. 

rf?i< n'fpKV The expression nla?> names, is always preceded hy 
ri^^eaeiept in five instances (vide § 694) and the expression nn^n 
generatioh, is cdso always preceded by n^ except in three instances. 
This is incorrect as will be seen in § 695, where four instances 
are given. rDS must, therefore, be a clerical error for Taa. The 
expi-essio^ "npf the numbered of, it always preceded by rf^^ with the 
one exception where it is n^ with (he prefix Vav (Numb. 26 57). 

-• CJomp. n^B n^t? Exod. J8 21; Humb. 2 82; 4 87, 41, 46; 86 61, 63. 

rX"in = § 697. 
rf?KT* For the seventeen instances in which this pronoun 
occurs with the prefix Vmv in the Pentateuch as well as for the 
four instances in which mn^h is preceded by n^ see §§ 6866 
and 693. 

fmn - § 698. 

iT?K1» Seven words respedively occur once only in combination 
with n^ "The design of this Massorah is to record the words 
which are once only preceded by this pronoun with the prefix 
Vav, whilst in all other passages where they occur in this 
combination they are severally preceded more than once by this 
pronoun without the prefix- Vav. That this is the import of this 
Massorah is evident from the fact that there are altogether no 
fewer than forty-five words which respectively occur once only 
in combination with n^jr. If the Massorah, therefore, had simply 
designed to catalogue the unique instances of this combination 
the List before us would contain this number and not merely 
six or seven instances. Equally certain it is that the original 
deiign of the Massorah is to exclude from this Rubric the unique 
combinatioiu with n^ which are also unique with n^ This is 



evident from the fact that the six instances in which the same 
word is once preceded by r6tr and once by n^K are not given.' 
These facts show that five only of the instances recorded in 
this Rubric properly belong to it, since neither onjan nor o^i-i 
occurs in combination with n^K. 

Of this Rubric I collated three Lists, two printed and one 
in MS.: (I) Paris Ochlah Ve-Ochlah, § 2(>0, which I have printed; 
(II) Orient. 4445, foL 147 a, on Numb. 26 57 and (III) the printed 
Massorah on Exod. 28 4, List II which exhibits the oldest 
Massorah extant, states in the heading that there are six such 
instances only, and though it contains cr"t33n n^io (Exod. 28 4) 
which shows that this erroneous addition has been made by a 
Scribe at an early period, it rightly omits oMan n^Ki (Judg. 3 1). 
It, moreover, has at the end of the Rubric m-on "-on n'jK in '"fhrn 
and in one instance the contrary is the ease, viz, nan n^K. That is, 
nan in combination with n^K is unique (Deut 28 69), but in 
combination with nV»o it is not unique. {Vide infra, letter k, § 700.) 
List III not only contains both the erroneous instances, but 
omits the correct passage «-!ipB n^io Numb. 26 57 and gives 

1 Chron. 6 4 twice, thus apparently exhibiting seven instances, 
though in the heading it states that there are six only. The real 
sixth instance, however, which all three Lists omit is ^jn^^i 

2 Sam. 2 13 which is unique, whilst in all other instances it is 
bpn^K without the prefix Vav. <Comp. Deut 11 18; 2 Sam. 2 18; 
Isa. 47 7; 1 Chron. 25 6.) 

» Comp. D'>ian T\\m i Chron. 12 1 and n»K3n n^*t i Chron 4 88; O'snSn n^ 
Neh, 13 1 and D^inSn rk* ifeh. 10 9; "oyi n^w Deut 27 13 and noy^ rhi 
Deut 27 12; nn n^Ki and r\n rktf Josh, 8 22; on^iJO n^tn 2 Chron. 17 14 and 
on^B n^K 1 Chron. 24 19; '3B' n^tn Gen. 25 17 and '?»' n^»i Zech. 4 14. 



B'lenn = § 699. 

"^^3 • i?X1 and these are the sons of, occurs thirteen timet thus 
combined in the Scriptures, ija which is fifty-seven times preceded 
by this pronoun, is in forty-four instances combined with n^ 
without the prefix Vav and in thirteen instances only is it with 
n^Ki with this prefix. Hence the Massorah safeguards the minority. 
The necessity for safeguarding these instances will be seen by 
referring to the notes on Gen. 36 10, 20 &c. in my edition of 
the Hebrew Bible. Of this Rubric I collated six Lists, five in 
MSS. and one printed: ^(I) Harley 6710—11, Vol. II, fol. 2996, 
on Neh. 11 7 which I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient 16, 
fol. 239 6, on 1 Chron. 4 18; (III) the same MS., fol. 241 6, on 
1 Chron. 6 35; (IV) the same MS., fol. 3866, on Neh. 11 7; 
(V) Orient 2349, fol. 486, on Gen. 36 13 and (VI) the printed 
Massorah Finalis, letter a, § 215. The catchword aovp 'an rHm 
"TO bwrr = l Chron. 4 3 in Jacob b. Chayim's printed Massorah 
(List VI), is incorrect; it should be •"ipik -sa n^Ki - 1 Chron. 8 6 as 
the MS. Lists have it 

vn = § 700. 

^*TS1 n^K*) and these are the words of, oceurg- tutice. In the 
third instance where this combination occurs the pronoun is 
without the prefix Vav (Deut 28 69). Of this Rubric I collated 
three Lists, two in MSS. and one printed: (I) Arund. Orient 16, 
fol. 166a, on Jerem. 29 1 which I have printed; (11) Add. 15,251, 
fol. 2536, and (III) the printed Massorah, all on the same passage. 
As both these instances begin a verse, List II heads this Rubric 
•10B '>n '3 which should properly be 'idb 'mi 'a, but as we have 
seen, the Vav is often omitted in such cases. 

x-rn = § 701. 

I^n I i?)Sn and these were, occurs ttoice. In the other four 
instances where rn is preceded by this pronoun it is without the 
prefix Vav.^ The Massorah, therefore, safeguards the minority. 
This Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, is 
from Harley 6710—11. Vol. II, fol. 131b, on 1 Chron. 3 1. As 
both these instances begin a verse, the heading ought properly 
to be 'IDB 'vm 'a 

> Comp. I'n pk* Gen. 86 13; Josh, 20 9; 1 Chron. 2 3.S, 50. 

3"Wn - § 702. 
rtfit?^ « i?Kl and these are the names, occurs ten times in the 
Pentateuehi This combination with the prefix Vav occurs altogether 
fourteen times in the Scriptures. (Comp. 2 Sam. 5 14; Ezek. 48 l; 
1 Chron. 6 2; 14 4.) The reason, why the instances in the 
Pentateuch alone are recorded is to exclude the variations which 
are exhibited in the different Codices with regard to this phrase 



»-» § 



-f 708 -71 J. H 



&8 may be seen from the notes on Numb. 3 3 in my edition of 
the Hebrew Bible. This Rubric I have found only in the printed 
Massorah oji Numb. 1 5. 

yvn = § 703. 

n'pSiS in these, occurs twice. In the other six instances where 
this pronoun has the prefix Beth it is n^KS with SheiaJ Hence 
the Massorah records the exceptions. Of this Rubric I collated 
six Lists, five in MSS. and one printed: (I) Arund. Orient. 16, 
fol. 45fc, on 1 Sam. 1(> 10 which I have printed; (II) the same 
MS., fol. 47a, on 1 Sam. 17 .^9; (III) the same MS., fol. 327rt, 
on Job 16 2; (IV) Orient 4445, fol. 147a, on Numb. 26 53; (V) 
Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, g 3H, and (VI) the printed Massorah 
on 1 Sam. 17 3tt. List II has at the end rca -ai n'jtc "rsi,. but 
does not give the instances. (Comp. g 704.) List III gives it as 
the second part of what is here § 704. List IV joins §§ 703, 704 
and 705 into one Rubric, whilst List V. is headed KiBori 's which 
is more precise, since both instances occur in the same book. 

• Comp. nj-KS Levit. 25 54; 2« 23 ; 1 Kings 22 11 ; Jerem. J> 2.S; 1 Chron. 7 29; 
2 Chron. IH 10. 

Tt?n = § 704. 
n?K3 Uke these, occurs three times. That is, with Sheva under 
the Cnph. Ill the other six instances where this pronoun has 
the prefix (,'aj>h it is with Kametz.^ The Massorah, therefore, 
safeguards tlie minority. Of this Rubric I collated eight Lists, 
six in MSS. and two printed: (I) Ilarley 5710 — 11, Vol. II, fol. 68cr, 
on Jerem. 51 19 which I have printed; (II) the same MS., Vol. II, 
fol. 228^ on Job 16 2; (III) Orient. 4445, fol. 147a, on Numb. 26 53 
where it is part of the preceding Rubric; (IV) Arund. Orient. 16, 
fol. 327a, on Job 16 2; (V) Add. 21,100, fol. 324a, on the same 
passage; (VI) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah IL g 38; (VII) the printed 
Massorah on Jerem. 51 19 and (VIII) the same on Job 16 2. 

1 Comp. n^ws Gen. 27 46; Levit 10 19; Numb. 28 24; Isa. ((6 8; Jerem. 
18 1,3; Ezek. 45 25. 

n-vn = g 705. 

n^K7 to these, occurs fire times in the Scriptures. Of this 
Rubric I collated twelve Lists, eight in MSS. and four printed: 
(I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, fol. 237a, on 1 Kings 22 17 which 
I have printed; (II) the same MS., Vol. I, fol. 103&, on Numb. 
26 53; (III) the same MS., Vol.11, fol. IbU, on 2 Chron. 18 16; 

(IV) Orient. 4445, fol. 147a, on Numb. 26 53; (V) Arund. Orient. 16, 
fol. 96fc, on 1 Kings 22 17; (VI) the same MS., fol. 2106, on 
Micah 2 6; (VII) the same MS., fol. 267&, on 2 Chron. 18 16; 
(VIIJ) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, § 38; (IX) the printed Massorah 
on Gen. 31 43; (X) the same on Numb. 26 53; (XI) the same on 
1 Kings 22 17 and (XII) the same on 2 Chron. 18 16. 

rtrh = § 706. 

npK7l and to these, occurs three times at the beginning of a 
verse. Of this Rubric I collated eight Lists, six in MSS. and two 
printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, fol. 69 J, on Levit. 11 24 
which I have printed; (II) the same MS., Vol. II, fol. 746, on 
Ezek. 9 5; (III) the St. Petersburg Codex of A. D. 916 on the 
same passage; (IV) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 1986, on Ezek. 48 10; 

(V) Add. 21,160, fol. 152a, on^Levit. 11 24; (VI) Vienna Codex 
No. 35 on Ezek. 9 5; (VII) the printed Massorah on Levit. 11 2'4 
and (VIII) the same on Ezek. 9 5. The heading ought properly 
to be '1DB 'K-n 'J three times and at the beginning of a verse, since 
it occurs nowhere else, but at the beginning of the verse. The 
qualifying Vav, however, is often omitted in these cases. 

?"rn = § 707. 

n^KttVawfZ from these, occurs three times. In all the other 
thirteen passages in which this pronoun with the prefix Mem 
occurs it is without the conjunctive I a v." The Massorah, therefore, 
safeguards the exceptions. Of this Rubric I collated six Lists, 
five in M§S. and one printed: (I) Ilarley 5710—11, Vol. I, 
fol. 66, on Gen. 10 32 which I have printed; (II) the same MS., 
Vol. II, fol. 20a, on Isa. 41 28; (III) Arund. Orient. 10, fol. 1366, 
on the same passage; (IV) Add. l.'j,251, fol. 17a, on Gen. 10 32; 
(V) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, g 38, and (VI) the printed 
Massorah on Gen. 9 19. List IV gives the catchwords for the 
third passage o'a'n "-oin *:s ja n'?Kai which do not occur in the 
textvs reeeptus, 

1 Comp. n|«p Gen. 10 5; Levit. 3 8; a 4, 5, 13; Numb. 22 15; Jerem. 4 12; 
Eiek. 8 16; 16 6; 18 10; EccL 7 10; 1 Chron. 2 63; 23 4. 



n-vn = § 70^. 

^?J51 and if, occurs ttvice. Of this Rubric, which does not 
occui in the printed. Massorah, I collated four Listis: (I) Ariind. 
Orient 16, fol. 353a, on Eccl. 6 6 which I have printed; (II) the 
same MS., fol. 361 6, on Esther 7 i; (HI) Harley 5710—11, VoL II, 
fol. 2656, and (IV) the same MS., VoL II, fol. 274a, on the same 
two passages. From the fact that this Rubric is headed in both 
Lists III and IV 'om 'i = it occurs twice and is defective it would 
seem that the Massorah takes this particle as a contraction of 
1*? 'K analogous to i'j'ki Eccl. 4 1 0. 

tt"rn = § 709. 

^B f^K leader, guide, is five times defective in this fm-m. That 
is, the noun piiVk Uader, both in the singular and plural, without 
and with prefixes and suffixes is written without Vav in five 
instances. 

Of this Rubric I collated eight Lists, five in MSS. and 
three printed: (I) Harley 5710—1 1, Vol. H, fol. 1256, on Zech. 12 6 
which I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 221a, on the 
same passage; (III) Add. 15,251, fol. 32a; (IV) Add. 21,160 
fol. 366; (V) Orient. 2349, fol. 49a, all on Gen. 36 30; (VI) the 
printed Massorah also on the same passage; (VII) the same on 
Jerem. 13 21 and (VIII) the same on Zech. 12 6. List II heads 
this List 'on a "c^x and gives the two instances only in which 
this noun plural construct is defective (Zech. 12 5, 6), thus 
safeguarding this exceptional orthography against being made 
conformable to the ordinary spelling 'ti^K which occura no fewer 
than twelve times. ^ 

The necessity for the Massoretic declaration that these five 
instances exhibit the defective spelling of »]1^k leader will be 
seen by a reference to the Septuagint .of Gen. 36 30. It is evident 
from the passage that the School of textual redactors^ which this 
ancient version followed did not take it as the plural with suffix 
from sj^^K, but from ejbx. They read it are^K^ and not DirB^K"? 
and this reading is supported by the fact "tlfat bji^k which occurs 
no fewer than nine times in this chapter is uniformly plene. 



'« Comp. "P'h* Gen. 36 15, 
1 Chron. 1 61, 54. 



IT, 18, 21, 29, 30, 40, 43; Exod. 18 16; 



»"»n = § 710. 

D7^7K idols, occurs twice defective. That is, without and with 
the prefix He this plural noun is without the second Yod. This 
expression, which is not unfrequently found in the Prophets 
and Hagiographa and is uniformly plene, occurs only twice in 
the Pentateuch and is defective in both instances. This Rubric 
which does not occur in the printed Massorah, is from Orient 
2349, fol. 93 a, on Levit 19 4. 

X"'8?n = § 711. 

n vK Elijah, occurs five iU^ies .... once it is with the prefiix 
Vav and so it is throughout Ezra. That is, in Ezra where it occurs 
twice (10 21 26) it is also in this shorter form. Of this Rubric 
I collated six Lists, four in MSS. and two printed: (I) Harley 
5710—11, Vol. I, fol. 238a, on 2 Kings 1 12 which I have printed; 
(II) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 976, on the same passage; (III) the 
same MS., fol. 224a, on Mai. 3 24; (IV) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah U, 
g 55; (V) the printed Massorah on 2 Kings 1 12 and (VI) the 
same on Mai. 3 23. The words 'oi kitp "jsi at the end of this 
Rubric, which include, the two instances in Ezra where this 
shorter form of the name occurs and which are essential, are 
to be found only in Lists I and V and their omission in Lists II 
and III is misleading. In List IV the whole of this Rubric is 
simply as follows : rr^K is five times so written, and throughout the 
Hagiographa it is likewise so except once where it is in»'?K.* And the 
Rubric is perfectly correct as far as it goes; it does not give 
the catchwords for the identification of the pas;^ages. List VI, 
which has substantially the same words at the end of the Rubric, 
gives the catchword for the single exception, viz. 2 Chron. 21 1 2.* 

The design of this Massorah is to safeguard the few in- 
stances in which the primitive orthography of this name has 
survived in the text In all the other sixty-three passages where it 
occurs the longer form inj'rK Elija.hu has been substituted for it 
The reasons for this change are given in my Introduction to the 
Massm'etico- Critical edition of the Hebreiv Bible, p. 386 &o. 

.ih'Sh in JO 13 it'jh n«n53T «'a«n3 bsi paviB 'n n»^K i 

.I.T^HD ansO M"03 n»^K '»3W3 ^31 J 



K — K § 712—715*. 



_ 90 — 



§ 715—722. 8 — K 



a'-'vn = § 712. 

Trb^ Elihu Is four times defective of Aleph. This name, which 
occurs nine times, is in five instances spelled Kvr'pK^ and in four 
without the Aleph. The Massorah, therefore, protects the minority. 
The necessity for safeguarding this orthography will be seen in 
the notes on these passages in my edition of the Hebrew Bible. 
These instances are part of the Massoretic List of words which 
are written without ^fepA, but read with it (Vide supra, letter k, 
§ lia—d.) 

Of this Rubric I collated seven Lists, six in MSS. and one 
printed: (I> Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 2256, on Job 32 4 
which I have printed; (II) the same MS., Vol. n, fol. 237fc, on 
Job 35 1; (III) the same MS., Vol. n, fol. 146a, on 1 Chron. 26 7; 
(IV) the same MS., Vol. II, foL 147 a, on 1 Chron. 27 18; (V) 
Arund. Orient 16, fol. 265o, on the same passage; (VI) Halle 
Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, fol. 996, margin and (VII) the printed 
Massorah on Job 32 4. 

« Ck)mp. wn'Vs l Sam. 1 1; Job S2 2; S4 1 ; S6 1; I Chron. 12 21. 

Vrn = § 713. 

T?*i^^^ Elioenai, occurs five times Tn Ezra 10 27 it is 

,3y,,,i,j, 'defective, in the other four instances it is plene. That is, in 
tiiese five instances it is without the prefix Vav, in the other 
two passages where this proper name occurs (l Chron. 4 36; 7 8) 
i* is with the prefix. 

Of this Rubric I collated four Lists, three in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 2396, on 1 Chron. 3 23 which 
I have printed; (II) the same MS., fol. 240fl, on 1 Chron. 4 36; 
(in) Add. 15,450, fol. 4036, on l Chron. 3 23 and (IV) the printed 
Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 519. At the end of List II a later 
editor has added one of the two insta^ices in which this name has 
the prefix Vav.^ Jacob b. Chayim's Massorah (last IV) is corrupt 
Not. only has rmnam = Ezra 10 27 dropped out of the text, but 
the remark that it is defective in this instance is joined to the 
third instance.* Hence, though the heading distinctly states that 
this name occurs five times, four instances only are recorded. In 
List IV, moreover, a later editor has not only given the second 
instance in which this name has the prefix Vav (I Chron. 7 8), 
erroneously describing it as unique,* but added the single passage 
in which the form ^rr^vt occurs (1 Chron. 8 20). 

There can hardly be any doubt that originally this name 
was written Eljelutenai = towards Jehobah are mine eyes and that 
the He (n) has been omitted to avoid the pronunciation irr = nirr a 
process which was adopted by a certain School of textual 
redactors, but which was only partially carried out This is 
attested by the fact that in two instances the primitive orthography 
of this name has still been preserved, viz. Ezra 8 4 and 1 Chron. 
26 3. (Comp. my Introduction to the Hebrew Bible, p. 369 &c.) In 
the Rubric before us, therefore, the Massorah safeguards the 
instances in which the He has been eliminated. 

t n'mm napyn 'ann'^Ki = i Chron. 4 36. 

» ib'jn '' 'on p 'jyi*"?!* nincB »330i should be 'on pn nnaii ,»j«j?i'S»( iinrD 'saoi 

» 133 ♦>» 'J'jn'^w "w = 1 Cbron. 7 8. 

r»rn = § 7i4. 

*1["'^31K these, occurs five times, it is twice defective and three times 
pfeiitf . , , . tt« first and second time it is defective and the others are 
pleti^. That is in Dan. 2 40 ; 6 7 it is j^it without the Yod and in 
Dan. 2 44; 6 S; 7 17 it is p^K with the Yod. Of this Rubric I 
collated three tlists, two in MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 
5710—11, Vol. n, IdL 2776^ on Dan. 2 40 which I have printed; 
(II) Arund. Orient 16, foL^69a, on Dan. 6 3 and (III) the printed 
Massorah on the same passage. Though all the three Lists distinctly 
state in the heading that this pronoun is three times plene and twice 
defective, it is List I alone which fixes the passages where the two 
different spellings occur. Accordingly p^K plene (Dan. 2 40) in my 
edition of the Hebrew Bible should be |^»e defective. 



re»n = § 715*. 



Vol. 



'HD'^K Bliasaph, occurs six times. Since the publication of 
I, of the Massorah I found the following Rubric in the 



vol. A, oi luw ia«B»uii»u J. xwLiuv. .«« following Rubric in the 
ancient Codex Orient 4445, foL 129a, on Numb. 10 20. 

Numb. 1 14 '[O'h** ■^h 

2 14 Kirai 13 nootsi 



Numb. 1 42 >W3 wn ova 

„ 47 fp^ pi? "' 

„ Itt 20 ntstj ttss "tti 



The heading ought properly to be 'BD31 '1 six times and in 
this book since all the six instances occur in Numbers. 

VBtSrn = § 715. 

Vl/S v^ """' Miphlehv, occurs twice. This Rubric, which does 
not occur in the printed Massorah, is fromHarley 5710— 11, Vol. II, 
fol. 140«, on 1 Chron. 15 18. 

rem = § 7i6. 

ntSr'pK Eliaha, occurs three times .... once in the Law, once 
in the Brophets and once in the Hagiographa. Of this Rubric I collated 
six Lists, four in MSS. and two printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, 
VoL II, fol. 87 «, on Ezek. 27 7 which I have printed; (II) the 
same MS., Vol. II, fol. 130o, on 1 Chron. 1 7; (III) Arund. Orient 16, 
fol. 184o, on Ezek. 27 7; (IV) Orient 2349, fol. 336, on Gen. 10 4; 
(V) the printed Massorah on the same passage and (VI) the same 
on Ezek. 27 7. 

r">Vn = § 717. 
Ptt^'^'^KI and Elisha, begins a verse three times. This Rubric, 
which I have found in the Vienna Codex No. 35 only, on 
2 Kings 8 1 is incorrect since this name with the prefix Vav 
which occurs altogether seven times, begins a verse six times. 
Three instances are omitted (2 Kings 2 12; 6 32; 9 1). 

n"'»fl = § 718. 
'h^^ woe, occurs twice. This Rubric, which does not occur 
in the printed Massorah, is from Arund. Orient 16, foL 2l2o, on 
Micah 7 1. 

t5"»n = § 719, 

DSk dumbness, silence, occurs twice. That is, BO pointed to 
distinguish it from the triliteral d^ dumb, silent, which also occurs 
twice (Exod. 4 11; Isa. 35 6), but differently pointed. '-Of this 
Rubric I collated two Lists: <I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 2976, on 
Ps. 56 1 which I have printed and (II) the printed Massorah on 
the same passage. 

3"rn = § 720. 

•"•rtiOySI and his widows, occurs twice, once plene and once 
defective. That is, in Ps. 78 64 it is without the Vav after the 
^ttn and in Job 27 15 it is with it This Rubric, which I have 
found in the printed Massorah only, on Ps. 78 64 is against the 
oldest and best Codices. Orient 2201, Harley 5710—11, Arund. 
Orient 16, Add. 21,161, «S:c. have it defective in both instances. 

In Orient 2201 which is one of the oldest dated MSS. 
where the Scribe wrote it plene in Job 27 15, the Massorite 
erased the Vav and Jacob b. Chayim himself contradicts this 
Rubrie, since he not only has >r5a^>r defective in Job 27 15, but 
states in the Massorah Parva against it on a = it occurs ttoiee 
defective. 

«"3W - § 721. 

ThrrtTp *1f?'?*^, «"<^ Eleazar the son of Aaron, occurs twice 
at the beginning of a verse. This Rubric, which does not occur in 
the printed Massorah, is from Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, fol. 155a, 
on Josh. 24 33. As -ij^bKi followed by finrn occurs only twice 
and in both instances begins a verse, the heading ought properly 
to be DB K-n '3 = twice and at the beginning of a verse, but as we 
have seen, the Vav is often omitted in such casea The design of 
this Massorah is to safeguard this exceptional phrase since in 
the other passages where Eleazar with the prefix Faw occurs it 
is simply jrfsn niy^Ki and Eleazar the priest (Numb. 26 3, 63; 31 13, 
26, 31, 51, 54) and not pn^r]^ '^^. '*"<^ Eleazar the son of Aaron. 
Even in the passages where the name is without the prefix Vav 
and where Eleazar is called the son of Aaron, it is always followed 
by the expression priest, viz. pan fvi»n? "^V^^ (Numb. 8 32 ; 4 16 ; 17 2 ; 
26 1). This of course does not apply to the instances where Phinehas 
is the subject of description (Judg. 20 28). 

a'avn =■ § 722. 

^D3 ^^^ a thousand silver-pieces, occurs three times .... on.ee 
in the Pentateuch, once in the Prophets and once in the Hagiographa. 
Of this Rubric I collated four Lists, three in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 69rt, on 2 Sam. 18 12 w&chi have 
printed; (II) Add. 21,160, fol. 8a, on Gen. 20 16; (III) Orient 2349, 
foL 886, and (IV) the printed Massorah, all on the same passage. 



K — K § 723—727. 



— 91 



§ 728-784. 



J'DW = § 723. 

D^riKtt ^wVi a thousand two hundred, occurs sei^en times. That 
is, without the prefix Vav; in all other passages where this 
combination occurs it is D":mw ^b». This Rubric I have found 
only in Harley 5710—11, Vof. II, fol. 287a, on Ezra 2 31. As 
Dan. 18 11 is not included in this List, it is probable that this 
Massorah is based upon a recension which read D^nnai b^^k in 
Daniel. 



f\bvi 



T3crn.= § 724. 



^Kn the thousand, occurs three times [twice] toith Pathach and 
once tcith Kametz. That is, in two instances the Aleph has Pathach, 
L e. Segol (Exod. 38 28; Cant. 8 12) and once it has Kametz 
(1 Sam. 17 18). 

Of this Rubric, which exhibits two recensions, I collated 
ten Lists, nine in MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, 
Vol. I, fol. Gla, on Exod. 38 28 which I have printed; (II) the 
same MS., Vol. I, fol. 150a, on Josh. 18 28; (III) the same MS., 
Vol. II, fol. 268a, on Cant. 8 12; (IV) Orient. 4445, fol. 82a, on 
Exod. 38 28; (V) Arund. Orient. IG, fol. 3506, on Cant. 8 12; 
(VI) Add. 15,251, fol. 134fc, on Josh. 18 28; (VII) Add. 21,160, 
fol. 132a, on Exod. 38 28; (VIII) the same MS., fol. 3016, on 
Cant 8 12; (IX) Orient 2349, fol. 806, on Exod. 38 28 and (X) 
the printed Massorah on the same passage. 

To understand the different recensions of this Massorah it is 
necessary to remark: (1) that t^r\ occurs three times as a numeral, 
(2) that as such it is twice with Segol under the Aleph (B;^Kn) and 
once it is in pause and is, therefore, with Kametz under the Aleph 
(l^) and (3) that it also occurs once as a proper name with 
Segol under the Aleph (b^^kh Josh. 18 28). Hence the different 
Massorahs on this quadriliteral. List I, which I have printed, 
strictly records the three instances in which it denotes the 
numeral and, therefore, notices that as such it is twice with 
Segol and once with Kametz under the Aleph, 's after •: in 
the heading having manifestly dropped out Lists II, III, VI, 
VII, VIII and IX have regard to the vowel-points alone and 
hence head it ejbKn with Segol under the Aleph occurs three times, 
excluding the numeral in pause with Kametz under the Alejth and 
including the proper name, whilst Lists IV, V and X give all 
the four instances. This explains the apparently conflicting 
remarks in the MSS. against each of these passages: (1) 'nc o •: 
•ep •»; (2) -rea '»r •s:zyi '-nna 'k •:; (3) pj^Krt 'ki •: or (4) simply -i as 
it is in the heading of List IV which represents the oldest form 
of this Massorah. 

iT'Drn = § 725. 

Pl^KI and a thousand, occurs four times, twice toith Kametz and 
twice ioith Pathach. That is, in the four instances where the prefix 
Vav has Kametz in contradistinction to the eight passages in 
which this prefix has Sheva,^ the Aleph is twice with Kametz and 
twice with Segol. 

Of this entire Rubric, which does not occur in the printed 
Massorah, I collated two Lists: (I) Orient 2349, fol. Il6i, on 
Numb. 26 51 which I have printed and (II) Arund. Orient 16, 
fol. 373 fc, on Ezra 2 69. The two instances with Kametz are 
given in a separate Rubric in Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, fol. 103?>, 
on Numb. 26 51 and in Add. 15,251, fol. 98a, on the same passage^ 
whilst the two instances with Segol constitute a separate Rubric 
in the printed Massorah on Numb. 3 50. 

> Comp. iSxi Exod. .^ 26; Judg. 20 10; 1 Sam. 1.3 2; 25 2; 2 Sam. 19 18; 
Job 43 1?, 12; Neh. 3 13. 

TDIDD = § 726. 

^T'KT' to a thousand, occurs twice. In the other three instances 
where this numeral has the prefix the Lamed is with Sheva. Of 
this Rubric I collated two Lists: (I) Add. 15^251, fol. 150 a, on 
Judg. 20 10 which I have printed and (II) the printed Massorah 
on Isa. 60 22. 



rp|^K^ 



f'Dtt^n = § 727. 



to a thousand generations, occurs three times. Of 
this Rubric I collated six Lists, four in MSS. and two printed : 
(I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, 1166, on Deut 7 9 which I have 
printed; (II) the same MS., Vol. II, fol. 1406, 1 Chron. 16 15; 
(HI) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 31o6, on Ps. 105 8; (IV) Add. 
21,160, fol. 2686, on Deut 7 9; (V) the printed Massorah on 
the same passage and (VI) the printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, 
§ 526. 



n"3t£>n = § 728. 

D"'|3pKp foi- thousands. In Exod. 34 7 the prefix Lamed has 
Kametz and in Deut 6 10 it has Pathach. This Rubric is from 
Harley 5710-11, Vol. I, fol. 576, oii Exod. 34 7. Though this is 
expressly stated in the Massorah, yet in the text itself the Lamed 
has Kametz in both instances alike in this most carefully written 
Model Codex. 

!3"3t£>n = § 729. 

''BT'K* For this plural construct of b^^k the Sevir or the 
marginal reading is in four instances o-b^k the plural absolute. 
That the Sevir or the reading preserved in the margin is the 
proper reading is evident from the normal use of this phrase.' 
The abnormal construction exhibited in the text is due to the 
primitive orthography which was simply 'shvt. or "b'^k. This, one 
School of textual redactors resolved into ■'B^k and the other 
School into wthvi. 

Of this Rubric I collated two Lists: (I) Add. 15,251, fol. 60a, 
on Exod. 32 28 which I have printed and (II) the printed 
Massorah on the same passage. It is important to notice that 
in the heading of the MS. List as well as in the margin of this 
Codex the alternative readings are described as 'tm, whilst in 
the heading of Jacob b. Chayim's printed Massorah they are 
called jn-ac. These two technical expressions, therefore, are used 
interchangeably. In the margin of Jacob b. Chayim's Massorah 
Parva against Exod. 32 28 they are called d-b^k pn-ac '"•?»» H. On 
Judg. 4 10 the same Massorah simply state* "b'^k "'aoi n, whilst 
on Job 1 3 Jacob b. Chayim has no remark at all. For the 
importance of this class of various readings see my Introduction 
to the Hebreto Bible, p. 187 &c. 

' Comp. b''J« D'B^K ns^rs Josh. 7 S, 4; Judg. 16 27 &c.; B*'!* d'bSk nwy 
Judg. 1 4; 3 29; 4 6, 14; 20 34; fK* C'bSk n?2e' 2 Chron. 30 24. 

b"e^n = § 730. 

yPs^Vi Elpaal, occurs three times and, in the same section. Of 
this Rubric I collated three Lists, two in MSS. and one printed: 
(I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 1356, on 1 Chron. 8 11 which 
I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 243a, on the same 
passage and (III) the printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 523. 

r^rn = § 731. 

npriT'K EUekeh, occurs twice once it has Aleph at the end and 
once He. As this name, which occurs twice only, is differently 
spelled, the Massorah safeguards the variations. It is remarkable 
that in almost the same connection the k and n are used inter- 
changeably. Of this Rubric, which does not occur in the printed 
Massorah, I collated three Lists: (I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 14a, 
on Josh. 19 44 which I have printed; (II) the same MS., fol. 15a, 
on Josh. 21 23 and (III) Add. 15,250, fol. 1286, on the same 



rbvn == § 732. 

T'3K7 Cripl tSK* Mother precedes father three times. The 
normal phrase throughout the Scriptures is father and mother 
whether with or without prefixes and suffixes. The Massorah, 
therefore, safeguards this abnormal order in these three passages. 
Of this Rubric I collated five Lists, three in MSS. and two 
printed: (I) Orient 2349, fol. 54a, on Gen. 44 20 which I have 
printed; (II) Add. 21,160, fol. 52a, on the same passage; (III) 
the same MS., fol. 1676, on Levit 19 3; (IV) the printed Massorah 
on Gen. 44 20 and (V) the same on Levit 19 3. 

yblDD = § 733. 

D^JIS"^'^ DX the mother upon, or roith the children, occurs twice. 
Of this Rubric I collated two Lists: (I) Harley 5710—11, VoL I, 
fol. 2! 6, on Gen. 32 12 which I have printed and (II) the printed 
Massorah on the same passage. 

Ttrn = § 734. 

CrOl$ their mothers, occurs three times .... and once it is with 
the prefix Lamed. This Rubric, which I have found in the printed 
Massorah Finalis only, letter k, § 547 is incorrect. The heading 
ought to be '2 = twice and not •; = three times, since it occurs in the 
two passages only which are duly recorded. The addition at the 
end of the Rubric precludes the alteration of the heading into 
'sr'ra ■:. 



12b 



K — H § 735—7386. 



92 



§ 739—742. K — K 



.T^t^n = § 735. 

DK if, begins a veise seventeen times in the hook of Exodus .... 
and throughout Genesis it is also without the prefix Vav except in 
three instances. This conjunctive begins a verse in Exodus thirty 
times. In seventeen instances according to this Rubric it is without 
the prefix Vav and is with it in thirteen instances.* Contrary to 
its usual practice the Massorah records here the majority. 

Of this Rubric I collated three Lists, two in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Orient 2348, fol. 19b, on Exod. 21 10 which I have 
printed; (11) Orient. 2340, fol. f.96, on the same passage and 
(III) the printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 535. Ail the three 
Lists distinctly state that there are seventeen such instances and 
all the three Lists omit Exod. 21 4. The MSS., tli^refore, from 
which this Rubric was made read rpn dki (Exod. 21 4) with the 
prefix Vnv.^ List III has not the addition at the end n'WKia "rsi 
raa 'nr. 

' Comp. CKl Exod. 7 27; 12 4; 20 22; 21 5, 9, 11, 28, 27, 29; 22 11; 
29 34; 40 37. As Exod. 21 4 is oniittod from the List of verses which begin 
witli DK in the iexfu» re.ceptv» tins instance according to this Rubric lias to be 
added to the verses wliich begin with cki. 

2 Accordingly there are thirteen instances in Exod. wliorc dki begins a 
verse, viz. 7 27; 12 4; 20 22; 21 4, 5, 9, 11, 23, 27, 29; 23 11; 29 34; 40 37. 

rbvn = § 73G. 

DK* Throvghont the, hook of Leviticus dki begins a verse except in 
seven instances wliere it is nt?. In Leviticus where this conjunctive 
begins a verse no fewer than seventy-four times, it is with the 
prefix Vav in sixtj'-seven instances* and in seven only is it 
without the prefix. Hence the Massorah safeguards the ex- 
ceptions. 

Of this Rubric I collated seven Lists, six in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Orient. 2349, fol. 99o, on Lovit. 27 17 which I have 
printed; (II) Orient. 4445, fol. Hfio, on Levit. :i 7; (III) Add. 15,251, 
fol. 65fc, on Levit. 1 3; (IV) the same MS., fol. 80 rj, on Levit. 2f» 3; 
(V) Add. 21,160, fol. 13^n, on Levit. 3 7; (VI) tlie same MS., 
fol. 179fc, on Levit. 26 3 and (VII) the piintcd Massorah on 
Levit. 3 7. At the end of List IV is the addition "mri nTXis bz: 
'i ja na Dx 'ICE 'K"> which is to bo found at the end of Lists II and 
III of the preceding Rubric. 



into one List I have found only in Orient. 2349, fol. 89rt, on 
Levit 13 26. It will be seen that the heading states that there are 
seventeen instances in these three books where dk begins a verse 
and that sixteen only are giyen. The conflict between the state- 
ment in the heading and the contents of the Rubric is due to 
the fact that the instances in Numbers are here based upon the 
recension which recognises five only in this book (vide supra 
§ 737), whilst the heading is according to the recension which 
has six such passages. 

B'^W = § 739. 

DK begins a verse six tim.es in the hook of Samuel. In Samuel 
where this conjunctive begins a verse thirteen times it is with 
the prefix Vav in seven instances' and in six without it Hence 
the Massorah records the minorit3^ 

Of tliis Rubric I collated five Lists, four in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. SGa, on 1 Sam. 2 25 which 
I have printed; (II) the same MS., fol. 42a, on 1 Sam. 12 14; 
(III) the same MS., fol. 43«, on 1 Sam. 14 fl; (IV) the same 
MS., fol. 4 6 a, on 1 Sam. 17 9 and (V) the printed Massorah on 
1 Sam. 12 14. 



1 Comp. 



I Sam. 12 15, 25; 14 10; 20 22; 2 Sam. 15 2G, 34; 17 K). 



4 1.3, 27, 32; S 7, 

, 37, 41, r.3, r>C,, 57; 
>'>, r.4; 2(; 14, 15, IK, 



' Comp. axi Levit. 1 10, 14; 2 5, 7, 14; 3 1, G, 12; 
11, 17; 7 10, 1.S; 12 5, H; 13 4, 7, 12, 21, 22, 2:^, 2(i, 28, ;5i 
14 21, 4.1, 4«; n 3.'J, 24, 2K; 17 10; 19 7; 20 4; 2.'. 28, .W, 
21, 23, 27; 27 4, 5, C, 7, H, 9, 11, l.*?, 15, IG, l,s, 19, 20, 22, 27, .".I. 

r-^trn = § 737. 

D^( begins n verse six times in thfi hook of Numbers. In Numbers 
where this conjunctive begins a verse thirty-one times it is with 
the prefix Vav in twenty-five instances* and in six only is it 
witliout tlie prefix. Hence tlie Massorah safeguard.s tlio ininority. 

Of this Rubric I 'collated four Lists, tliroo in MSS. and 
one printed: (I) Harley 5710-11, Vol. I, fol. 1(>7^ on Numb. 32 11 
which I have printed; (II) Add. I5,ir)i, fol. \()\h, on the same 
passage; (III) Add. 21,160, fol. 220a, on Numb. U 8 and (IV) 
the printed Massorali on the same passage. Both Lists III and 
IV distinctly state in the heading that there are five instances 
only in Numb, wliere dk begins a verse and botli record five, 
duly omitting Numb. 32 11. The Massorites, therefore, who 
compiled this Rubric must have worked on recensions of the 
text which read ^ in Numb. 32 21. 

' Comp. OKI Numb. B 8, 2«; 10 4; 11 16; ir» 27; 1« 30; 27 9, lo, 11 
SO 6, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 10; .12 23, .W; 33 55; :W 10, 17, 20, 22, 20; .'Mi 4. 

n'bwn = § 738^/. 

DS begins a vei'se four tim^.s in the bonk of I)euteroiiomji. In 
Deuteronomy where this conjunctive begins a vei-so tw(dvc times 
it is witli the prefix Vav in eiglit instances' and without it in 
four only. Tlie Massorah, tlierefore, records the minority. Of 
this Rubric I collated twf) Lists: (I) Orient 234 9, fol. ]39f>, on i 
Deut 28 58 which I have printed and (II) the printed Massorah ! 
on Deut. 1 35. 

1 Comp. OX) Deut. 19 8; 20 12; 22 2, 20, 25; 24 12; 25 7; :iO 17. ' 

n'biffn = § 7386. 

QK« Throughout LevHicus, Nnmhers and Drvt^'ronomg oK* hcgiux 
a verse except in serenteev [sixteen] insfaiires wliere it is ps. This , 
Massornh which simply combines Rubrics 730, 737 and 738a I 



0"m = § 740. 

DK begins a verse eight times in the book of Jeremiah. In 
Jeremiah where this conjunctive begins a verse twenty times 
it is with the prefix Vav in twelve instances' and eight only 
without it The Massorah, therefore, catalogues the minority. 

Of this Rubric I collated seven Lists, six in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 156a, on Jerem. 14 18 which 
I have printed; (II) the same MS., fol. 167/>, on Jerem. 31 36; 
(III) Vienna Codex No. 35 on Jerem. 14 18; (IV) the same Codex 
on Jerem. 42 6; (V) the printed Massorah on the same passage; 
(VI) the combined List of Samuel and Jeremiah in Arund. 
Orient 16, fol. ]49fc, on Jerem. 4 1 and (VII) in the St Peters- 
burg Codex of A. D. 916, on Jerem. 4 1. 

1 Comp. cvtl Jorcm. 5 2; 12 17; 13 17; 17 27; 22 5; 23 22, 38; 27 18; 
38 18, 21; 42 13; 48 27. 

N"'Ot?n = § 741. 

DJ^I 'DS* For the combined List recording the instances in 
which n»< and OKI respectively begin a verse throughout the 
Bible see below, § 746. 

3"3t£>n = § 742. 
DS* Five revues are alike misleading, the conjunctive dk being 
absent in them. That is, according t/> the recension on which this 
Rubric is based the text in these five instances is without this 
conjunctive, though according to other recensions it is given as 
a 8fvir or altei*native marginal reading or as the textual 
reading. 

Of tins Rubric I collated five Lists, four in MSS. and one 
l)rinted: (I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 70a, on 2 Sam. 11> s which I 
have i)rintod; (II) the samo MS., fol. l60/>, on Jerem. 22 10; 
(III) Add. -21,160, fol. l2/^ on Gen. 24 4; (IV) Vienna Codex 
No. ;]5, on Jerem. 22 12 and (V) the printed Massorah on 
Cxen. 24 4. 

As the treatment of this Rubric and its contents both in 
the Massorah and in the text of the MSS. j'ield the clue to the 
import of the terms prt:?: and ]—.'zc I shall here give the different 
headings of this Rubric from the Massorahs, Magna and Parva 
and then t^how how the several passiigos which constitute this 
Rubric are indicated in the margin as well as in the text itself. 
The headings of List's I, II, III and V state two things with 
regard to these five verses (l) that they are misleading (j"j't:i2) 
and (-2) that they have not the conjunctive CK, whilst the 
heading 01 List IV simply says that they have not the 
recjuired ck.^ 

The several ])assages which constitute this Rubric are 
treated as follows: 

Gen. V4 4. — The Samaritan recension has CK in the toxl, 
whilst Add. l!t,776, which omits it has in the margin against 
the passage that it is one of the instances where the Sfvir is 
CK and is misleading ("rcia" ck '"ac t,). 

1 Sam.. JS 25. — Here the Eastern recension reads cK and 
this reading constitutes one of the differences between the 
Easterns and Westerns. 



K X § 743— 746 a. 

2 Sam. 19 8. — The Model Codex Harley 5710— ii, has dk 
in the text, but omits 's, whilst Cambridge Add. 4fi5 which omits 
QM states in the margin that this is on the authority of the 
Codex Mugah (ok K^a naa). 

Jerern. 22 12. — The St. Petersburg Codex of A. D. 91« has 
ox in the text which the Nakdan struck out and remarked against 
it that this combination is unique and that it is one of the four 
instances where dk is absent (dk 'Dm '^). But dk here is also the 
reading in the editio p-inceps of the Prophets, Soncino 1485—86; 
the first edition of the Bible, Soncino 1488; the third edition, 
Brescia 1494, and is exhibited in the margin in the first edition 
of the Rabbinic Bible by Felix Pratensis, Venice 1517. It is to 
be remarked that in Arund. Orient. 16, and in Jacob b. Chayim's 
Massorah Parva it is remarked against this passage that it is 
one of the four or five passages which are misleading (reo 'idb -i 
and Tf<„-iz 'TBO "piDfi -n). 

2 Chron. 6 9. — oK is here the textual reading both in 
Orient 4227 and in several MSS. of de Rossi; and this reading 
is confirmed by the parallel passage in 1 Kings 8 1ft. The 
Massorah Parva, however, in Jacob b. Chayim's edition states 
that it is one of the five passages which are misleading and 
that they are without dk.* 

From this analysis we see: (1) that this conjunctive was 
originally in the text of certain redactors; (2) that other textual 
critics relegated it into the margin because the Standard Codices 
which they followed had it not and they, therefore, gave it as an 
alternative marginal reading or Sevir and (3) that later Nakdanim 
rejected this Sevir, condemning it as ■misleading and not only dropped 
the extra-official term pn^ao, but in many instances substituted 
for it simply the condemnatory expression prcia misleading.'^ 

ZH pnn rr'r pna '«yB» 'iob 'n i 
'•' Comp. iny Introduction to the Hebrew Bible Part I, chap VIII 
p. 187 &c. 

y!i^r\ = § 743. 

'?P ^ '^"^ '^ ^^* ^" ^*^''^ passages the textual I'eading is 
BK which is officially cancelled in the margin .... TJiey are of the 
eight words which are written in the text, but are directed in the 
margin to he omitted. This Rubric I have found only in the printed 
Massorah on Ruth 3 12. For the full List see letter d, 8 486 
Vol. II. p. 54. 



93 



§ 7466— 748a— c. K 



T'a»n = § 744. 

DK is in two instances taJcen in the Targnm to denote when. That 
is, in these two passages the so-called Onkelos Targum renders 
this conjunctive as if it were -lertt?. I have mislaid the reference 
to the MS. from which this Rubric is taken. 



n'otrn = § 745. 

DS QK^ Twelve verses in the Scriptures respectively begin with 
OK and also have it in the middle of the verse. That is, this conjunctive 
is repeated without the prefix Vav. Of this Rubric I collated 
seven Lists, four in MSS. and three printed: (I) Harley 5710 — 11, 
Vol. II, fol. 65a, on Jerem. 49 it which I have printed; (II) the 
same MS., Vol. I, fol. 486, on Exod. 22 2; (III) Orient. 4445, 
fol. fi3a, on the same passage; (IV) Orient. 2349, fol. 70o, also 
on the same passage; (V) the printed Massorah also on the 
same passage; (IV) the same on Ps. 27 8 and (VII) the same 
on Job 6 12. The catchwords ^b iK= D^-isca dk to which I have 
affixed Obad 5 is a mistake for the parallel passage Jerem. 49 9. 
The safeguarding of these verses is due to the variations which 
obtained in the different Codices, as will be seen from the notes 
in my edition of the Bible on Exod. 22 2, 7 «fcc. 

rOK>n = § 746 a. 

DK Q^* Eighteen verses have respectively tivice DK in the middle 
of the verse. That is, apart from the Pentateuch and Jeremiah 
where the same phenomenon occurs no less than twelve times. * 
It will be seen that 2 Sam. 15 21, in which ok occurs three times 
according to the textual reading (tho), is included in this 
Massorah. This is due to the fact that the official np cancels 
one of the three conjunctives in this verse. (Vide supra, § 743.) 
This separate Rubric I have found in Arund. Orient. 16 only, 
fol. 92a, on 1 Kings 17 12. The reason for safeguarding these 
instances is to be found in 2 Sam. 19 86; Isa. 1 18 &c. as will 
be seen in the notes on these passages in my edition of the Bible. 

1 Comp. Gon. 42 16; 47 18; Exod. 19 13; Numb. IS 19, 20; 32 20; Deut 
18 8; Jerem. 6 1; 7 5; 15 M; 49 20; so 46. 



ram = § 7466. 

DK1 DK 'DK DK* Tiiroughout the Pentateuch and Jeremiah where 
this conjunctive occurs twice in the middle of a verse it is without the 
prefix Vav except in ten instances. 

To indicate the instances in which ok occurs twice in the 
middle of the same verse, the Massorah divides the Scriptures 
into two sections in accordance with the predominance of the 
respective verses in which the second dk is without or with the 
prefix Vav. In the Pentateuch and Jeremiah where there are 
altogether twenty-two such verses with the duplicate conjunctive, 
the second dk is without the Vav in twelve instances (vide supa, 
§ 740 note) and in ten with it. Hence the Massorah records the 
minority. 

And throughmd all the rest of the Scriptures where this conjunc 
live occurs twice in the middle of a verse the second OK i^ likewise 
lotthout the prefix Vav except in eighteen instances tohere it is dki. 

In this second division, where there are altogether no fewer' 
than fifty-five such verses with the duplicate conjunctive, the 
second dk is witli the prefix Vav (oki) in thirty-seven instances' 
and without it in eighteen only. The Massorah, therefore, 
catalogues the exceptions. 

Of this Rubric I collated five Lists, three in MSS. and two 
printed: (I) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, §§ 90, 91 which I have 
printed; (II) Add. 21,160, fol. 238a, on Hab. 3 8 in which the 
second part of this Rubric is given first; (III) Orient. 4445, 
fol. 122a, on Numb. 5 19 which simply gives the first part of 
the Rubric; (IV) the printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 530 
and (V) Paris Ochlah Ve-Ochlah § 346. 

» Comp. Josh. 22 10; Judg. 4 8; 9 15; 13 IC; 1 Sam. « 0; 24 21; 26 19- 
30 15; 2 Sam. 10 11; 18 3; 20 12; 1 Kings 1 52; IS 21; 20 18; 2 Kings 2 10,' 
3 14; Isa. f,2 8; Ezek. 2 6. 7; 3 11; 14 16; ^ech. 3 7; 11 12; Cant. 2 7; 3 6- 
Ruth 3 10, n; 4 4; Eccl. .1 11; 12 14; Estn«r 7 3; S 5; Neh. 2 5; IS 26- 
1 Chron. 12 18; 1ft 12; 28 9. ' 



?"Orn = § 747. 



DK DK DK* Tliis conjunctive which begins averse in two instances 
is foUmced twice by the same conjunctive in the middle of the verse 
in a unique manner .... And in three verses which begin with this 
conjunctive with the p,-efix Vav it is repeated in the middle of the 
verse without the pi-efia:. That is, qk in these instances is exceptionally 
without the Vav. This Rubric is from Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 334a, 
on Job 37 13. In other MSS. and in the printed Massorah this 
Massorah is divided into two distinct Rubrics. Thus the first part 
is given as a separate Rubric in the printed Massorah on Obad. 5 ; 
Job 37 13 and in Paris Ochlah Ve-Ochlah, § 345, whilst the 
second part is given in Add. 2i,i60, fol. 1826, on Levit. 27 7, 
the Printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 533, and Paris Ochlah 
Ve-Ochlah, § 343. In the printed Massorah by Jacob b. Chayim 
the heading oki dki -idb 'j is a mistake for dk oki 'idb a 

n-awn = § 7 48 a^c. 

DK] DK* Woi'd;s which respectively occur tuyice, once preceded by 
DK and once by oKi. The three Lists, marked §§ 748a— c, again 
illustrate the gradual development of the Massoretic Rubrics. 
Though the first List, which is from Add. 1.5,451, fol. 886, on 
Levit. 2() 27, catalogues twelve such pairs the original Massorites 
affixed as yet no heading, specifying the number of these 
instances, because they did not regard it as final and because 
they left it open for other Massorites to complete it in the 
course of time. The Massorites who compiled the second List, 
which is from Orient. 2349, fol. 906, on Levit. 14 48, were less 
successful since they record five pairs only, but in accordance 
with the later practice they supplied these pairs with catchwords. 
The editors, however, of the ihird List which is from Jacob 
b. Chayim's printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 541, mistook 
the Rubric as final. Following the example indicated in the 
Massorah Parva of some MSS., they supplied it with the heading 
stating that there are twelve such pairs only, whereas there are 
no fewer than seventeen.' The carelessness, moreover, with which 
later Nakdanim handled these Massorahs is to be seen from the 
fact that though in the heading it is distinctly stated in Jacob 
b. Chayim's printed List that there are twelve such pairs only, 
the List itself records thirteen pairs. Some ignorant editor added 
the fifth pair, consisting of e>'-dk which occurs no fewer than 

> Comp. 'niBPia-DM Xevit. 2fi 3, 'njana-OKi Levit. 2fi 16; fi's-OK Gen. 28 17, 
rra-DK) Numb. 30 11; ts'nnn-cN Esther 4 14, Bhnn-oKi Numb. 30 15; »A'-OK 
Jerem. .18 17, »r-CKi Numb. .35 rC; npri-oi* Prov. 2 1, npn-DW Gen. SI 50.' 



K 



94 



§ 751—767. K — K 



eleven times' and tpro^l which occurs three times. {Vide infra, 
letter x, § 7G.5.) 

The great importance of this Rubric is due to the fact 
tlyit it is based upon Codices which read jib aitt>; dk in Jerem. 8 4 
in accordance with the official Ka-i exhibited in the St Peters- 
,burg Codex of A. D. 016. This is attested by Lists I and IH 
whicli state that aitf' dk occurs once only, whereas in the Kethw 
or in the received text it occurs twice, viz. 2 Kings 20 9 and 
Jerem. 8 4. Now the Massoretic Rubrics, as is generally the case, 
follow the Keri. This leaves 2 Kings 20 !» with the unique com- 
bination which this Massorah requires. The misleading catchword 
in Jacob b. Chayim's List gives the reference to Jerem. 8 4 
whereas in the original List there is no catchword. By this 
official reading we obtain the following beautiful sense m 
Jerem. 8 4. 

Shall they [i. o. Israel] fall and not arisoV 

Shall they return [i. c. to God] and he not return [i. c. to theml» 

This not only agrees with the context, but is in harmony 
with Mai 3 7. The reference 2 Chron. 20 against nra») the second 
member of the third pair in § 748a is a mistake for 2 Kings and 
belongs to air^-DX in the next line. 

- Conip. Gen. 2S 8; 44 2f.; 1 Kings 17 12; 2 Kings 9 16; Jerem 5 1; 
I's. 7 4; Prov. 2.^ J8; Job C r.;..W 23, :«; Lament 1 12. 



B'Otrn = § 749. 

f^TDK if not, occurs -four times in this combination in the 
ScriJnves. Both in the other five instances where pK is preceded 
by this conjunctive and in tlie six instances where this adverb 
is in the construct and is in combination with this conjunctive 
it has the prefix Vnv.^ 

Of this Rubric I collated seven Lists, five m MSS. and two 
printed: (I) Harley .'>710-ll. Vol. I, fol. 208fc, on 2 Sam. 17 6 
Ihich I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient 10, fol. «8«, on the 
same passage; (III) the same MS., fol. 3326, on Job U 33 (IV) 
AdT 15 451: fol 2Ua, on 2 Sam. 17 0; (V) Add. 21,1G0, fol. 93«. 
on Exod. 17 7; (VI) the printed Massorah on the same passage 
and (VII) the same on Job 33 33. . 

. Comp PK-=K, Gen. .W 1; Exod. »2 32; Judg. 9 1.% 20; 2 Kings 2 10; 
rK-=- Numb 5 8; 27 9. 10. 11 ; 1 Sam. 11 3; Isa. BO 2. (Vi^^ infra, letter k, § 764.) 



rvn = § 750. 
S^TDS if ""N &«i/"'» ^ ^■'^•"^ ^^^* *^'"'''' • • • • '""^ '" ■^'^' '*' '' 

likmcise so at' the beginning of a verse M the excepfion of t.oo 
instances where it has the j»'efix Vav. ,, . , • 

Outside th- b<K.k of Job this combination occurs thirty-six 
times at the beginning of a verse. In twenty-eight instances it 
is with the prefix Vnr^ and in eight only is it -!«^«"t^\f ^1; 
therefore, Kb-DKi is the rule and k^dk the exception. Hence the 
Massorah safeguards the exceptions. 

In Job, however, the reverse is the case. In this book, 
where the phrase begins a verse eight times, k^-dk without the 
prefix Vav is the rule, since it is so in six passages- and k^ck^ 
Ihich occurs twice only is the exception. Here, therefore, the 
Massorah safeguards the instances with the prefix la.. 

Of this Rubric I collated fourteen Lists, eleven m MSS. and 
three printed: (I) Harley 5710^1 1, Vol.1, fol 245.. on 2 Kn^-J2« 
which I have printed; (II) Orient. 4445 fol. '^^ '; <>» Exod^22 7 
(HI) Add. 15.451. fol. 1306, on Deut 2S 58; (V) Add. 21 IGO. 
fol 14«, on Gen. 24 38; (V) the same MS., fol. 10(»6, on Exod 2> 7; 
(VI) Arund. Orient lO, fol. 10l6. on 2 Kings « 20; (VII) the 
same MS., fol. 2226, on Mai. 2 2; (VIH) the «^'»« MS^^'Z-^f ;! ;; 
on P. 7 13- (IX) the same MS., fol. 3176, on Ps. 131 2; (X) the 
^anicMS fol. 34s6, on Cant. 1 s; (XI) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, 
'55* MO- (XII) the printed Massorah <m Cxon. 24 3H; (XIII) the 
^amo'on Mai. 2 2 and (XIV) the same .m Cant. 1 8. 

Lists VIII IX, XI and XII head this Rubric npn 'db -Kn b= 
n r- KH CK- which is more precise since this Massorah contrasts 
the exceptional occurrence of kS-dk with the normal ^h-a^, Lists HI, 
VIII and X omit the second part of this Rubric which makes it 
unintelligible. 

1 Comp. .*7-DKiGon.24 8; 34 17; Exod. 40 .37; I^vit 5 7. 11; 12 8; H !<■; 
25 2H. 30, 51; 2« U; 27 20; Numb 5 2S; 32 23, 30; 33 ..; Deut 20 12; ^ 2; 
25 7; .losh. 22 24; Judg. 14 13; 1 Sam. 12 1.1; Jorcm. 12 17: 13 1 . ; 17 2. ; - ^, 
3H 18; 4.S 27. 

^ Comp. »*':"« Job 17 2; 22 20; 30 2 ; 31 20. 31, :50. 



WWn = § 751. 
itrOA if not, occurs seven times at the end of a verse. This 
is the contrast to the preceding Massorah. Of this Rubric L 
collated ten Lists, nine in MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 
5710-11, Vol. I, fol. 157a, on Judg. 2 22 which Ihave printed; 
(II) Add. 15,251, foL 24a, on Gen. 24 21 ; (III) Add. 15,451, fol. 486, 
on Exod. 16 4; (IV) the same MS., fol. 1256, on Deut 8 2; (V) 
Add 21,160, fol. 206, on Gen. 27 21; (VI) the same MS., foL 90a, 
on Exod. 16 4; (VII) the same MS., fol. 2696, on Deut 8 2; 
(VIII) Orient 2349, fol. 406, on Gen. 24 2I; (IX) Vienna Codex 
No. 35 on Judg. 2 22 and (X) the printed Massorah on Gen. 24 21. 
Lists II and VI give this Rubric as a contrasting part of 
Rubric 750. 

yyvr\ = § 752. 

rrntSS »/ or when he washes, occurs twice. This Rubric, 
which does not occur in the printed Massorah, is from Orient 2349, 
fol. 95o, on Levit 22 6. 

y:wn = § 753. 

31t2^"DK if tie return, occurs twice .... and once it is witlfthe 
jTrefx Vav. This Rubric, which does not occur in the printed 
Massorah, is from Arund. Orient IG, fol. 114a, on 2 Kings 20 9. 
It will be seen that this Massorah emanates from a School .of 
Massorites in which the reading 3i«?; was preserved in their 
Codices in Jerem. 8 4 without the Keri. {Vide supra, § 748.) 

rwn - § 754. 

rttSTDS llttTD^ whether ox or sheep, occurs twice in this 
comhinJion. This Rubric, which does not occur in the printed 
Massorah, is from OrienJ. 2349, fol. 1336, on Deut 18 3. 

.T3»n = § 755. 

DXn occurs twice in the Scriptures. That is, the conjunctive 
with the'interrogative He. Of this Rubric I collated three Lists, 
two in MSS. and one printed: (I) Add. 15.250, fol. 84a; (II) 
Add. 21,160, fol. 2186, and (III) the printed Massorah, all on 
Numb. 17 28. This Rubric is part of the alphabetical List of 
words which respectively occur twice beginning with He with 
Pathach or Chateph-Pathach.^ 

' Comp. The Ma»,orah, letter n, § 19, Vol. I. p. 261 &c. 

rwr\ = § 756. 

DK1 and if, begins a verse six times [in Job]. In Job, where 
this conjunctive begins a verse sixty-seven times, it is in sixty- 
one instances without the prefix Vav^ and in six only with it 
Hence the Massorah safeguards the exceptions, -t in the heading 
is a misprint for -v Of this separate Rubric I collated two 
Lists: (I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 335a, on Job 40 9 which I have 
printed and (II) the printed Massorah on Job 36 8. 

1 Comp. OK Job e 12; 7 4; H 4. 5. G. 18; 9 :^, 16, 19, 20, 2.S 27 30; 
10 14 15- 11 10, 1.3. 14; 14 6. 8. 14; lU 6; 17 2, 13; 19 5; 20 6. 12; 22 20, 23; 
?>; i*'lJ, 14 !«; 30 25;' 31 ..,' 7.' 9, 1 :^ 16, 10. 20. 21. 24. 25. 26. 29. 31. 33. 3C. 
.38, 39; 33 5. 2.3, .32, 33; 34 14; 35 6, 7; 3« 11; 37 13; 39 2.. 



DK 'DSV This Massorah not only connects into one chain 
the several Rubrics which catalogue the instances where this 
conjunctive with and without the prefix Tar begins a verse in 
some of the books, but indicates the preponderance of tar and 
DK respectively in all the books of the Scriptures. This con- 
junctive begins a verse about three hundred and thirty-five 
times. In some books the form with the prefix Vav preponderates, 
whilst in others the simple conjunctive without the Vav prevails. 
A reference to the notes in my edition of the Bible discloses the 
fact that the Codices which were preserved by the different 
textual redactors exhibited considerable variations. Hence the 
Massorrtes in the compilation of this Rubric not only record the 
readings which obtained in their Standard Codices, but exclude 
by implication the readings in the Codices of other Schools. 
According to the seven links which constitute this Massoretic 
concatenation, the use of this conjunctive with and without the 
prefix Vav ip the several books is as follows: 

(A) Thronghmit Genesis and t}cod. chaps. 21 and 22 ths con- 
jnnctrve without the prefix VaV begins a verse except in ten instances 
I ichere it is with it. 



K - K § 757. 



— 95 



§ 758—763. 8 — K 



Genem ISO; Exod. chaps. 21 and 22. — In Gen. and in | 
the two chapters of Exodus technically called (pp"") on Damoges, 
where this particle occurs altogether thirty-four times at the 
beginning of a verse, it is in twenty-four instances without the 
prefix F«r' and* in ten only with it. Hence the Massorah 
safeguards the minority. The reason why chapters 21 and 22 
are separated from the rest of Exodus is that in these two 
chapters alone this particle begins a verse no fewer than 
twenty-four times. Here ok occurs seventeen times in this 
distinguished position and bki seven times only. Hence this 
portion is Massoreticnlly combined with Genesis for safeguarding 
the minority. 

(B) And in all the rest of the Pentateuch, too, this paHiele with 
the -prefix Vav begins a veise except in eighteen instances where it 
Itegins a Verse without the Vav. 

Exod. without chaps. 21, 22, Levit., Nnnib. and Deut. — In these 
four books apart from Exod. 21 and 22 where this particle 
begins a verse one hundred and twelve times, it is cMjti in ninety- 
four* instances and BM in eighteen only. The Massorah, therefore, 
safeguards the exceptional passages. It will be seen that though 
the heading here distinctly states that there are eighteen instandes, 
this part of the Rubric enumerates seventeen only. Numb. 32 1 1 
is omitted. This is manifestly due to a clerical error caused by 
the same catchword im- which preceded it. The omission is 
supplied in Jacob b. Chayim's List. 

(C) Throughout Joshua and Judges this particle with ike prefix 
Vav altcays begins a verse and there is no instance of its beginning 
a verse without this prefix. 

Joshua and Judges. — In these two books, -where this con- 
junctive begins a verse seven times, it is always Dir.' 

(D) Thr(mghoitt Esther and Proverbs the reverse is the case, this 
particle without the prefix Vav altoays begins a verse and there is no 
instance of its beginning a verse with this prefix. 

Esther, and Proverbs. — In these two books, where this 
paiticle begins a verse thirteen times, it is in every instance 
without the prefix Vav.* 

(E) In Kings, Isaiah, Ezekiel, Psalms and Ecelesiokes dk ahoays 
begins a verse except in five instances where it is OKI. 

In these five books, where this particle begins a verse 
thirty-nine times it is in thirty-four instances without the prefix 
Vav^ and in five only is it with the Vav. Hence the Massorah protects 
the minority. Owing to the artificial way in which these links 
are joined together the hea,ding here is misleading, since it 
implies that ox always begins a verse in Ezekiel, whereas it never 
occurs at the beginning of a verse in this book. 

(F) Throughout iSamuel and Jeremiah this particle with the prefix 
Vav likewise begins a verse except in fourteen instances where it is 
without this prefix. (Vide supra, letter k, §§ 39, 40.) 

(G) In all the rest of the Scriptures, too, this conjunctive without 
the prefix Vav begins a vei'se except in eleven instances where it is 
with this prefix. 

The rest of the Scriptures here grouped together are the 
Minor Prophets, the Five Megilloth with the exception of 
Ecclesiastes and Esther, Chronicles and Job. In these books this 
particle begins a verse altogether eighty-five times. As it is 
without the prefix Vav in seventy-three instances" and with it in 
twelve instances only, the Massorah safeguards the exceptions. 
It will be seen that Obad. 4 which makes up the twelve passages 
is here omitted, since eleven only are given. 

Of this Rubric I collated two Lists: (I) Halle Ochlah Ve- 
Ochlah n, § 90, which I have printed and (H) the printed 
Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 528. 



« Comp. CK Gen. 14 23; 24 38; 26 29; 31 8, 60; 42 19; 4S 4; Exod. 21 8, 
4, 8, 10, 19, 30, 32; 22 1, 2, 3, 7, 12, U, 1G, 22, 24, 26. 

» Comp. ow Exod. 7 27; 12 4; 20 22; 29 .34; 40 37; Lcvit. 1 10, 14; 
2 6, 7, 14; 3 1, 6, 12; 4 13, 27, 3^; 5 7, 11, 17; 7 16, 18; 12 5, 8; IS 7, 12, 21, 
22, 2.3, 2fi, 28, 36, 37, 41, 63, 66, 67; 14 21, 48, 48; 15 23, 24, 28; 17 16; 19 7; 
20 4; 26 28, SO, 62, 54; 26 14, 16, 18, 21, 23, 27; 27 4, 6, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 13, 16, 
16, 18, 19, 20, 22, 27, 31; Numb. 5 8, 28; 10 4; 11 16; 15 27; 16 30; 27 9, 10, 
11; SO 6, 7, 9, II, 13, 15, 16; S2 23, 30; 35 55; $3 16, 17, 20, 22, 26; S6 4; 
Dent 19 8; 20 12; 22 2, 20, 25; 24 12; 35 7; .10 17. 

» Comp. ran Josh. 2 20; 22 24; 24 16; Judg. 7 10; 9 19, 20; 14 IS. 

* Comp. ra« Prov. 1 11; 2 4; 8 24, 34; 6 28; 9 12; 32 27; 35 21; 37 22; 
SO S2; Esther 1 19; S 9; 5 8. 

> Comp. DM 1 Kings 1 27; 9 6; 2 Kings 7 4; 9 26; Isa 1 19; 4 4; 58 13; 
Ps. 7 6, 13; 27 3; 44 21; 50 12; 6S 7; 68 14; 7S 15; 78 M; 89 31, .32; 94 18; 
ISO S; ISl 2; 1S2 3, 4, 12; 137 6; 138 7; 139 8, 19; Ecel. 5 7; 6 :<; 10 4, 10, 
11; 11 3. 

« For the sixty-one instances in wliicli SK begins a verse in Job 
see M, § 766, note. The other twelve instances arc Hos. 4 16; 13 12; Amos. 

5 6; 9 2; Obad. 4, 6; Mai. 2 2; Cant. 11; 8 9; 1 Chron 21 12; 2 Cliron. 

6 22; 20 9. 



n'3rn = § 758. 

DK1 and if, has twice the accent Zarka and in the same section. 
Of this Rubric I collated two Lists: (I) Add. 21,160, fol. 157a, 
on Levit 13 56 which I have printed and (II) the printed 
Massorah on the same passage. 

c'le^n = § 759. 

DK1» Throughout, this Section this conjunctive, with and without the 
prefix Vav, is ahoays with Makeph except in this instance. That is, in 
Fericope o'tsBWs [= Exod. 21 1 — ^24 18] this particle is once only 
with the accent and the mnemonic sign thereof is that in 
combination with iitf ox it has these horns, viz. is with Pazer 
which is indicated by the phrase in the said Psalm. This Rubric 
is from the printed Massorah on Exod. 21 29. 

D'm = § 760. 
DK DKI* For this Rubric see k, § 747. 

rorn = § 761. 

DK1 'DJ|{1* Eight verses in which this conjunctive with the prefix 
Vav occurs twice. Of this Rubric I collated twelve Lists, ten in 
MSS. and two printed: (I) Harley 5710-11, Vol.1, fol. 153ct, on 
Josh. 22 23 which I have printed; (11) the same MS., Vol. I, fol. 81 7>, 
on Levit 27 20; (III) the same MS., VoL II, fol. 1266, on Mai. 1 6; 
(IV) the same MS., Vol. II, fol. 157 a, on 2 Chron. 16 2; (V) 
Arund. Orient 16, fol. 16a, on Josh. 22 23; (VI) the same MS., 
fol. 164&, on Jerem. 27 18; (VII) the same MS., fol. 266 a, on 
2 Chron. 16 2; (VHI) Add. 15,451, foL 88a, on Levit 27 20; 
(IX) Add. 21,160, fol. 1806, on Levit 26 15; (X) Halle Ochlah 
Ve-Ochlah II, § 92; (XI) Paris Ochlah Ve-Ochlah, § 344, and 
(Xn) the printed Massorah on Levit 27 20. 

The heading in Jacob \^ ChayiJi's printed Massorah 
(List XII) niTsai bt-i dki dki pro nit o-pioe 'n = eight verses in which 
one occurs both at the beginning, and middle of the verse is incorrect, 
since in Josh. 22 23 and Mai. 1 6 this conjunctive does not 
begin the verse. Moreover, the catchwords wbo"" iscmn bki = 

1 Chron. 28 9 are a mistake and ought to be KJtO' rnmn D»r = 

2 Chron. 15 2 as all the MS. Lists have it 

Torn - § 762. 

DK1* Seventeen woi'ds respectively occur once only preceded by 
this conjunctive xoith the prefix Vav. In all other instances where 
these words are combined with this conjunctive it is without the 
prefix Vav. The design of this Massorah is not only to catalogue 
the words which are unique in this combination, but which occur 
again more than once combined with ok. In this respect, therefore, 
the import of this Rubric differs from that of § 750, which 
registers the pairs of words once combined with oki and once 
with OK. 

This Rubric is from the printed Massorah on Esther 8 5. 
I have since found three other Lists, in the ancient Codex 
Orient 4445: (I) fol. 63a, on Exod. 21 29; (II) fol. 101 a, on 
Levit 15 28 and (III) fol. 151 o, on Numb. 30 7. AH the three 
Lists, which exhibit the first attempt to collect these unique 
combinatione, are still without any headings and without catch- 
words. They simply have after each instance 'nts 'b - unique. The 
first List gives twelve passages only and omits Numb. 36 4; 
Ezek. 14 16; Obad. 4; Eccl. 11 3 and Esther 8 5. The second 
List records properly ten instances only. It omits Numb. 36 4; 
1 Sato. 17 9; 2 Sam. 17 13; Ezek. 14 16; Obad. 4; Eccl. 11 3 
and Esther 8 5. It gives Judg. 13 6 twice and adds one new 
instance, viz. rrmo '■? .TriB-o*r. Levit 15 28 which does not belong 
to this Rubric, since the combination rwe-OK without the prefix 
Vav does not occur. The third List, which gives eleven instances 
omits Numb. 36 4; l Kings 3 14; Jerem. 6 2, 9; Ezek. 14 16; 
EccL 11 8 and Esther 8 5 and contains one instance, viz. I'rroKi 
•mo "? Numb. 30 7 which does not belong to this category, since 
the combination l^rroK without the prefix Vav does not occur. 
The remarkable feature of these three Lipts, however, is the 
fact that like the printed Massorah they give the two instances 
nojroKi Deut 22 20 and roiB-Di(rj Judg. 9 16 though neither of 
these expressions occurs in combination with qm in the textuareceptus. 

a'orn = § 763. 

^^'^"Dijn and if a man, occurs three times thus combined 

once in the Pentaietich, once in t?ie Prophets and once in the Hagio- 
grapha. In the other faur instances where «ht is preceded by 
this conjunctive it is without the prefix Vav. (Exod. 19 13; 
Judg. 4 20; 1 Sam. 30 22; 2 Kings 1 12.) The notes on 2 Kitq:8 1 10 



X - X ^ TM- 



"». K - K 



in my *^.iiti..ii t,f Mih Hihlt- will .«li..w th<^ ipmsmii win- thesr tliret- 
ijistiiiices ajv thus safe^'uartleti. 

Of this Kiihric I c<.ll:»t.'»l seven Lists, six in MH.^. an<i one 
printed: (I) Harley r.TlO— n, Vol. I, to]. '3;58fc, .m 2 Kin,i,'s I 10 
which I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient. Hi. fnl. H7/'. on the 
same passage; (III) the same MS., fol. :\-iha, on Job 11 2; 
(IV) Add. 15,45], fol. inui, on Deut. U 12; (V) the same MS., 
fol. 245t, on 2 Kin^s 1 l<>; (VI) Add. 2l,UiO, fol. 322^,, on 
Job 11 2 and (VII) the printed Massorah on 2 Kinjr.'s 1 H». 

TD2?n = ^ T(;4. 

t'^jTOS'l ««</ «/■ ft^'ty occurs three ti'iiiefi in the Scriptures. That 
is, the construct pK preceded by ck- to di.'5tinj?uish it fr(»m j'k the 
absolute which is als(t preceded by ck- in five instances.^ This 
Rubric whicli I have found in the printed Massorah only, (m 
1 Sam. 11 3 is incorrect. In the first place j*k-c«' occurs six 
times and Numb. 27 9, 10, 11; Isa. 50 2 are <.niitted and in the 
second place Prov. 22 27 which is here given as the third 
instance is ]'vra» without the prefix Var in the ti^j.-tus receptm. 

' Comp. f>»-=i*l Gen. 30 1; Exod. 32 :{2; Judg. » lo, 20; 2 Kings 2 10. 

iTDtrn = § T«r.. 

tt^naSl <tnd if there he, occurs three times. That is, with the 
jrefix Vav. In all the other eleven instances where t'_ is pre- 
ceded by this conjunctive it is without this prefix.^ Of this 
Rubric I collated three Lists, two in MSS. and one printed: 
(I) Arund. Orient 1(>, fol. «6a, on 2 Sam. 14 32 which I have 
printed; (II) Add. 15,251, fol. 253 «, on Jerem. 27 IH and (III) the 
printed Massorah on 2 Sam. 14 a2. 

1 Couip. B'^-OK Gen. 2:t »; 44 20; t Kings 17 12; 2 Kings » 15; Jerem. 5 1 ; 
Ps, 7 4; Prov. 23 1H; Job (i B; ;W 2.!, ?>■>; Lament. 1 12. 

rown = § 7t;«. 

X^"J3XT and if not, occurs tvnce at the heginning of a verse 
in Job. {Vid^. sujwa, letter k, § 750.) 

rottrn = § 7G7. 

S^^DKl <iiid if not, occurs seventeen, times in the middle of a 
verse. This combination occurs altogether forty-seven times. As it 
begins a verse in thirty instances ' and is in the middle of the verse 
in seventeen passages only the Massorah safeguards the minority. 

Of this Rubric I collated three Lists, two in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) IlSey 5710—11, Vol. I, fol. 83a, on Levit. 27 27 
which I have printed; (II) Orient. 4445, fol. 77«, on Exod. 34 20 
and (III) the printed Massorah Finalis, letter x, § 537. Jacob b. 
Chayim's Rubric (List III) is incorrect. Though it states in the 
heading that there are seventeen such instances it enumerates 
sixteen only. And as one of the passages, viz. ^■zb^ ■?:; naxr does 
not occur in the Bible it gives fifteen only. The two omitted 
are Judg. 4 8 and I Sam. 2 IG. 

1 Comp. Gen. 24 8; :U 17; Exod. 40 37; Levit. 5 7, 11; 12 8; 17 16; 
25 28, 30, 54; 26 14; 27 20; Numh. 5 28; 32 2:J, 30; 33 55; Deut. 20 12; 22 2; 
25 7; Josh. 28 24; Judg. 14 1:5; 1 Sam. 12 15; Jerem. 13 17; 13 17; 17 27; 
22 6; 38 18; 48 27; Job 24 25; 3ft 12. 

n'Dttrn = § 768. 

fJitOT^l «'"' '/ refusing, occurs twice. In the other three 
passages where this phrase occui's it is without the prefix Vav 
(Exod. 9 2; 10 4; 22 10). In fixing this number at three this 
Massorah militates against the Codices which read d«i in ExocJ. 22 1 6 
as will be seen in the note on this passage is my edition of the 
Bible. Of this Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, 
I collated two Lists: (I) Arund. Orient, l (5, fol. 1730, on Jerem. 3S 21 
which I have printed and (II) Add. 21,160, fol. 74/>, on Exod. 7 27. 

£3"Dm = § 7(Ui. 
niSn nSKT l DKI nnd if the jn-iest look on it, occurs tirice 
with the accent and in the same Section. That is, with Muitoch 
Legarmeh and Mnnach Rerin. This Rubric is from the pi'inled 
Massorah on Levit. 13 21. 

V"rr\ = § 770. 

n^B DJO n»d if it spread, occurs thrfe times. This Rubric, 
which does not occur in the printed Massorah, is from Orient. 2341), 
fol. 89rt, on Levit. 13 22. 

H"vvn = § 771. 

n^nHn"DK1 and if in its place, occurs twice and in the same 
Section- This Rubric is from the printed Massorah on Levit 13 23. 



n-T^n = j! TT.v. 

^aIHI S*rftiK <«•'> '•'*/">■« ind a half, ncurs tu-ice >i:!th t,h.i accents 
Kadnui Ve-Arda. This phrase occurs four times and as it is with 
saments Mehupach Pastita in the other two instances (Kxod. 25 17; 
37 <)) the Massoi-ah safeguards the j)eculiar accents in these 
parallel passages. It will be seen that the conjunctive accents 
usually called Kadnm Ve-Azla are here Massoretically called 
•r>f! '?:«. This Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, 
is from Orient 234H, fol, 7!*?', on Exod. 37 1. 

yvvr\ = § 77y. 

nitSK euhits, without and with the prefixes, is always plene 
except in one instance. This Rubric, which does not occur in the 
printed Massorali. is from Orient. 2349, fol. 79a, on Exod. 36 21. 

T'rcrn = § 774. 

nitSS cubits, standu six times at the end of a verse in the 
description of the Temple. In the Plan of the Temple given in 
Ezekiel (40- 43) where the expression nla*i occurs thirty-eight 
times, it is in six instances the last word of the verse. The 
Massorah, therefore, safeguards the peculiar position of it Of 
this Rubric 1 collated two Lists: (I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 193a, 
on Ezek. 40 27 which I have printed and (II) the printed Massorah 
on tlie same passage. 

n-vvn = § 775. 

nirittSn the maidservants, occurs twice, once it is defective and 
once plene] Of this Rubric I collated three Lists, two in MSS. 
and one printed: (I) llarley 5710 11, Vol. I, fol. 2006, on 
2 Sam. (> 22 which I have printed; (II) Orient 2349, fol. 46a, 
on Gen. 31 3;t and (III) the printed Massorah on the same 
passage. List III has at the end So K-ns == the second is plene, i. e. 
2 Sam. 2. It also adds vizs r\'ni:>it -trr and once it is ninOK the 
construct 2 Sam. 6 20. 

rvv?n = § 776. 

nlteS peoples, is unique itc. In this attempt to catalogue the 
forms of nsK people which occur once only, the Massorites mixed 
up the two expressions, viz. nax and sHb. Of this Rubric, which 
does not occur in the printed Massorah, I collated two Lists: 
(I) Cambridge Add. 1174 on Numb. 25 15 which I have printed 
and (II) British Museum Orient 2349, fol. 1156, on the same 
passage. Both are Yemen MSg. 

VWn = § 777. 
n51l2K faithfulness, is six times defective in this form. In this 
form are included the masculine noun pax which furnishes two 
instances (Deut 32 20; Isa. 26 2), the feminine noun nros which 
exhibits three instances (i Sam. 26 23; 2 Kings 12 16; Ps. 143 l) 
and the participle plural of the verb jan which yields one in- 
stance (Lament. 4 5). Of this Rubric I collated four Lists, three 
in MSS. and one printed: (I) Arund. Orient 16, foL 320a, on 
Ps. 143 1 which I have printed; (11) Add. 15,250, fol. 375a, on 
Lament 4 5; (III) Halle Ochlah A^e-Ochlah, Supplement, fol. I33fe, 
and (IV) the printed Massorah on Ps. 119 190. Though all the 
MS. Lists state in the heading that there are seven such instances, 
they enumerate six only. Jacob b. Chayim's List gives seven, 
but makes it up by the addition of nsaiii Numb. 12 8 which is of 
quite a different root and is not contained in any of the MS. 
Lists. It is, therefore, more natural to assume that the 't is a 
clerical error for 'i which is not unfrequently the case. 

n"rrn = § 778. 

r^tpKl and strong, occurs four times; it is plene three times and. 
once defect i've. That is, in Amos 2 16 it is without the Yod. Of 
this Rubric I collated f(»ur Lists, three in MSS. and one printed: 

(I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 1206, on Isa. 2K 2 which I have printed; 

(II) the same MS., fol. 2056, on Amos 2 16; (III) Add. 15,251, 
foU 299a, on the same passage and (IV) the printed Massorah 
on Job 9 4. Both Lists I and IV distinctly state that Isa. 28 2 
exhibits the only instance whore it is defective. The expression 
en against Amos 2 16 in the List which I have printed has 
inadvertently crept into the line. 

tS'Ttt^n = § 779. 

r)2S1 ond strong, is twice defeclire. This Rubric is from 

Harley 5710— 11, Vol. II, fol. 126, on Isa. 28 2. The conflict 

between this Massorah and the preceding one is due to the fact 

that the two Schools of textual redactors from which these 



K ^( § 780—786. _ 97 

Rubrics proceed had different traditions with regard to the 
orthography of this expression. 

C'trn = § 780. 
T'pX occurs twice and in two different senses. That is, in 
Isa. 17 C it denotes hough and in Hos. 4 7 it is the Hiphil future 
first person singular from ma and denotes / will change. Of this 
Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, I collated 
three Lists: (I) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 125&, on Isa. 17 6 which 
I have printed; (11) the same MS., fol. 2006, on Hos. 4 7 and 
(III) Add. 15,250, fol. 298a, on the same passage. This Rubric 
forms part of the alphabetical List of words which respectively 
occur twice in two different senses.^ 

' Comp. The Masaorah, letter 0, § 428, Vol. II, p. 217 &c. 

x'Drn = § 781. 

'*^f f'Pi^ »Ae languished, occurs twice. This Pulal preterite 
third person singular feminine occurs altogether six times. In four 
instances it has the regular Sheva under the second Lamed 
(comp. n^^ex Isa. 24 4, 7; 33 9; Jerem. 16 9) and it is in these 
two passages where it has Kametz because of its pausal accent. 
Hence the Massorah safeguards the exceptions. This Rubric, which 
does not occur in the printed Massorah, is from Arund. Orient. 16, 
fol. 2036, on Joel 1 12. 

TSZ^n = § 782. 
JlpSn nursing father; occurs twice and is defective in this form. 
That is, in both instances, the one with the prefix He and the 
other without it, this participle is without the Vav. This Rubric, 
which does not occur in the printed Massorah, is from Orient. 2349,' 
foL 107a, on Numb, ll 12. It is part of the alphabetical List of 
words which respectively occur twice, once without the prefix 
He and once with it {Vide infra, letter n, §§ 16, 17.) 

rem = § 783. 

JttKJI has twice Pathach. The design of this Massorah is to 
register the fact that in these two instances the Mem is with 
Pathach. Though in one instance it is the Niphal preterite and 
in one the participle construct, the Massorah groups them into one 
Rubric because of the identity of the spelling. This identity is 
still more striking in some of the best Codices which read it in 
both instances fawi with Chateph-Segol under the AUph as is the 
case in Arund. Orient. 16; Add. 15,451; Add. 21,161 &c. and the 
early editions given in the notes on 2 Sam. 7 16 in my edition 
of the Bible. Of this Rubric, which does not occur in the printed 
Massorah, I collated two Lists: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol I 
fol. 20 1«, on 2 Sam. 7 16 which I have printed and '(II) the 
same MS., Vol. II, foL 247a, on Prov. 11 13. 



§ 787-791. K 



T'Drn = § 784. 
""a nJDKn occurs twice. The design of this Massorah is to 
safeguard the construction of w^ax; with >3 so as not to be made con- 
formable to -b W'B>r in Exod. 4 1 ; as well as to protect ^a onjaRn 
since in the only other passage where this Hiphil future second 
person masculine occurs it is construed with h and not with is 
(Deut 9 23). This Rubric, which does not occur in the printed 
Massorah, is from Orient. 2349, foL 108 6, on Numb. 14 11. 

iTDrn = § 785. 
I^!!3 <»«<' A« believed, occurs twice in the Scriptures. These two 
instances are safeguarded because in Exod. 4 31 where it is followed 
by the plural verb vaa^i the Scribe would be liable to write it w^ajt? 
Of this Rubric I collated four Lists, three in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Harley 5710-11, Vol. I, fol. 37«, on Exod. 4 31 
which I have printed; (H) Add. 15,250, fol. 346; (HI) Add. 21,160, 
fol. 70a, and (IV) the printed Massorah, all on the same passage! 
As both these instances begin a verse, List II rightly heads this 
Rubric nofi -wk-i 'a. 

rem = § 786. 

^3^!1 a«<^ tfiey believed, occurs three times in the Sci-iptures 

once in the Pentateuch, once in tJie Prophets, and once in the Hagit^ 
grapha. Of this Rubric I collated five Lists, four in MSS. and 
one printed: (I) Harley 5710-11, Vol, II, fol. 1136, on Jonah 3 5 
which I have printed; (H) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 209a, on the 
same passage; (III) the same MS., fol. 311a, on Ps 106 12- 
(IV) Add. 15,251, fol. 49a, on Exod. 14 31 and (V) the printed 
Massorah on the same passage. It is remarkable that Lists II 
•nd IV not only state emphatically in the heading that it occurs 



twice, but give two instances only. The Massorah Parva too 
in Arund. Orient. 16 remarks against it v,3 .3. As these two 
MSS. belong to different countries it shows that this List 
proceeds from Massorite Schools which did not read waxi in 
Ps. 106 12. 

rem = § 787. 

P?¥ I IP^ Amen, amen, occurs ttoice in the Scriptures. That is, 
without the prefix Vav before the second adverb. In the other 
three passages where this reduplicate phrase occurs it has the 
prefix Vav. (Ps. 41 14; 72 19; 89 53.) Hence the Massorah 
safeguards the minority. Of this Rubric I collated three Lists, 
two m MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 5710-11, Vol. II, 
fol. 2976, on Neh. 8 6 which I have printed; (II) Add. 15,251, 
fol 856, on Numb. 5 22 and (III) the printed Massorah on 
Neh. 8 6. 

n-Drn = § 788. 

rrJp^ occurs three times and once it is wUh the prefix Vav. 

The four instances here grouped together exhibit homonyms. In 
the first two passages this quadriliteral is a proper name of a 
mountainous chain; in the third instance it is a noun denoting 
covenant, surety, whilst in the fourth it signifies allowance, poHion. 
The Massorah, however, as we have often seen, has regard 
simply to the identity of the orthography and for this reason 
includes all the four instances in the same Rubric. It will be 
seen that in 2 Kings 5 12 the textual reading or Keihiv is to3k = 
Ahana, which is followed in the text of iboth the Authorised 
and Revised Versions. But the Massorah does not recognise 
the Keihiv. Of this Rubric I collated five Lists, four in MSS. and 
one printed: (I) Harley 5710-11, Vol. I, foL 2416, on 2 Kings 5 12 
which I have printed; (II) the same MS., Vol. n, fol. 2616, on 
Cant 4 8; (UI) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 386aj on Neh. 10 1; 
(IV) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, § 298, and (V) the printed 
Massorah on 2 Kings 5 12. This Rubric forms part of the alpha- 
betical List of words which respectively occur four times, three 
times without the prefix Vav and once with it (Vide infra, 
letter 1, § 73, p. 405 &c.) 

fiS-'Drn = § 789. 
nj^K occurs three times in this farm. That is, without and 
with the prefix Beth. Of this Rubric, which does not occur in 
the printed Massorah, I collated two Lists: (I) Orient 2349 
fol. 386, on Gen. 20 12 which I have printed and (II) Arund. 
Orient 16, fol. 56, on Josh. 7 20. The second List heads it 
simply -n - it occurs ttoice and gives the two instances only 
without the prefix Beth. 

r»fl - § 790. 

DJIpKil indeed, occurs four times and is defective and once 

it is without the pi-efi^ He. Of this Rubric I collated ten Lists, 
nine in MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 5710—11 Vol I 
fol. 101a, on Numb. 22 37 which I have printed; (II) the same' 
MS., Vol. I, fol. 2236, on 1 Kings 8 27; (III) the same MS., 
Vol. II, fol. 152a, on 2 Chron. 6 18; (IV) Orient 4445, fol. 143a, 
on Numb. 22 37; (V) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 83a, on 1 Kings 8 27- 
(VI) the same MS., fol. 260a, on 2 Chron. 6 18; (VII) the same 
MS., fol. 2976, on Ps. 58 2; (VIH) Add. 21,160, foL 2286 on 
Numb. 22 37; (IX) the printed Massorah on the same passage 
and (X) the same on Ps. 58 2. 

K'Strn = § 791. 
fttXI and be courageous, is twice with Pathach. This Kal 
imperative singular masculine with the prefix Vav occurs 
altogether eight times. In six instances it has Kametz under the 
Mem^ and in two passages only is it with Ptithach. Hence the 
Massorah safeguards the exceptional orthography. This Rubric, 
which is from the printed Massorah on 1 Chron. 28 20, is in- 
correct The catchwords ^ki m'n ^k paKi pm = 1 Chron.' 22 13 
ought to be Ties patr ptn - Josh. 1 7 and I have indicated this 
mistake in Jacob b. Chayim's Massorah by an asterisk against 
the passage. The Massorah Parva against 1 Chron. 28 20 both 
in Arund. Orient 16 and in the printed Massorah correctly 
indicates the two instances. These two instances form part of 
the alphabetical List of words which respectively occur twice 
with Pathach.^ 

« In these six instances the Kametz is due to the pausal accent, viz. r?* 
Deut M 7, 23; ??«' Josh. 1 9; 1 Chron. SS 18; fOW Josh. 1 6; fOMi Josh. 4 18. 
* Comp. The Mattorah, letter J, § 639, Vol. II, p. 299. 



K — K § 792-798. 



— 98 



T3Crn = § 702. 
nDX^ /Aott hast nu^dc strong, occurs ttcke, Qtice it is defective 
and once plena. It is remarkable that this Piel preterite second 
person singular masculine which occurs twice within two. verses, 
fs in one instance without the He at the end, i. e. defective, and 
in one with it. The Massorah, therefore, records this peculiarity 
in the orthography. This Rubric, which does not occur m the 
printed Massorah, is from Arund. Orient 16, fol. 304&, on Ps. 80 lO. 

y-avn = § 793. 

nS><n thou Shalt strengthen, occurs tioice. This Rubric, which 
does, not occur in the printed Massorah, is from Cambridge 
Add. 1174 on Deut. 15 7. 

TXrn = § 794. 

iTXttX Aviaziah, occurs nine times. This name occurs altogetlier* 
forty time's? in thirty-one instances it is the lengthened form ^n;p 
Aviazjahu and in these nine instances only is the original ortho- 
graphy retained.1 Hence the Massorah protects the minority. 

Of this Rubric I collated eleven Lists, nine in MSS. and 
two printed: (I) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 107a, on.2 Kings 12 22 
which I have printed; (11) the same MS., fol. I08a, on 2 Kings 
U 8- (III) the same MS., fol. 207fc, on Amos 7 10; (IV) the same 
MS fol. 240a, on 1 Chron. 4 34; (V) the same MS., fol. 2416, on 
1 Chron 6 30; (VI) Add. 15,251, foL 317a, on the same passage; 
(VU) Vienna Codex No. 35 on 2 Kings U 8; (VIII) the same 
Codex on l Chron. 6 30; (IX) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, § 50; 
(X) the printed Massorah on 2 Kings U 8 and (XI) the same 

on Amos 7 10. , . , ^ 

Though List IX states in the heading that this shorter 
form occurs nine times, it catalogues six passages only and omits 
Amos 7 10 12 14. List VIII, which omits the same three instances, 
states in the heading that it occurs six times only. It is, therefore, 
most probable that there was a recension of this Rubric with the 
heading ffD'n ^■onvD'a'^na "> h-jcdk and at the end no'nns 'Ji and that 
the last line is omitted in the Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah. 

t For the reason of the lengthened fom see my InlrodnctUm to the Hebrew 
Bible. Part II, chap. XI, p. 386 &o. 

.T5te^n = § 795. 
rrrtSK* This Rubric exhibits the first attempt to collect 
the forms'of -an which are unique, and hence it is incomplete. It 
is from the Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah U, % 9. The heading in 
brackets I have added. 

r3t»n = § 796. 

nTttS* Three forms of this verb are defective of the radical 
Aleph. Of this Rubric I collated five Lists, four in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 70a, on 2 Sam. 19 14 which 
I have printed; (II) the same MS., fol. 375a on E^ra & H ; 
(HI) Harley 5710-11, Vol. I, fol. 210&, on 2 Sam. 19 14; (IV) 
Vienna Codex No. 35 on Ezra 5 11 and (V) the printed Massorah 
on 2 Sam 19 14. These three forms are part of the long List 
of words throughout the Bible which exhibit the same pheno- 
menon. {Vide supra, letter k, § l*«-c» P- & &°-) 



J-JtWn = § 797. 
Q.^L>^-yi,^ -D;3^ to say unto God, occurs eight times. To say 
unto -"TKnoicVaddressing the Divine Being, is in twelve instances 
followed hyJeho^^ah (nirr)' and in eight «f ^y ^y ^«^ (=Tt^S?)- 
Hence the Massorah safeguards the minority. Of this Rubric I 
collated two Lists: (I) Orient 2349, fol. 36&, on Gen. 7 18 which 
I have printed and (II) the printed Massorah Fmahs, letter k, 
8 500. As is frequently the case,. Jacob b. Chayim's Rubric is 
fncorrect: (1) nnnob = 1 Chron. 29 21 should be r.«^ = i Chron^ 
21 17 and (2) 'jn='?Dni = 2 Chron. I 8 has manifestly been added 
bv a later Nakdan who mistook the import of this Massorah 
since it is here D-nb^'r and not eri'^r'^f ^ Nakdan who found 
nine passages in the List and not noticing that the last instance is 
against the scope of this Rubric altered the h - 8 in the heading 
into to = 9. 

14 is; 1« 16; « 18; Judg. 10 15; 1 Sam. 14 41; 2 Sam. 24 !<•, 17. 

n"Xtt>n = § 798. 

•^•p ^^ "laiC* That .is, in four instances where the Prophet 
records' that Jehovah had spoken to him ••?« to me precedes nw 



§ 799—802. H i^ 

Jehovah contrary to the usual diction which is '^k nirr nwt. Of 
this Rubric I collated two Lists: (I) Orient 1474, fol. 1246, on 
Ezek. 44 5 which I have printed and (II) the printed Massorah 
on the same passage. The printed Massorah rightly adds in the 
heading m=tK'? amp ^"jk anpi "C, i. e. to me precedes the Tetragiammaton. 
It will be seen that Isa. 21 6 which is 'hk in the Uxtus receptns 
is here given as one of the four passages where nirr follows -^k. 

is'itrn = § 799. 

'7X1\2?^ ri'^S'^ '^J^ *^ ^^y *" *** ^""^^ ^f ^"'"^^' occurs three 
times. That is, with the prefix Lamed before rr? to distinguish this 
phrase from the four instances where -m is followed by rr?-'?? 
^K^i^ • Of this Rubric I collated five Lists, four in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 190a, on Ezek. 36 22 which 
I have printed; (II) the same MS., fol. 1826, on Ezek. 24 21; 
(III) the same MS., foL 2066, on Amos 5 4; (IV) Add. 21,160, 
fol. 2766, on Ezek. 36 22 and (V) the printed Massorah Fmahs, 
letter % § 431. List II heads it -a b^iT ^'?^ ^°l? ^"^ ^^^^^ *^® ^^"^ 
instances where the verb is in the imperative (Ezek. 24 21; 
36 22). 

1 Comp. "rK-jif.' ri'3-V "'O* Ezek. 14 6; 20 30; Z% 10; 44 6. 

n-n = § 800. 

^K^tp'' ^V^ *lttK to say to the children of Israel, occurs five 
times. Normally" the verb -m is followed by ^:^-'?x and it is in 
these five instances that it is 'jab. Hence the Massorah safeguards 
this exceptional phrase. On referring to the notes on Exod. 3 14 
in my edition of the Bible the reason for this safeguarding will 
be seen. Of this Rubric I collated five Lists, four in MSS. and 
one printed: (I) Orient 2349, fol. 926, on Levit 17 12 which I 
have printed; (II) Add. 15,250, fol. 66a, on the same passage; 
(III) Add 21,160, fol. 676, on Exod. 3 14; (IV) the same MS., 
fol. 1656, on Levit 17 12 and (V) the printed Massorah on 
Exod 3 14. The heading in List II, is -npa 'j = it occurs three 
times in the Sa-iptures and yet all the five instances are given m 
the Rubric itself. This shows how careless the Scribes were m 
copying the Massorah and how precarious it is to found an 
argument on the headings. 

K-nn = § 801. 

this form.' That is, the verb nOK to say in its different tenses is 
combined with a-^a in the heart with different suffixes. This Rubric 
which I have fbuAd in the printed Massorah Finalis only, letter b, 
& 59 is not strictly correct It includes two instances which are 
a'j-'jK n»K (Gen. 8 21 ; i Sam. 27 l), one which is 'a"? nan (Ps. 27 8) 
and laa-r-a r-iaK D'«n (Job 22 22). We shall see in the next Rubric that 
this one is "simply a later development by Nakdanim who have 
not adhered to the original design and mistook the scope of this 
Massorah. 

3"nn - § 802, 
13^3 ^^yhSi IISK a person saying in his heart, occurs six times. 
The design of this Rubric is to catalogue the instances in which 
-,8K to say is combined with la^? in his heart, i. e. exclusively 
with suffix third person singular masculine and which specify 
the individual between the verb in the third person and the noun 
with the suffix thij-d person. 

Of this Rubric I collated eight Lists, six in MSS. and two 
printed: (I) Arund. Orient 10, fol. 301a, on Esther 6 6 which I 
have printed; (H) the same MS., fol. 876, on 1 Kings 12 26; 
(III) Add. 21,160, fol. 4a, on Gen. 17 17; (IV) the same MS., 
fol 312a, on Esther 6 6; (V) Add. 15,251, foL 4066, on the same 
passage; (VI) Harley 5710-11, Vol. I, fol. 228a, on 1 Kings 12 26; 
(VII) the printed Massorah on Gen. 17 17 and (VIII) the same 
on 1 Kings 12 26. , 

The different Lists afford an instructive illustration of the 
manner in which the Massoretic materials were formulated in 
the different Schools of textual redactors and how the original 
design of certain Rubrics has been marred by later Nakdanim. 
Lists I II, III, IV and V most emphatically state that the phrase 
here recorded is restricted to the verb in the third person sin- 
gular in combination exclusively with the noun with the suffix 
third person singular masculine. Hence though la"?? occurs four 
times more in combination with nOK (Obad. 3: Ps, 10 6, 11, 13) 
they are excluded from these Lists because the person (= •3i'?b) 
who says in his heaH which is the essential point of this Massorah, 
is not mentioned in these passages. The Nakdan, however, who 
manipulated the first List of Jacob b. Chayim's printed Massorah 



K "^ ^ I ao»— 806. 



99 — § 807—812. K — >( 



(LigtVII) misunderstood this import He, therefore, added the three 
instances from the Psalms because they exhibit the combination 
la^? ton and what is worse still inserted the two passages which 
have •ah-b^-m (Gen. 8 21; l Sam. 28 1) and omitted Ps. 53 2 
which is one of the six original passages. As this yielded ten 
instances he altered the i = 6 into ^ = 10. The editor of the 
second List of Jacob b. Chayim's printed Massorah (List VJII) 
has not treated this Rubric quite so barbarously. Though he too 
states in the heading that there are ten such instances combined 
with is^B he gives the six correct passages first in their proper 
order and adds the four incorrect ones at the end. By this 
making up tJie ten he avoids the two passages with the combination 
la^^K "lOK. From their position, however, and absence of proper 
sequence it is evident that he regarded them as out of place. 
We have still to consider the recension of this Rubric 
exhibited in List VI which is as follow: 

1 Kings 12 26 HnDnn oyaT pn'aa'oi '»nDT 'j nhi 'sht io»'i 

Esther 6 6 ^hr\T\ pan Gen. 87 41 Win ^vy 

.inaa in ''aaa tn 'na nn 

It will be seen that in this Model Codex, which gives the 
Massorah in its earliest form, the Rubric consists of three 
instances only and is strictly confined to the passages which 
not only begin with ia»'^_, but which are immediately followed* 
by the name of the person. Moreover in all the three instances 
the identical phrase is used of three wicked persons and the 
Massorah notices the fact that one occurs in the Law, one in 
the Prophets and one in the Hagiographa. We thus see how the 
Rubric of three was expanded into six, ten, and ultimately into 
thirty-three passages. Against iTam in the Rubric which I have 
printed (§ 802) should be Ps. 63 2 and not 10 6. 

rnn = § sos. 

"TOK he said, is three times with Kametz. That is, in these 
three instances only has this preterite third person singular 
masculine, which occurs upwards of five hundred and eighty 
times, Kam^ under the Mem which is due to two having the 
pausal accent Athnach (Gen. 18 17; 21 1) and one having Soph 
Buvk (Exod. 18 24). 

Of this Rubric I collated five Lists, four in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Orient 1379, fol. 57a, on Gen. 18 17 which I have 
printed; (H) Add. 15.251, fol. 206, on the same passage; (III) 
Add. 21,160, fol. 95a, on Exod. 18 24; (IV) Halle Ochlah Ve- 
Ochlah II, § 9, margin and (V) the printed Massorah on Gen. 18 17. 



rnn = § so 4. 

D^'T?S "ttSK God said, occurs six times in this combination in 
the Scriptures. Normally when -m is the predicate of the Divine 
Being it is followed by Jehovah and it is in these six instances 
only that it iS combined with ar^h^. Hence the Massorah safeguards 
this exceptional combination. 

Of this Rubric I collated eight Lists, six in MSS. and two 
printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 1886, on Ps. 60 16 
which. I have printed; (II) the same MS., Vol. II, fol. 169&, on 
2 Chron. 33 7; (III) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 2786, on the same 
passage; (IV) the same MS., fol. 29 6 o, on Ps. 50 16; (V) Add. 
16.261, fol. 29a, on Gen. 31 16; (VI) Vienna Codex No. 35 on 
2 Chron. 33 7; (VII) the printed Massorah on Gen. 3 1 and 
(Vni) the same on Exod. 13 17. 

.rnn = § 805. 

nirr If^A^Uehwah said, begins 'oT verse three times. Normally 
when this formula begins a verse it is nirr -lO^ nS thus says Jehovah 
oj j^j^ ^^ ^ ,j.i The Massorah, therefore, safeguards these 
exceptional instances. Of this Rubric I collated three Lists, two 
in MSS. and one printed: (I) Vienna Codex No. 35 on Jerem. 
46 25 which I have printed; (II) Orient 1474, fol. 586, on the 
same passage and (III) the printed Massorah on Ps. 68 23. It 
is remarkable that both Lists give Ps. 68 23 which is -am 
•pit in the received text as one of the three verses beginning 
with nw lUK. 

> Comp. nifi: lOH nS' Jerem. 2 6; 6 16 22; 7 3, 21; 9 22; 10 2 &c. ni'va 
nim TOJf Jerem. 4 8, 27; 6 6; 10 18; !« 8, 6, 0; 20 4_&c. 

rnn = § see. 

nVT '^K aaUh Jehovah, occurs ten tim^s at the end of a verse 
in this 6ooi. That is, in Jeremiah. This Rubric, which I have found 
only in Orient 1474, foli 126, on Jerem. 8 12, does not agree 
wii the received text: (l) Jerem. 15 11 which is here given as 
one of the instances where ntr -le^t ends the verse is in the 



preceding Rubric registered as one of the three instances where 
it begins the verse. And (2) Jerem. 30 8; 44 26 and 49 18 are 
in the textus receptus in the middle of the verse. Can it be that 
this Yemenite Massorah is based upon a recension of the text 
in which the verses were differently divided? 

r-nn - § 807. 

TTTT^ ^K aaid Jehovah, occurs eight times at the end of a 
verse in ihis'booh That is, in the twelve Minor Prophets which 
are treated as one book in the Massorah. The design of this 
Massorah is to protect this formula against the longer phrase 
nlK3Jt nlrr -i&k saith Jehovah of hosts, which ends the verse in the 
majority of passages ^ and to militate against those recensions 
which exhibited variations, as will be seen from the notes on 
Amos 7 3 and Mai. 1 13 in my edition of the Hebrew Bible. 
This Rubric too I have found in Orient 1474, fol. 234 ^ only, on 
Amos 1 5. 

» Comp. ntKax ninj tdk Hag. 2 7; Zech. 1 3; 7 18; MaT. 1 8, 9, 11; » 4, 8; 
3 1, 6* 11, 12, 21/ ' ' 

n-nn = § 8O8. 

r^TT "IttK saith Jehovah, occurs twenty times at the and of a 
vttrse. This Massorah combines into one Rubric and completes the 
■ instances which the different Lists tabulated on the several books. 
Of this Rubric I collated six Lists, five in MSS. and one printed: 
(I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 205a, on Amos 1 5 which I have 
printed; (H) the same MS., fol. 2056, on Amos 1 15; (III) the 
same MS., fol. 216a, on Zeph. 3 20; (IV) Add. 15,251, foL 264a, 
on Jerem. 48 8; (V) Vienna Codex No. 35 on Amos 1 5 and 
(VI) the printed Massorah on the same passage. Isa. 11 9 in my 
Rubric should be Isa. 65 25. 

B"nn = § 809. 

Trf?K T1)T ^K saith Jehovah thy God, occurs once only at 
the end' of the^ verse. ^ Tha.t is, with the suffix second person 
masculine. In the other two passages where this formula ends 
the verse it is n|\'i'?!} m.T -lOK with the suffix second person 
feminine (Isa. 54 6;' 66 9). The Massorah, therefore, safeguards 
this unique occurrence. This Rubric is from the printed Massorah 
on Amos 9 15. 

>'nn = § 810. 

Blf? nVl^ HtoK Jehovah said to them, occurs four times in 
this combination in the Scriptures. Of this. Rubric I collated nine 
Lists, seven in MSS. and two printed: (I) Harley 5710-11, VoL I, 
fol. 251 a, on 2 Kings 17 12 which I have printed; (II) Orient 4445, 
fol. 476, on Numb. 26 65; (III) Add. 15,451, fol. 259a, on 2 Kings 
17 12; (IV) Arund. Orient 16, foL II06, on the same passage; 
(V) the same MS., fol. 311a, on Ps. 106 34; (VI) Add. 21,160, 
fol. 73o, on Exod. 6 26; (VII) Add. 15,251, fol. 3676, on Ps. 106 84; 
(VIII) i the printed Massorah on Exod. 6 26 and (IX) the same 
on Ps.* 106 34. 



»">nn - § 811. 

''';5 IDS he said to me, occurs five times tJius combined in the 
Sn-iptures . .^. . . and in two instances it is with the prefix Vav. 
Normally noK is followed by ^k;^ hence the Massorah safeguards 
this abnormal combination. 

Of this Rubric I collated eight Lists, seven in MSS. and 
one printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. H, fol. 1476, on 1 Chron. 
28 3 which I have printed; (H) Arund. Orient 16, foL 1036, on 
2 Kings 8 14; (III) the same MS., foL 185a, on Ezek. 29 8; 
(IV) the same MS., fol. 255a, on 1 Chron. 28 3; (V) the same 
MS., fol. 380a, on Neh. 2 18; (VI) Add. 15,251, fol. 828a, on 
1 Chron. 28 3; (VII) Add. 21,160, foL 7 a, on Gen. 20 5 and 
(VIII) the printed Massorah on the same passage. 

1 Comp. 'b* iBK Dent. 81 2; 1 Sam. « 17; 28,22; 2 Kings 18 26; Isa. St 10; 
Jerem. 28 1; Ps. 8 7; Ruth. 2 21. 

T'nn =» § 812. 

laKl and he said, occurs eight times in this book. That is, in 
the Minor' Prophets which are Massoretically treated as one 
book. This Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, 
I have found only in the St Petersburg Codex of A. D. 916 on 
Amos 6 10. 

The design of this Massorah is to safeguard the instances 
in which this preterite with the Vav conjunctive occurs in the 
Minor Prophets in accordance with the recension of the text 
preserved in the Massoretic School whence this Rubric proceeds. It 
will be seen that according to this School of Massorites the 

18b 



K — X § 813—817. 



— 100 — 



§ 818—823. K — K 



reading in Zech. 3 5 is i&^ and this reading is also exhibited 
in the Syriac and Vulgate. Other Codices, however, read it nair 
Kal future first person singular with Vav conversive, and this 
reading is supported by the School of Massorites who compiled 
the present textua receptus. 

r'fin = § 813. 

D^Ttt^ '^" <^"^ **^> 6^'n* a verse three times they are 

all outside the Pentateuch. The Kal preterite second person singular 
masculine which begins a_verse upwards of fifty times, has in 
forty-eight instances the prefix Vok^ and is without it in these 
three passages only. Hence the Massorah safeguards the ex- 
ceptions. 

Of this Rubric I collated seven Lists, six in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, VoL I, fol. 252a, on 2 Kings 18 20 
which I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 112&, on the 
same passage; (III) the same MS., fol. 2726, on 2 Chron. 25 19; 
(IV) Vienna Codex No. 36 on 2 Kings 18 20; (V) the same Codex 
on Jerem. 45 3; (VI) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, § 9, and 
(VII) the printed Massorah on Jerem. 45 3. 

1 Comp. iPi-iCKi at beginning of a verse Oen. 33 19; Exod. 4 22; Numb. 38 3; 
Deut 6 21; 8 17; SS 13; 1 Kings 88 27; Isa. 7 4; IS 1; Jerem. 7 28; 8 4; 113; 
13 12, 13; 14 17; 1« 11; 17 2U; 19 8, 11; 88 2; 85 27; 3« 4; 38 26; 43 10; 
fil 62, 64; Ezek. 6 3; 18 19; 13 18; 1< S; 17 8; 19 2; 30 5; il 3, 8; 33 3; 35 S; 
87 3; 38 22; 35 3; 38 8, 11; 44 6; Zecb. 1 3; 6 12; Prov. fi 12; Job 33 i:i. 

T'nn - § 814. 

riTDKI and thou shaU say, occurs five [four] times with the 
accent in this book. That is, in Ezekiel this expression has in five 
instances the accent Gershaim. This Rubric, which I have found 
in the printed Massorah only, on Ezek. 17 3 is incorrect, as is 
frequently the case in Jacob b. Chayim's edition. There are four 
instances only. The expression -on which is given in this List 
as the fifth instance is manifestly a corruption of n^ and belongs 
to the catchword "^-jot = Ezek. 13 18 as I have printed it It has 
indeed been supposed that it refers to Ezek. 39 3. (Comp. 
Heidenheim, corfin 'Cfivs, p. 206 &c.) But in this passage niDKi 
has one Geresh only, after Azla as it is in 37 12. Besides all the 
instances where nneir has Gershaim begin a verse, whereas in 
29 3 this is not the case. The heading 'n = it occurs five times, 
has been altered by a later^akdan from "i -■ 4, who mistook 
the import of this Massorah and who did not see that nrn is a 
clerical error for -t^ and that it belongs to ••^••jtK, as I have 
printed it 

rcnn = § sis. 

ri*1ttK1 and thou shalt say, occurs three times with the accent. 
That is, this Kal preterite second person singular masculine with 
Vav conversive has the accent P<tzer. This Rubric, which is from 
the printed Massorah on 2 Sam. 23 17, is incorrect: (1) there are 
four such instances, Ezek. 21 12 being omitted and (2) tip k^h moxi 
with which the catchwords in Jacob b. Chayim's Massorah ends, 
viz. Ezek. 36 6, is a clerical error for wvh mam as I have 
printed it (Vide infra, letter n, § 846.) 



fann - § sie. 

BT/K ri'Ttt^ and thou sJiali say unto them, occurs three 
times with the accent in this book. That is, this phrase has in these 
three passages Kadma Ve-Azla. Of this Rubric I collated two 
Lists, 'one in MS. and one printed: (I) Orient 1474, fol. 25a, 
on tferem. 19 11 which I have printed and (11) the printed 
Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 597. Though the headings in both 
Lists state that there are three such instances only, List II 
rightly gives four passages as mob nio'? -upk = Jerem. 15 2 has 
been added by a later Nakdan. The heading, moreover, in Jacob 
b. Chayim's printed Massorah rroTa »67k 'onp 'roa 'i it occurs three 
times with' the accents Kadma Ve-Azla in Jeremiah, is more explicit 

mn = § 817. 

"^^n^^ Tt^S ^"^^^ -TT "ittK-niD ayh^ rnaKi and 

thou shalt say unto them thus saith Jehovah of hosts the God of Israel, 
occurs twice in this combination. 

Besides the formula in question, there are no fewer than 
four different ways in which the Divine message is delivered 
to the people whom the Prophet is commanded to address 
(btSk n-)Oici) in the name of Jehovah. But as all these formulae 



are shorter ^ the design of the Massorah here is to safeguard 
the two exceptionally long combinations. 

This Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, 
is from Orient 1474, fol. 31 6, on Jerem. 25 27. 

« Comp. (I) n1n» io»« nS an^hn K-am Jerem. 8 4; 13 13; 15 2; 36 4; 
(11) muss Wn» TOW nS Dri'bK fi^ORi Jerem.'id 11; 35 27; Zeeh. 1 3; (III) R-JOW 
■jjnb" i1^»« nin; lotc ns dh'^k Jerein. 11 3 and (IV) nin^ 'jik ^0K nil on»^»» r4oki 
which is used exclusively in Ezekiel, viz. 2 4; 3 1 1, 27; 13 18; 14 4; 16 3; 
20 3, 6, 27; 24 3; 37 12. 

n"'nn = § 8i8. 

ri^OK thou saidst, occurs seven times .... and they have no parallel 
in all the Scriptures. The design of this Massorah is to exclude 
the Eastern textual reading or Kethiv which is Tnax both in 
Isa. 47 10 and 57 10. It is, moreover, intended to indicate that 
though it is riniBK in Ps. 16 2, which is normally the preterite 
second person singular feminine, it is in this passage abnormally 
the masctdine and that there is, therefore, no necessity to alter 
it into -ri-ittK. 

Of this Rubric I collated seven Lists, six in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 177^, on Ps. 16 2 
which I have printed; (II) Arund. OriAit 16, fol. 61a, on 
2 Sam. 6 22; (III) the same MS., fol. 139&, on Isa. 47 10; 
(IV) the same MS., fol. 1606, on Jerem. 22 21; (V) the same 
MS., fol. 287a, on Ps. 16 2; (VI) Add. 15,451, fol. 2076, on 
2 Sam. 6 22 and (VII) the printed Massorah on Ps. 16 2. In 
List V where the instance from Ps. 16 2 is the last in the 
enumeration, the Massorite remarks lai 'vb "vo in this last passage 
it is masculine. To the same effect is the Massorah Parva in this 
Standard Codex against Ps. 16 2. 

i3'">nn » § 819, 

ri^lDKI and thou shalt say, occurs three times. That is, the 
second person singular feminine with the prefix Vav to distinguish 
it from the numerous instances in which it is pnom the 
masculine. 

Of this Rubric I collated seven Lists, six in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, fol. 158o, on Judg. 4 20, 
which I have printed; (II) the same MS., Vol. I, fol. 216a, on 
1 Kings 1 13; (III) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 21a on Judg. 4 20; 
(IV) the same MS., fol. 76 a, on 1 Kings 1 13; (V) the same MS., 
fol. 1406, on Isa. 49 21; (VI) Add. 15,451, fol. 1656, on Judg. 4 20 
and (VII) the printed Massorah on l Kings 1 13. 

ynn = § 820. 

''fl'ltoX / said, begins a verse twice. The reason for safeguard- 
ing these instances is due to the fact that some MSS. read nnoi*, 
the second person singular in Isa. 36 5, which is in accordance 
with the parallel passage in 2 Kings 18 20, but which the 
redactors of this Massorah reject. This Rubric, which does not 
occur in the printed Massorah, is from Arund. Orient 16, fol. 133a, 
on Isa. 36 5. 

«"Dnfl = § 821. 

^npK they said, occurs ttcice at the beginning of a verse. The 
heading of this Rubric ought properly to be 'Boai '3 = it occurs 
ttvice and in. this hook, since both instances occur in the Psalms; 
but as we have seen, this qualifying expression is often omitted. 
Of this Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, 
I collated three Lists: (I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 302a, on Ps. 74 8 
which I have printed; (II) Add. 15,251, fol. 3626, on Ps. 83 5 
and (III) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, § 9. 

TDnn = § 822. 

DH^T'K Cri'^DKI and ye shall say unto them, occurs ttcice. 
That is, to distinguish it from the two instances in which Drino»?i 
is followed by on*?, as is indicated in the next Rubric where the 
two phrases are contrasted. Of this Rubric I collated two Lists: 
(I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, fol. 73a, on Levit 16 2 which I have 
printed and (II) the printed Massorah on the same passage. 

ronn = § 823. 

DH^ CTTIttKI a7id ye shall say f^o them, occurs twice .... and 
in two instances it is B7\'bvi arrm]. This Rubric, which does n<>t 
occur in the printed Massorah, is from Orient 2210, fol. 70a, on 
1 Sam. 14 3 J. 



H — K § 824—827. 



101 -^ 



§ 828—833. H ■ 



TJfin = § 824. 

llttK to say, occurs six times in the Scriptures, three times plene 
and three defective. As this Kal infinitive absolute, which occurs 
six times, is spelled in two different ways and in one instance 
in the same book, with and without the Vav, the Massorah safe- 
guards its orthography. 

Of this Rubric I collated twelve Lists, eleven in MSS. and 
one printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, fol. 476, on Exod. 21 5 
which I have printed; (II) the same MS., Vol. I, fol. 1746, on 
1 Sam. 2 80; (III) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 296, on Judg. 15 2; 
(IV) the same MS., fol. 36a, on 1 Sam. 2 30; (V) the same MS., 
fol. ^496, on 1 Sam. 20 21.; (VI) the same MS., fol. 1616, on 
Jerem. 23 17; (VII) Add. 15,451, fol. 95 o, on Exod. 21 5; (VIII) the 
same MS., fol. 1736, on Judg. 15 2; (IX) Add. 21,160, fol. 986, 
on Exod. 21 5; (X) the same MS., fol. I97fl, on Numb. 6 23; 
(XI) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, § 9 and (XII) the printed 
Massorah on Exod. 21 5. Lists II and VI simply record the three 
plane instances. 

n"3nn = § 825. 

*lbK3» This Kal infinitive construct with the prefix Beth, 

occurs three times in the Scriptures once in the Pentateuch, once 

in the Prophets and once in the Hagiographa. Of this Rubric I 
collated nine Lists, seven in MS. and two printed: (I) 'Harley 
5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 936, on Ezek. 36 20 which I have printed; 
(H) the same MS., Vol. II, fol. 186 a, on Ps. 42 4; (III) St. Peters- 
burg Codex of A. D. 916 on Ezek. 36 20; (IV) Arund. Orient. 16, 
fol. 190a, on the same passage; (V) Add. 15,451, fol. 122a, on 
Deut 4 10; (VI) the same MS., fol. 4076, on Ps. 42 4; (VII) Add. 
21,160, fol. 2606, on Deut. 4 10; (VIII) the printed Massorah on 
the same passage and (IX) the same on Ps. 42 4. 

With the exception of Lists VII and VIII none of the other 
nine Lists state in the headings whether any of the instances 
are plene or defective, though all the three instances are defective 
in the textus receptus. List VII, however, emphatically heads the 
Rubric '^o 'ki 'on 'S •: -ia>a it occurs three times, ttcice plene and once 
defective, and gives Ps. 42 4 as the plene passage, whilst List VIII 
as emphatically heads it 'em 'S it occurs three tim^s and is defective. 
The two conflicting Massorahs, therefore, must be based upon two 
different recensions of the text which were preserved in the several 
Massoretic Schools. 

ronn = § 826. 

ftiK/ saying, begins a verse nine times in the Scriptures. The 
sign thereof in Chaldee is, the captives forsook their wives in Egypt 
and the priests returned and passed their friends from Canaan 

Owing to the abnormal position of this infinitive construct 
at the beginning of the verse, which might easily mislead the 
Scribes who would in some of the instances naturally join it to 
the end of the preceding verse, the Massorites carefully safe- 
guard these passages. This accounts for this Rubric being not 
only one of the earliest constituent parts of the Massorah, but 
of such frequent occurrence in the MSS. 

Of this Rubric I collated seventeen Lists, fifteen in MSS. 
and two printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 33a, on 
Jerem. 3 l which I have printed; (II) the same MS., Vol. II, 
foL 476, on Jerem. 25 5; (III) the same MS., Vol. II, fol. 1406, 
on 1 Chron. 16 18; (IV) the same MS., Vol. II, fol. 2066, on 
Ps. 106 11; (V) St Petersburg Codex of A. D. 916, on Jerem. 25 5; 
(VI) the same Codex on Jerem. 42 14; (VII) the same Codex on 
Zech. 7 3; (VIII) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 140a, on Isa. 49 9; 
(IX) the same MS., fol. 1626, on Jerem. 25 5; (X) the same MS., 
foL 219a, on Zech. 7 3; (XI) the same MS., fol. 301a, on Ps. 71 11; 
(XII) the same MS., fol. 3106, on Ps. 105 11; (XIII) Add. l.'),45l, 
foL 297o, on Jerem. 42 14; (XIV) the same MS., fol. 380a, on 
Amos 8 5; (XV) Cambridge Add. 465 on Jerem. 3 1, which alone 
has the mnemonic sign ; (XVI) the printed Massorah on Jerem. 25 5 
and (XVII) the same on Ps. 105 11. 

?*3nn = § 827. 

nfiS7 saying, is three times plene in the Saiptures. As this 
Kal infinitive construct which occurs no fewer than nine hundred 
and thirty-six times in the Scriptures, is plene in these three 
instances only, the Massorah safeguards this exceptional ortho- 
graphy. In these three instances we have a striking illustration 
of the attempt to introduce the later plene orthography which 
in tho case of this infinitive, has almost entirely failed. It is 
remarkable that in these two books alone in which this abnormal 



spelling occurs, the primitive orthography (ifakb) is to be found 
about one hundred and ninety-two times, viz. eighty times in 
Genesis and one hundred and twelve times in Jeremiah. 

Of this Rubric I collated eight Lists, six in MSS. and two 
printed: (I) Harley 5710-11, Vol. I, fol. 33a, on Gen. 48 20 
which I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient 16, foL 158a, on 
Jerem. 18 5; (III) the same MS., fol. 1966, on Jerem. 33 20; 

(IV) Add. 15,251, fol. 40a, on Gen. 48 20; (V) the same MS., 
fol. 2566, on Jerem. 33 20; (VI) Add. 15,451, foL 291a, on the same 
passage; (VII) the printed Massorah, on Gen. 48 20 and (VIII) the 
same on Jerem. 18 5. 

n'snn = § 828. 

^«^/l ^^^ "frying, occurs three times in the Scriptures. That 
is, of the hundreds of times this infinitive occurs in the Bible it 
is with the prefix Vav in these three instances only. Of this 
Rubric I collated seven Lists, six in MSS. and one printed: 
(I) Harley 5710-11, Vol. II, fol. 25a, on Isa 51 16, which I have 
printed; (11) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 141a, on the same passage; 
(III) the same MS.,^ fol. 2776; (IV) Add. 15,250, fol. 434a; 

(V) Vienna Codex No. 35, all .on 2 Chron. 32 17; (VI) Halle 
Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, § 9, and (VH) 'the printed Massorah Finalis, 
letter k, § 565. 

B"Dfin = § 829. 

''I^K* This infinitive with the suffix first person singular 
occurs twice. This Rubric, which does not occur in the printed 
Massorah, is from Cambridge Add. 465 on Josh. 6 10. 

b'nn = § 830. 

'^^I.^K* This infinitive second person singular feminine 
occurs twice only. Of this Rubric, which does not occur in the 
printed Massorah, I collated two Lists: (I) Arund. Orient 16, 
foL 183 a, on Ezek. 25 3 which I have printed and (II) Vienna 
Codex No. 35 on the same passage. 



N'^fin = § 831. 

^fT... ''P^ "'^^ ^^ B^'bK lbs say unto them thus saith the 
Lord Jehovah, occurs four times .' . . . in the first instance it is not 
preceded by js^. 

The design of this Massorah is not to register the instances 
in which ^jt^ precedes the Tetragrammaton in combination with 
the phrase -iok ni, but the passages in which this phrase itself is 
preceded by arrb» nfaK. This is evident from the fact that when 
the verb is nnoxi the preterite is with Vav conversive, or when 
even nfaK the imperative is not followed by bt^k, the combination 
.Ttrr •'snR occurs frequently after the formula -iok ns. ' 

This Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, 
is from the St. Petersburg Codex of A. D. 916 on Ezek. 12 10. 

' For the instances in which i»»« nb Dn»^» h"iaiji ig followed by ni.T uik, 
see «, § 817, note, and for ibK which are followed by nirv kih without on}htt, 
see Ezek. 11 16, 17; 17 9; 24 21. 

ybnn = § 832. 

nln^ *^t2H HS ^I13K say thus saith Jehovah, occurs four times 
in this book, i. e. Ezekiel. This Rubric, which is from the St Peters- 
burg Codex of A. D. 916 on Ezek. 11 5, is misleading, since it 
is in the first passage only where the imperative nbK precedes 
this formula. It is manifestly identical with the Rubric which 
registers simply the four instances in which the shorter form 
r^:P^ -iDH ns occurs in Ezekiel, and which is given in the Massorah, 
letter =, § 72, Vol. II, p. 26. 

ybnn = § 833. 

Dnp *TbS say to them, occurs ttcice thus combined and 

once it is with the prefix Beth. That is, to distinguish it from the 
seven instances where this imperative is followed by bt^k.* It 
is remarkable that this shorter form is to be found in Deute- 
ronomy only. Of this Rubric I collated two Lists, one in MS. 
and one printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, fol. 1156, on Dent 
5 27 which I have printed and (II) the printed Massorah Finalis, 
letter k, § 606. With the prefix it is the infinitive construct, 
but the Massorah makes no distinction when the punctuation is 
the same. 

» Comp. on'^K -ibK Levit. 22 3; Numb. 14 28; Ezek. 12 10, 23, 28; »J II, 26. 



K — H » 884-889. 



102 



§ 840—842. K K 



T^nn - § 834. 

"htsh ibK »ay unto the king, occurs twice. This Rubric, which 
does not occur in the printed Massorah, is from Harley 5710-11, 
Vol II, fol. 40 a, on Jerem. 13 18. 

n'inn = § 835. 

RTHttK say note, or I pray thee, occurs twice. That is, to 
distinguish It'from the other four instances where this imperative 
singular feminine is used without being followed by iq (Gen. 20 13 
I Engs 14 7; Isa. 40 9; Jerem. 48 19) so as to guard agamst 
Gen. I'i 13 and 20 13 being made conformable. This Rubric is 
from the printed Massorah on Gen. 12 18. 

r^nn = § sse. 

rttiO and say ye, occurs six times. In the other eighteen 
instances where this imperative plural occurs, it is without^e 
prefix Vav. Of this Rubric I coUated seven Lists, six m MbS. 
and one printed: (I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 1496, on Jerem. 4 5 
which I have printed; (H) ^^^ ^^'"^ ^^f ' '"^;' ^",,Y°' ^ '' 
(III) the same MS., fol. 2485, on 1 Chron. 16 35; (IV) Add 15,451, 
fol 288«, on Jerem. 31 7; (V) Add. 21,160, fol 290a, on the same 
passage; (VI> Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah H, § 9, and (JH) the 
print^ Massorah on 1 Chron. 16 35. Jacob b. Chayim's Massorah 
(List Vn) omits Amos 3 9 though it states m the heading 
that there are six instances. 

rt»nn - § 837. 

rftrr "PK^* For the textual reading TaK> Kal future third 
person'which is in six instances combined with the Tetra- 
iraminaton with the pausaL accent, the proper reading appears 
to be noit, the preterite third person. That is, the Semr is na^ It 
is the ^eterite and not the future which is the normal form in 
this formula.^ , _.. ,^. 

Of this important Rubric I have found two Lists only. 
(D Orient. 1474, foL 132&, on Isa. 1 11 which I have printed 
and (II) the printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 157. The Nakdan 
after whom Jacob b. Chayim printed this List mistook the import 
of this Massorah. Its design is not to register all the instances 
in which nl!T is preceded by nar. This is evident from the fact 
that in thi8'^mbination it occurs altogether no fewer than eleven 
times tod that five instances are excluded because nw has not 
the pausal accent, but is combined with another Divine name. 
The omission, therefore, of two instances in Jacob b. Chayim s 
List (Isa 33 10- 41 21) and the insertion of other, two passages 
(1 Kings' 1 86; '22 14) are against the scope of this Massorah. 
For rrf? Tm which is equivalent to p'soi, see letter k, § 272. 

1 comp. ninj -nsK I«a. S9 21, 21; W 7; Jerem. 44 26; nin: 19« I.a. C« 20; 
Jewm. 4« 18; r^p] ■«? I^a- 89 6; «6 26; 66 21, 23 &c. 

« Comp, wnt^K mn^no*.' Deut & 24; ^* nim -rof Jerem. 48 20; 'Sh rTinpOK' 

1 lOiigB 2« 14; ^^ ni"? V*"' Z««h- « » "«^ '^^ "J"- -"' * ^"^ * *®' 
though with Zakeph it is followed by another Divine name. 

n'^nn = § 838. 

IDK^ and he ihaU say, is six times Raphe in the Scriptures. 
That is,' it has in six instances Sheva under the Vav in contra- 
distinction to the many instances in which it has Pathach ^nil 
which are recorded in the following Rubrics. Of this Rubric 

1 collated eight Lists, seven in MSS. and one printed: (I) Arund. 
Orient 16, Vol. II, foL 1906, on Ps. 58 12 which I have printed; 
(ID St Petersburg Codex of A. D. 916 on Hab. 2 6? d") ^^^^ 
Orient lu, fol. 138«. on Isa. 44 16; (IV) the same MS fol 1436 
on Isa. 68 9; (V) the same MS., fol. 214a, on Hab 2 6; (VI) the 
same MS., fol. 298a, on Ps. 68 12; (VH) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, 
§ 9, and (VIII) the printed Massorah on 2 Kings 9 17. It will 
be seen that the printed Massorah alone has this Rubric on 

2 Kings 9 IT and it is most probable that Jacob b. Chayim 
followed some MS. in which it was placed on this verse to 
safeguard it against being made conformable to noK'i by which 
it is twice preceded. In the List I have printed, this instance is 
omitted which is manifestly due to a clerical error. 

B'^nh = § 839. 



•T»K*1 and he said, occurs ninety-one times with Pathach, foiiy 
ofif^em^e'in the Pentateuch. That is, with Pathach under the Mem. 



This Kal future third person singular with Vav conversive occurs 
altogether six hundred and thirty-three times in the Pentateuch. 
As it has Segol under the Mem in no less than five hundred and 
ninety-three instances and is with Pathach in forty passages only, 
the Massorah safeguards the exceptional vowel-points. The Paihach 
in these instances is due to the accent being on the ultimate. It is, 
however, to be remarked that these forty instances exhibit no 
fewer than six different accents which are more or less pausal.' 
Of this Rubric, which does not occur in this separate form 
in the printed Massorah, I ooUated four Lists: (I) Orient 2348, 
foL 123a, on Numb. 21 2 which I have printed; (H) Orient 2349, 
fol. 113a, on tiie same passage; (HI) Add. 21,160, foL 26a, on 
Gen. 30 28 and (lY) ihe same MS., foL 2296, on Numb. 23 12. 
Lists I and H omit Gen. 37 80 which is manifestiy due to a 
clerical error since the heading distinctly states that there are 
forty such instences in the Pentateuch. They, moreover, give 
apr -m as the catchwords for Numb. 21 2 instead of ^msr -m 
which is due to the same cause. List IH omite Gen. 47 30, whilst 
List IV, which gives this instance, omite Gen. 43 29. The heading 
of this List,. viz. nrnraK'tsTari exhibite a scribal mistake. 

1 In twenty-five instances it is !!?»«*! with AAnach (Gen. 14 19; ^5 8; 18 8, 
28, 27; 19 7; 84 84; 50 28; 87 SO; 48 16; Exod. & 22; S2 81; S8 14, 18; Numb. 
11*27 28; 81 2; 88 7, 12, 18; 84 3, 16, 20, 21, 23); in six it U -A^h with Zok^pk 
Oadol (Gen. 80 4; 87 36; M 6; 48 29; 47 30; 48 9); in four it is -"O**^ with 
Zoki>ph Kaum (Gen. 18 29; 88 17; Exod. 8 14; 88 6); In two it i. ■>?•« with fieWa 
(Gen. 16 8; Deut. 83 2); in two it is toH*! with SegoUa (Gen. 88 IS; Deut. 88 7); 
and in one instance it is ^Oic*i with ShaUheUtk (Gen. 84 12). 

O-nn = § 840. 
15K*1 and he said, occurs six times in this hook That is, in 
Samuel." This Rubric, which does not occur in tiie printed 
Massorah, is from Add. 15,251, fol. 1646, on 1 Sam. 7 12. It is 
incorrect, since there are ten instances in which the Mem is with 
Paihaeh instead of the normal 8egol The four omitted instances 
are 2 Sam. 19 27; 20 20; 22 2 and 23 15. They are correctly 
given in the List which catalogues the instances in tiie whole 
Bible. {Vide infra, § 842.) The Rubric exhibits the first attempt 
by the original compiler to collect these phenomena who left 
the compilation of the List to his colleagues. Instead, however, 
of completing it a later Nakdan, as usual, regarded it as final 
and hence added the heading, fixing the number at six. As tins 
future third person singular witii Vav conversive occurs no less 
than four hundred and sevepty times in Samuel and as it is 
with Phihach under the Mem (tdk*!) in these ten instances only 
the Massorah safeguards the exceptional orthogfraphy. The ten 
instances exhibit two kinds of pausal accente, In seven passages 
it is nbtt»i with Athnach (1 Sam. 22 9, 14; 2 Sam. 3 33; 16 21; 
20 20;* 22 2; 23 15) and in three it is lOttH. witii Zakeph Gadol 
(1 Sam. 8 18; 7 12; 2 Sam. 19 27). 

H'onn = § 841. 

"TttK^'V occur, thirteen times in this bock. That is, in Kings. 
This Rubric, which does not occur in tiie printed Massorah, is 
from Vienna Codex No. 35 on 1 Kings 8 23. It is defective, 
inasmuch as it leaves out two instences, viz. 1 Kings 17 11 and 
2 Kings 19 15, which are correctly given in the List recor^ 
the instances of this phenomenon throughout the Bible. (Vide 
supra, § 842.) The heading, therefore, must be the addition of 
a later Nakdan if the original Massorite did not work upon 
Codices in which these two instances exhibited the normal vowel- 
pointe. As this Kal third person future witii Vav convwsive 
occurs no less than three hundred and forty-seven times in Kings 
and as it is noK'i with Segol in three hundred and tiiirty-two passages 
and naK^i with Pathach in fifteen only, tiie Massorah safeguards 
the exceptions. The fifteen instances exhibit no fewer than five 
different accents of a more or less pausal nature. ^ 

. In three instances it 1. Tpt^. with Athnach (1 Kings 1 29; M 20, 21); 
in two it is ■<S»*' with liakeph Oadol (2 Kings 1 8; 8 14); in five it i. TO«t*) with 
Zakeph Katan (I Kings 17 10, U; 2 Kings 6 17. 18; 18 14); in one instance it 
is shm with Rt^ia (I Kings 8 23); and in four instances it idk*! with BegoUa 
(I Kings 18 36; 2 Kings 7 2, 19; 19 16). 

3'onn - § 842. v;. •- 

IIDK^I occurs ninety-one times ..,.and wherever it is preceded 
hy in or re'i in Job it is likewise so. The exceptional pointing of 
thisexpression which was originally recorded in each book 
separately, but for which we have as yet found tiiree separate 



K — K § 842. 



1U3 



§ 843— 846 a. K — K 



Lists only, is here grouped together into one List extending over 
the whole Bible. * As the three separate Lists catalogue sixty- 
five instances in those special books (vt'de supra, §§ 839—841), 
there are twenty-six only left for the remaining Scriptures. The 
distribution of the instances in the sundry books, as well as the 
minute and extraordinary labours of the Massorites will best bo 
seen when it is stated that apart from the thirty-two passages in 
Job to be mentioned hereafter, laK-i occurs altogether two thousand 
and forty-two times and that it is pointed -i0»t*i in nineteen hundred 
and fifty-one instances, and -lOK*] in ninety-one passages only. The 
relative number of each form in the several books is as follows: 



2%« Pentateuch. 

•am 698 "<?»«*} 40 

Gen. 327 21 

Exod. 150 6 
Levit 10 

Numb. S4 11 

Deut 22 2 

Latter Pt-qphett. 
"ia»l*i 178 10K*! 6 



Earlier Propfiett. 

iSKh 970 iO»»*] 83 
Josh. 62 1 

Judg. 126 7 

Sam. 460 lo 

Kings 332 ifi 

Hdgiographa. 
lOK*} 210 IDK'I 12 



Isa. 32 1 Ps. 3 1 

Jerem. 49 . Ptot. 1 

Exek. 41 . Job 18 4 

Minor Proph. 66 6 Megil. 43 1 

Dan. 16 2 

Ezra-Neh. 16 
Chron. 120 4 

Total 10K*1 693 + 970 + 178 + 210 = 1961. 
Total 10K«1 40 + S3 -J- 6 -h 12 = 91 . 

As the different accents of iaK»i in the sixty-five instances 
recorded in the three separate Rubrics have already been given, 
we have only to remark that the remaining twenty-six exhibit 
a still greater variety than those in the Pentateuch. * 

We have still to consider the import of the remark at the 
end of this Rubric that apart from the four instances in Job 
where it is "i^ it is likewise so pointed in this book, wherever 
it is preceded in the same verse by js'i or b)d»i. There are twenty- 
nine instances in which na»«ti is preceded in the same verse by 
jyn in Job and three in which it is preceded by »)d'i.» These 
thirty-two instances have, therefore, to be added to the ninety- 
one so that there are properly one hundred and twenty-three 
passages in which this future thi^d person singular with Vav 
conversive is pointed i^'i with Pathach under the Mem. Though 
in twenty-seven of these instances it is -iok^i with the Silluk on 
the penultimate, ' still it is in five instances with the accent on 
the ultimata* The Massorah, therefore, correctly indicates these 
instances by f\B^_ jpn and not by 'man avKt b-rbo Vai. 

Of this Rubric I collated four Lists, three in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol I, fol. 8t, on Gen. U 19 which 
I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 113a, on 2 Kings 19 15; 
(HI) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah H, § 9, and (IV) the printed 
Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 558. It will be seen that List I 
which I have printed records eighty-nine instances only, but as 
it states in the heading that there are ninety-one it is evident 
that the omission of Gen. 48 15 and Exod. 2 14 is due to a clerical 
error. The mnemonic sign at the end, viz. asM consists of the 
initials of the instances in Job and ought properly to be abki, since 
there are four catchwords. Though the heading of List II distinctly 
states that there are ninety-one such instances it practically 
records eighty-eight only, since it gives Gen. 27 36 and 2 Sam. 
16 21 twice and omits 2 Kiiigs 6 18; 7 19; 2 Chron. 20 6. 

> But though there is no oUier separate List of the several books, there 
is a List grouping together all the Prophets which I have printed in Vol. Ill, 
p. 333, § 96 and there is another List which records the instances in the 
Prophete and in the Hagiographa and which is given in Add. 21,160, fol. 281 a. 

> In ten distances it is 10»*\ with Athnaeh (Josh. 7 20; Judg. 11 30; IS 8; 
le 28; SO 4; Zech. 1 10; Job 1 14, 18; Ruth t 6; 1 Chron. 11 17); in three it 
is -lOK*! with Zakeph Gadol 'JwdJK, « 18; 8 19; Dan. » 22); in three it is "iOK^i 
Zttkeph Kalon (Judg. 15 18; J^onlih S 4; Dan. 8 16); in four it is •^»*1 Bevia 
(Iss. »8 8; Jonah 4 2; .2 Chron..* 14; 180 6); In four it is *)?»«^ SegoUa (Zech. 
1 12; Job 1 16, 17; 2 Chron. 14 10); in one insUnce it is 1D»I<1 Paxer (Ps. 18 2) 
and in one ion*! Shafthtlelh (Amos 1 2). 

» Comp. lex*} .... ISr. Job 1 7, 9; 8 2, 4; S 2; 4 1; « 1 ; 8 1 ; » 1; 11 1; 
IS 1; IS 1; 16 1; 18 1; 19 1; 30 1; 31 1; S3 1; SS 1; 36 1; 8« 1; S3 6; S4 1; 
J6 1; 88 1; 40 1, 3, 6; 48 1; lOK*! .... «1D*! Job 87 1; 89 1; 86 1. 

* Comp. IISNi. • • W 88 6; ion*!. . . lyi 1 9; 8 4; "i?***!. . . llfn 1 7; 8 2. 



The catchwords for 2 Sam. 20 20 which are here -lom stk pn 
are a clerical error for -io»n aid' {n. The omission at the end of 
the Rubric, viz. 'noi arm fp'n ]V^ hs\ leaves the thirty-two instances 
in Job unexplained. List III omits five instances, viz. Exod. 32 81 ; 
Numb. 24 15, 23; 2 Kings 6 18 and 2 Chron. 20 6, whilst List IV, 
which is from Jacob b. Chayim's Massorah, records ninety-two 
instances. But ]nav BKiaa 'm ,hbt^\■'^ which is here given as the 
seventeenth instance does not occur. It is evidently intended simply 
for p-ttsr BKiaa 'm 2 Kings 6 20 where, however, the textua receptua 
is rightly laK*! with 8egol. Moreover, the catchword ib*i'* Numb. 

23 12 is a mistake for jyi and b\inv \-i^k '"' nem = 2 Chron. 20 6 
is a mistake for irnsK \"6k ■••'' lain. 

On Exod. 33 14 the printed Massorah states that nax^i occurs 
ninety-one times, that forty of these instances are in the Penta- 
teuch, that ten of them begin a verse and that they are given 
in the Massorah Magna.* In the Massorah Finalis, however, the 
ten instances in which "i&k^i begins a verse are not given, and 
as the language here is ambiguous and may suggest that these 
ten instances extend to the whole Bible, I have to add that they 
are restricted to the Pentateuch (Gen. 15 8; 16 8; 18 8; 19 7; 

24 12, 34; 30 28; Exod. 33 14, 18; Deut. 33 2) and th^t outside 
the Pentateuch iok»i also begins a verse seven times (2 Sam. 19 27 ; 
22 2; 1 Kings 8 23; Amos 1 2; Ps. 18 2; 2 Chron. 6 14; 20 6). 
This notice is interesting inasmuch as it shows that this Rubric 
proceeds from a different School of Massorites. 

.'nan 'ooa |»»im ''di U^ pnjo " ina pnso "o »•» loiw t 

j'onn - § 843. 

*T)3K*1* In four instances the Kethiv or textual reading is nan*i 
and he said, and the Keri or official reading is nakj and I said. For 
the variations which obtained with regard to these readings see 
the notes on these passages in my edition of the Hebrew Bible. 

Of this Rubric I collated eight Lists, six in MSS. and two 
printed: (I) Harley 5710-11, Vol. I, fol. 1966, on 2 SanL 1 8 
which I have printed; (II) the same MS., VoL H, fol. 2966, on 
Nell. 6 9; (HI) Arund. Orient. 16, foL 2 1 8a, on Zech. 4 2; (IV) the 
same MS., foL 382^, on Neh. 5 9; (V) Add. 15,251, Supplement^ 
fol. 488&; (VI) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah I, § 117; (VH) Paris 
Ochlah Ve-Ochlah, § 133, and (VIII) the printed Massorah on 
Neh.. 5 9. 

rnnn = § 844. 

nttK^4 /n tu}elve instances the textual reading is n&K'i and he 
said, and the Sevir is iii3K»i and they said. That the Sevir records 
the actual readings of important Codices will be seen from the 
notes on these passages in my edition of the Bible, as well as 
from the Introduction to it p. 187 &c. 

Of this Rubric I collated ten Lists, eight in MSS. and two 
printed: (I) Cambridge Add. 1174, on Exod. 14 25 which I have 
printed; (II) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 24a, on Judg. 8 6; (HI) the 
same MS., fol. 104a, »n 2 Kings 9 11; (IV) the same MS., fol. 219a, 
on Zech. 6 7; (V) Add. 15,251, fol. 49a, on Exod. 14 25; (VI) Add. 
16,451, fol. 2526, on 1 Kings 20 3; (VII) the same MS., foL 892a, 
on Zech. 6 7; (VIII) Add. 21,160, fol. 246a, on Numb. 32 25; 
(IX) the printed Massorah on the same passage, and (X) the 
same on Judg. 11 15. 

iTonn = § 845. 

*ntti^*1 has in three instances the accent Zakeph. This Rubric, 
which does hot occur in the printed Massorah, is from Add. 15,250, 
fol. 158a, on 1 Sam. 20 37. It is very difficult to explain. Not 
only has no»t»5 Zakeph Qadol in Gen. 24 17 which is of frequent 
occurrence, but with Zakeph Katon nain it is to be found eight 
more times in the texbus rece^us.^ 

1 Comp. -i»M^i Otitt. 40 18; Exod. 4 1; 1 Sam. 19 22; 81 6; 8S 10; 86 14, 
22; 2 Sam. 19 22. 

ronn - § 846 a. 

^ttK^T occurs four times at the beginning of a verse in the 
Pentateuch with the accent Zarka. That is, when it precedes a proper 
nWe. This Rubric is from the printed Massorah on Gen. 32 10. 
On Numb. 11 21 the printed Massorah gives it again, but here 
it registers the two instances only which occur in Numbers and 
the heading ought, therefore, to be K-iB'oa DPtta 'a. The expression 
""Da is properly given in the Massorah Parva where notice is 
also taken of the fact that it occurs altogether ten times with 
this accent in combination with a proper name ("n nB^oa 'pea 'a 
"jibea 'Ptsa). 



K — K § 8466—848. 



— 104 



§ 849—854. K 



rann = § 8466. 

nipK*! occurs nine times with this accent at the beginning of a 
verse. That is, when it precedes a proper name. In the preceding 
Rubric we have the first attempt of the Massorites to collate 
the accents connected with this expression in one of the books 
and then in one of the three great divisions of the Bible, whilst 
in the Rubric before us we have the result of their collation 
throughout the Scriptures. 

Of this Rubric I collated two Lists: (I) Harley 5710 — 11, 
Vol. I, fol. 26, on Gen. 2 23 which I have printed, and (II) the 
printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 569. The two Rubrics, 
however, viz, § >'iGa and § 84G6 proceed from two different 
Schools of Massorites, as is evident f]?9m the fact that they are 
based upon two different principles. The compilers of the first 
Rubric regarded D-nen Gen. 2 23 in the light of a proper name 
and hence included it in this category, whilst the authors of 
the second Rubric took it as an ordinary appellative and hence 
excluded it. It will be seen that the Lists of Rubric 84G6 are 
in apparent conflict. The one which I have printed distinctly 
states in the heading that there are nine such instances and 
enumerates nine only, whilst Jacob b. Chayim's List as emphati- 
cally declares that there are ten and records ten passages. The 
clue to this discrepancy is to be found in the fact that the one 
is based upon the names of the persons and, therefore, regards 
Numb. 11 21, 16 28 and 1 Sam. 17 37, 23 10 each pair as one 
instance, since these four instances refer to two persons only, viz. 
Moses and David whilst the other has regard to the passages 
and hence gives these two instances separately, though in the 
case of David, it inconsistently omits one of the references. The 
only other three instances where this future third person singular 
with Tav converse has this accent, viz. is ncK^i (Gen. 44 18; Deut. 
31 23; Ezek. 37 11) are omitted because they do not belong to 
this category. A part of this Rubric is given below § 877. 

rann = § 846*. 

*1DK 1 has in fourteen instances the accent Pazer.Oi this Rubric, 
which i have printed in Vol. II, p. 2, § 846*, I collated three 
Lists, one in MS. and two printed: (I) Harley 5710 — 11, Vol. I, 
fol. 13a, on Gen. 22 2 which I have printed; (II) the printed 
Massorah on Exod. 34 9 and (III) the same on 2 Sam. 23 17. 
Though List I states in the heading that there are fourteen such 
instances, it enumerates thirteen only. In the textus recejytus there 
are fifteen passages in which -iox*i occurs; the two passages which 
are omitted in this List are 1 Sam. 20 29 and Isa. 6 11. List II 
also states in the heading that there are fourteen instances only 
and records thirteen, since the catchwords in r'?K reE?"! are not 
only a mistake for nn v'tk iok'-i = l Sam. 30 1 5, but are given 
twice and Gen. 27 33 and 2 Sam. 23 17 are omitted. List III 
states that there are seventeen instances. It omits 1 Chron. 
11 19 and gives the three instances in which it is nnaKi with this 
accent and thus obtains the seventeen passjiges. 

rann = § 847. 

^TttX'1 /"IDS'I* In seven verses naK'l occurs twice, in the first 
instance.it is -iok*1 with Segol under the Mem and in the second iok't 
xoith Pathach. The design of this Massorah is to safeguard the 
two different pointings of the same expression in one and the 
same verse. 

Of this Rubric I collated five Lists, four in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Orient 2349, fol. 566, on Gen. 43 9 which I have 
printed; (II) Orient 444.5, fol. 396, on the same passage; (III) the 
same MS., fol. 43fl, on Exod. 2 14; (IV) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 
3216, on Job 1 7, and (V) the printed Massorah on the same 
passage. List II affords a striking illustration of the way in 
which Nakdanim througli ignorance hopelessly corrupted the 
Massorah at the very earliest period. Not only does the Nakdan 
state in the Massorah Parva of this ancient Codex that there 
are nine such instances, but he mixes up the two opposite Rubrics, 
and gives inexplicable catchwords.' That this confusion is due 
to the ignorance of the Nakdan is evident from the fact that 
in List III which is from the same Codex, this Massorah is 
perfectly correct. 

i»3K h» t|Di' -laKn ;in:o'oi iom'i "nnsi isx'i 'KOip I'mn ['mn pnn n>« pos 'a « 
h« mrr -laK'i 'irScn 'cScn ^aa np '32 '[in* c'rh^ lat? «ip 'sn na.y'i ^•h» lai*? iiv spi\ 

.n':ni |arn 

n"onn = § .s4s. 

nttS'l »^fii^T» In three verses the reverse is the case. They 
respevtively have noK*] with Pathach first, and then njjKh with Segol. 



Of this Rubric I collated five Lists, three in MSS. and two 
printed: (I) Orient 2349, fol. 566; (II) Orient 4445, fol. 43a; 
(III) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 321 6, and (IV) the printed Massorah 
on Job 1 7, all as a contrast to the former Rubric and (V) the 
printed Massorah on Gen. 18 29 where it is given as an in- 
dependent Rubric. 

E3"ann = § 849. 

HDK^'I* In tioo verses this expression is repeated forir times. Of 
this Rubric I collated five Lists, three in MSS. and two printed : 
(I) Hkrley 5710—11, Vol. I, fol. 235a, on 1 Kings 20 14 which 
I have printed; (11) Add. 15,251, fol. 1976, on the same passage; 
(III) Add. 21,160, fol. 10a, on Gen. 22 7; (IV) the printed 
Massorah on the same passage and (V) the same on 1 Kings 20 14. 

rnn = § 85o. 

^"'KH HttK^I and the man said, occurs twice. This Rubric, 
which I have ifound in Arund. Orient. 16 only, fol. 326, on Judg. 
19 20, is incorrect since the phrase occurs at least in three other 
passages (Judg. 19 17; 1 Sam. 4 16; 2 Sam. 18 12). 

x":nn = § 85i. 

7K lIpS'l and he said, unto me, occurs seven times with the 
accent in this hook. That is, in Ezekiel this phrase has seven times 
Tipcha Athnach. The design of this Massorah is to safeguard 
these seven instances from the other twenty-eight instances in 
which it occurs in this book and where it has different accents. 
This Rubric I found in the printed ^assorah only (Ezek. 46 24). 

3":nn = § 852. 

""pK *lttS'1 occurs ten times with the accent in this book. That 
is, with Munach. Zakeph Katon in Ezekiel, to distinguish it from 
the different accents which this phrase has in the other passages 
where it occurs in this book. {Vide §§ 851, 853.) Of this Rubric 
I collated two Lists: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 94a, on 
Ezek. 37 3 which I have printed, and (II) the printed Massorah 
Finalis, letter k, § 603. In both Lists ' = 10 in heading is a 
mistake for a = 9 and in both b"-i = at the beginning of a verse, ig 
omitted, as is evident from the fact that this phrase with the 
same accents occurs three times more in this book (Ezek. 3 22, 
24; 41 4) and that they are excluded from the List because in 
these three instances it does not begin a verse. It is to be re- 
marked that the Massorah expressly safeguards these nine 
instances because in the other eight passages where this phrase 
begins a verse in Ezekiel it is -^k iDKi;i with Revia after the Munach 
(Ezek. 2 3; 3 3; 4 16; 9 9; 42 13; 43 7^, 18; 47 8). The ninth instance 
in which it has the accent does not begin a verse (Ezek. 11 5). 

r:nn = § 853. 

''7X nOK'1 occurs three times with these accents in this hook. 
That is, in Ezekiel. Of this Rubric I collated three Lists, two in 
MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 74a, on 
Ezek. 8 12 which I have printed; (II) Add. 1.5,251, fol. 2716, on 
the same passage and (III) the printed Massorah on Ezek. 37 11. 

In the heading of List I 'npa = in the Scriptures, is mani- 
festly a clerical error for 'bds = in this book. More difficult is 
the third instance which this List gives, viz. d'tok = Ezek. 37 11, 
since it is here ^^k nOR»] ZarJca, Scgolta and not Munach SegoUa as 
it is in the other two instances. List II aggravates the difficulty 
for it not only gives Ezek. 37 11 as the third passage, but 
has catchwords for the second instance which do not occur.* 
Jacob b. Chayim's Rubric (List III) is still more inexplicable. 
(1) It states in the heading that iaK*i by itself occurs three times 
with Zarlca in Ezekiel which is incorrect since it occurs once 
only with this accent and (2X it gives catchwords for two passages 
only and the second is the same which is given in List II and 
which does not occur.^ 

\2 onax ,n-nn' 'spt n» n»xin .n'a'jprnirx d-k p n'x-rn jinia'Di 'pea 'j h* "iok'i > 

h» ptn'a n'?3i 
a mm' »jpt .nSsn niasyn 'a'Ci Kiaaa «pnf n^'aa 'i naxi. xhe printed Massorah 
Parva, too, against ^sxM Ezek. 37 1 1 remarks ''Da 'yaa 'J == u ocan» titree times 
ivUh thi» accent in litis bnok. 

T:nn = § 854. 

D'lK'ia ri*K"l''!!f 'b'^ ^^^^ ""^i^ he said unto me Son of man 
haft thou seen, occurs four times in this combination in the Scriptures. 
This Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, is 
from Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 74a, on Ezek. 8 12. The 
heading ought properly to be 'bD31 "'tan "l it occurs four times and 
in this hook, since all the four instances are restricted to Ezekiel. 



X § 855—860. 



— 105 — 



§ 861-865. K — 8 



n'ifin = § 855. 

QTvK ^toK*'1 and he said unto them, occurs five times thus 
combined ..... and they are all in the Hagiographa. The design of 
this Massorah is to safeguard these exceptional instances in the 
Hagiographa against being made conformable to the normal 
combination nnh -io»(»i which is recorded in § 874. 

Of this Rubric I collated two separate Lists: (I) Harley 
5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 155a, on 2 Chron. 10 9 which I have 
printed and (II) the printed Massorah on the same passage. The 
import of this Rubric is aptly expressed in the mnemonic sign 
of the heading in List II which is as follows: Throughout 
Chronicles, Daniel and Ezra the phrase is on^ iok^i except in 
five instances where it is dit^k "!aK*i i 

•cn'^j* laK'i n'aa znh lattn r"n hs fco i 

r:nn = § 856. 

nuK7 Drr^yK HttK'T and he said vnto them saying, occurs 
twice. This Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, 
is from Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 5 a, on Josh. 7 2. 

?":nn = § 857. 

D^*1^KI TpS'1 and God said, occurs twenty-five times. In all 
other instances where -laxii is followed by the Divine name it 
is rtrr Jehovah and not d',-i'?k God. Of this Rubric I collated five 
Lists, four in MSS. and one printed: (I) Arund. Orient. 16, 
fol. 786, on 1 Kings 3 5 which I have printed; (II) the same 
MS., fol. 2576, on 2 Chron. 1 11; (III) Orient. 2349, fol. 114a, on 
Numb. 22 12; (IV) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah, Supplement, fol. 1296, 
and (V) the printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 468. List IV 
simply records the twenty instances in which this phrase occurs 
in the Pentateuch and is very faulty. 

n'ann = § 858. 

Dfl7K ^ttK'l occurs three times toith these accents. That is, Munach 
with Zakeph-Katon to safeguard it against being made conformable 
to the other seven instances in which the Munach is followed by 
Revia. (Comp. n'.'i'rK laK^i Gen, 1 9, 11, 14, 24, 29; 9 12; 17 19.) 

Of this Rubric I 'collated five Lists, three in MSS. and two 
printed: (I) Orient. 2348, fol. 396, on Gen. 1 6 which I have 
printed; (II) Orient. 2349, fol. 296, on the same passage; (III) 
Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, § 296; (IV) the printed Massorah 
on Gen. 1 6 and (V) th|j)rinted Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 481, 

It is remarkable that all these Lists omit 1 Kings 3 5 where 
DTlbK laijji has the same accents. This may be due to the design 
of the Massorah which is simply to contrast the different accents 
in the Pentateuch only, or* to record the instances where this 
phrase begins a verse. In either case, however, the heading 
should properly be 'nina '»ti3 -a or c-n Tisa •:. 



cs'^nn = § 859. 

/ mT IttK^I* In four instances nln^ iok'I and Jehovah said, 
is abnormally follotoed by the pi-efix Lam.ed attached to the individual 
thus addressed ...... whereas in all other passages it is follotced 

by -bK. 

Of this Rubric I collated three Lists, two in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 1136, on Jonah 2 11 
which I have printed; (II) the same MS., Vol. I, fol. 22G6, on 
1 Kings 11 11 and (III) the printed Massorah on Gen. 6 13. 

The printed Massorah (List III) is very corrupt. It begins 
by stating in the heading that mn^K nOK^i is four times followed 
by Lamed and after giving one instance in which this phrase 
is thus followed by the prefix it continues with the phrase netri 
ni.T of which it records three instances, omitting l Kings 11 ii. 

D-nn = § 860. 

' 7T *P^j5 ** /""'' **"'^* *'^*** Munach Zarka in this hook. 
That is, in Exodus to distinguish it from the other accents which 
this phrase has in Exodus and which are recorded in the next 
Rubric. 

Of this Rubric I collated three Lists, two in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, VoL I, fol. 39a, on Exod. 8 l which 
I have printed and which alone has the mnemonic sign; (II) 
Add. 21,160, fol, 696, on Exod, 4 21 and (IH) the printed Massorah 
on the same passage. 



K'Dnn = § 861. 

nilT ■IDK'I has in ticelve instances Kadma Ve-Azla in this 
book. That is, in Exodus in contradistinction to the accents which 
this phrase has in the passages recorded in § 860. 

Of this Rubric I collated four Lists, three in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Orient. 234!», fol. 68a, on Exod. 17 14 which I have 
printed; (II) Orient. 4445, fol. 49a, on Exod. 8 16; (III) Vienna 
Codex No. 35 on Exod. 10 12 and (IV) the printed Massorah on 
Exod. 4 11. The printed Massorah records ten passages only, 
though it correctly states in the heading that there are twelve 
such instances. It omits Exod. 8 16 and 17 5. 



3'Dnn = § 862. 

rnrP nttK**! has in nine instances Kadma Ve-Azla in this book. 
That is, in Numbers where this phrase occurs twenty-four times 
with six different accents it has in nine passages Kadma Ve-Azla.* 

Of this Rubric I collated five Lists, four in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Orient. 2349, fol. I07a, on Numb, 11 16 which I 
have printed; (II) Add. 15,251, fol. 896, on the same passage; 
(III) Add. 21,160, fol, 207a, on Numb. 12 4; (IV) Harley 5710—11, 
Vol. I, fol. 976, on Numb. 18 20 and (V) the printed Massorah 
on Numb. 3 40. 

' In five instances it is np' nstoi wltli Mercha, Tipcha (Numb. 7 4, 11; 
15 37; 27 6; 31 26); in six mn' na.x^i Melmpach Pashta (Numb. 11 23; 14 11; 
15 35; 18 1; 2G 1; 27 12); in one instance it is nin» n3«;i Munach, Zakeph-Kat<m 
(Numb. U 20); in one nirr •a»i\ Munach, Zarka (Numb. 20 12) in one nin' "laKji 
Darga Tevir (Numb. 20 23) and in one instance rnn' noKi (Numb. 21 34). 

J"Dnfl = § 863. 

rniT "ItoK'l has in five instances Kadma Ve-Azla in this book. 
In Deuteronomy where this phrase occurs fourteen times, it is 
with Kadma Ve-Azla five times, that is at the beginning of a 
verse. > The sixth passage where it also has these accents is 
excluded because it does not begin a verse (Deut. 5 25). Its 
exclusion, however, may be due to the fact that the Codices are 
not agreed on its ac6ents as may be seen from the notes on this 
passage in my edition of the Bible. 

Of this Rubric I collated three Lists, two in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, fol. ill 6, on Deut. 1 42 
which I have printed: (II) Add. 15,250, fol. 966, on Deut. 2 9 
and (III) the printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 602. 

1 In the other eight instances it is nin» laxji three times (Deut 2 2- 9 13 
18 17) and five times nin> nOK^i (Deut 2 31; 3 2, 20; 10 11; 31 16). ' 

TDflfl = § 864. 

I ini|$"^K nirT| 1ttK*1 and Jehovah said unto Aaron, occurs 
three times. That is, on three occasions the Lord addressed'himself 
to Aaron alone not in conjunction with Moses, as is recorded 
in the next Rubric. 

Of this Rubric I collated x^x Lists, four in MSS. and two 
printed: (I) Orient. 2349, fol. 596, on Exod. 4 27 which I have 
printed; (II) Add. 21,160, fol. 696, on the same passage; (III) the 
same MS., fol. 2186, on Numb. 18 1; (IV) Halle Ochlah Ve- 
Ochlah I, § 154; (V) the printed Massorah on Exod. 4 27 and 
(VI) the same on Numb. 18 20. The heading of List VI, viz. 
Kanoa •; that this phrase occurs three times with the same accents 
is misleading, since the design of this Rubric is to record the 
event and not the accents. Besides the three passages exhibit 
two different accents. In Exod. 4 27; Numb. 18 1 this phrase 
is with Mehupach, Pashla, Zakeph-Katon, whilst in Numb. 18 20 
it is Kadma Ve-Azla Be via. 



iT'Dnn = § 865. 

n"TK-bj<1 ntt2rhi< nln^ nipK'l and Jehovah said unto Moses 
and unto Aaron, occurs seven times thus combined. That is, Jehovah 
addressed his communication to the two brothers together in 
contradistinction to the instances recorded in the preceding 
Rubric where the Lord spake to Aaron alone. 

Of this Rubric I collated five Lists, four in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Orient. 2349, fol. 646, on Exod. 12 43 which I have 
printed; (II) Add. 21,160, fol, 77a, on Exod. 9 8; (III) the same 
MS,, fol. 2236, on Numb. 20 23; (IV) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah I, 
§ 154, and (V) the printed, Massorah on Exod. 7 8. As this 
Massorah, which I have printed, is on Exod. 12 43 which exhibits 
the only instance where Aaron is with the prefix Vav (pnjti), the 



N — K I 866-868. 



_ 106 — 



§ 869—874. K 1^ 



heading is '^m^-^^.-^ ^^^ ***^^' Lists however have 
it more correctly ^^r^ rrfer^ rrtrr lOKh and List. HI, m 
enumerating the seven passages, adds to the catchwords of the 
fonrth instance (Exod. 12 43) that it is here with the prefix 
Fat./ whilst List IV states that there are six such instances only 
and omits the passage with png\ altogether. 



ronn - § see. 

"iarf? ntt?ia" ^K nVr ^S*5 and Jehwah said unto Moaes 
raying, ocimr$ Jive tiS^ 'ihLs comUned in the Pentateuch. As the 
normal phrase is nbK*? n^te-^ nirr n?Ti and Jehovah spake unto 
Mose, saying which occurs no fewer than seventy times m the 
Pentateuch, and as it is in these five passages only where it is 
T9i«n. and he said, the Massorah safeguards this abnormal 
phraseology. , . , 

Of tmr Rubric, which constitutes one of the oldest parts of 
the Massorah, I coUated ten Lists, nine in MSS. and one printed: 
(D Harley 6710-12, VoL I, foL 88b, on Numb. 7 4 which I have 
printed; (U) Orient 4445, foL 74a. on Numb. 31 25; (III) Add. 
16,251, fol. 92a, on Numb. 16 88; (IV) Add. 21,160, fol. 118&, 
on Exod. 31 12; (V) the same MS., fol. 197a, on Numb. 7 4; 
(VI) the same MS., fol. 236a, on Numb. 27 6; (VII) the same 
MS., foL 243a, on Numb. 31 26; (VIH) Vienna Codex No ^ 
Exod. 31 12; (IX) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah I, § 154, and (X)llie 
printed Massorah on Numb. 31 26. List VIH adds at the end 
the mnemonic sign tot pk which are the initial letters of the 
five verses in connection with which this phrase occurs, whilst 
List X, which is given in Jacob b. Chayim's Massorah, is as 
usual corrupt Here this Rubric is headed rn ^^ - it occurs svv 
times at the beginning of a verse which is incorrect, since there are 
five such instances only, as all the other nine Lists correctly 
state. cn>6 ne D© ^ - Exod. 4 U which Jacob b. Chayim gives as 
the second instance, does not exhibit this phrase and belongs to 
§ 869. Moreover, the expression b-i is incorrect since these in- 
stances do not begin a verse, but severaUy constitute the 
vkoie verse. 

t-onn - § 867. 

^K nVT 1t^ and Jehovfirsaid unto me, occurs four times 
wUh ihe "accent in ihi^'bo6k and the mnem&nie sign thereof is A pious 
youth called to Samuel , 

This phrase, which occurs thirteen times in Jeremiah, has 
four different accents. In one instance it is with Darga, Tevir, 
Tipcha; in three passages it is with Mercha, Tipcha, AihnacUa; m 
four instances it is witii Kadma Ve-Ada, Revia,^ whilst in five 
passages it is Mehupach, Pashta, Zakeph-Katon. Of tiiese, however, 
the Rubric before us gives four only. It omits Jerem. 1 9 which 
is due to the fact that it-does not begin a verse. The headmg 
ought more properly to be 'MS 'pen f^ 'i- 

Of this Rubric I collated tiiree Lists, two in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 164a, on Jerem. 11 6 which 
I have printed; (II) Vienna Codex No. 35 on the same passage 
and (HI) tiie printed Massorah on Jerem. 1 7. The mnemonic 
sign by itself is also given in tiie printed Massorah on Jerem. 11 6 
and in the printed Massorah FinaUs, letter k, § 599. Here, 
however, the heading rwnuhr^ 'Dip 'Stan is wrong; it ought to 
be Kiavfi ^ftna 'wsa 't. 

' Comp. •^»« mn' TDUn (Jerem. 1 12); ^ rrm> tdki (Jerem. 1 14; U 9; 14 11); 
^» m'nv«)biw (Jerem. 8 6; IJ 6; 14 14; 84 8). 

n-onn = § 868. 

ntoK^ "^H mn? ^^ «"^ Jehffuah said unto me saying, 
occurs twice . .'. " and imce it is and Jehovah spake unto me saying. 
The phrase mrr no»«*i foUowed by ^ the preposition C?^) with 
suffix first person singular, which occurs upwards of tiiirty 
times in the Scriptures,* is in these two instances only combined 
with -^vh. Hence the Massorah safeguards the two exceptional 
phrases. This Massorah is, moreover, designed to guard Deut 2 2 
against being made conformable to verse 17 of tlfc» same 
chapter. This Rubric, which does not occur in the printed 
Massorah, is from Harley 5710-11, Vol. I, fol. 112a, on 
Deut 2 2. 

1 Comp. Deut 1 42; t 0, 81; J 2, 2«; 5 26; 9 12; 10 11; 18 17; 
I«u 8 1, 8; Jerem. 1 7, 0, 12, 14; S 6, 11; 11 6, 9; IJ 6; 14 H, 14; 15 1; 248; 
Eiek. » 86; Hofc » 1; Amoe 1 8, 16; 8 2; Zech. 11 13, 16. 



T^ rrtTP TSK*1 and Jehwah said unto him, occurs six times 
thus combined^ at the beginning of a verse. In this combination this 
phrase occurs altogether ten times, but in the remaining four 
instances it does not begin the .verse. (Comp. Josh. 18 1 ; 2 Sam. 8 1 ; 
1 Kings 22 21; 2 Chron. 18 20.) As in tiie other six passages 
in which this phrase occurs the combination differs, inasmuch 
as vb» and rilrr are inverted (comp. Exod. 4 2; 19 24; Judg. 6 12, 
16; 7 9; Jerem." 40 2) and, moreover, as in this inverted order 
it also begins a verse in three instances, the Massorah safeguards 
the normal order and protects the official reading in Ezek. 9 4. 

Of this Rubric I collated nine Lists, six in MSS. and three 
printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, fol. 186a, on Deut 34 4 which 
I have printed; (H) Arund. Orient 16, foL 846, on 1 Kings 9 8; 
(III) Orient 2349, foL 1436, on Deut 34 4; (IV) Add. 16,260, 
fol. 2976, on Hos. 1 4; (V) Add. 15,251, fol. 294a, on the same 
passage; (VI) Add. 15,451, fol. 232a, on 1 Kings 9 3; (VH) tiie 
printed Massorah on the same passage; (VIH) the same on 
1 Kings 19 15 and (IX) the same on Hos. 1 4. 

vnn - § 870. 

'h *^K*n ' and he said to me, occurs eight times. Normally 
nan*-! is combined with "h^ and it is in these eight instances only 
that it is followed by 'V- Hence tiie Massorah safeguards this 
exceptional combination. 

Of this Rubric I collated ten Lists, eight in MSS. and two 
printed: (I) Arund. Orients 16, fol. 28a, on Judg. 13 7 which 
I have printed; (II) the same MS., fol. 67a, on 2 Sam. 1 8; 
(HI) the same MS., fol. 140a, on Isa. 49 3; (IV) the same Ma, 
fol. 3376, on Prov. 4 4; (V) the same MS., fol. 2556, on 
1 Chron. 28 6; (VI) the samfe MS., fol. 880a, on Neh. 2 4; 
(VII) Add. 15,451, foL 1726, on Judg. 13 7; (VHI) the same Ma, 
foL 4456, on Neh. 2 2; (IX) the printed Massorah on Judg. 13 7 
and (X) the same on Prov. 4 4. 

K'Pfin - § 871. 

rrtiT 'h 'TDK*! and Jehovah said to Mm, occurs four times in 
this eombtnation.\he design of this Massorah is to safeguard 
these instances against being made conformable to the more 
general phrase rrtrr r^ -io>«»5 which occurs six times. (Vide supra, 
% 869.) 

Of this Rubric I collated seven Lists, six in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Harley 6710—11, VoL H, foL 1396, on 1 Chron. 14 10 
which I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 226, on 
Judg. 6 23; (HI) the same MS., foL 247a, on 1 Chron. 14 10; 
(IV) Add. 15,250, foL 135a, on Judg. 6 23; (V) Orient 2849, 
fol. 31a, on Gen. 4 16; (VI) Vienna Codex No. 36 on 1 Chron. 14 10 
and (Vn) the printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 184. Jacob b. 
Chayim's Massorah (ListVH), as usual, is incorrect; -len nn ought to 
be -« nK (Judg. 6 26) and nK ^nnai should be n^a onroi 1 Chron. 14 10. 

ypnn - § 872. 

run© 'h *TDK^ and Pharaoh said to him, occurs twice thus 
combined.' Oi this'' Rubric I collated six Lists, five in MSa and 
one printed: (I) Harley 5710-11, VoL I, foL 41a, on Exod. 10 28 
which I have printed; (II) the same Ma, VoL I, foL 2266, on 
1 Kings 11 22; (IH) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 866, on the same 
passage; (IV) Add. 21,160, foL 81a, on Exod. 1028; (V) Orient 2349, 
foL 686, on tiie same passage and* (VI) the printed Massorah 
on 1 Kings 11 22. List II adds in the heading that it occurs 
twice and begins a verse in boA instances ('m 'tm). 

J'Pfin = § 873. 

mrP '^jK^tt rh nttK*!) and the angel of JehovcJi said to her, 
occurs ihree tinies in ^this''eonibination. This Rubric I found in the 
printed Massorah on Gen. 16 9. The heading ought properly to 
be 'DB 'jm, since in all tiie three instances this phrase begins 
the verse. 

TPnn - § 874. 

on*:? ^K*1 and he said to them, occurs twenty-three times. 

Throughout ChrmicUs, Daniel and Ezra it is likewise so except in jive 
instances where it is a^ na»t»i. To understand this artificial and 
complicated Massorah it is necessary to remark: (1) that in tiie 
Pentateuch and in the Prophets "itoK^i is followed by on^ P»ne 



K — K § 875-879. 



107 



§ 880—884. 



or Bn^»» defective no leas than eighty-seven times and by the 
shorter form cn^ in thirty instances only and (2) that the 
Massorah obtains the twenty-three passages by artificially 
reckoning the seven instances which occur in the section recording 
the exploits of Samson (Judg. 14 12, 14, IS; 16 3, 7, 11, 12) as 
one. In these two divisions of the Bible, therefore, the Massorah 
safeguards the phrase Bn> ncafi which is in the minority against 
being made conformable to the more usual combination ar\bt$ iO)«*!. 
In the Hagiographa, however, the reverse is the case; the 
normal phrase is anh -iOK»i and BT-pK neK»i is the exception. The 
former occurs fourteen times' and the latter five times only. 
Hence the Massorah safeguards in this division of the Bible the 
exceptional combination. (Vide mjna, § 855.) 

Of this Rubric I collated ten Lists, nine in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 25a, on Judg. 9 7 which I 
have printed; (H) the same MS., fol. 22a, on Judg. 6 8; (III) the 
same MS., fol. U86, on 2 Kings 25 24; (IV) Add. 15,451, fol. 191&, 
on 1 Sam. 17 8; (V) the same MS., fol. 2066, on 2 Sam. 4 9; 
(VI) the same MS., fol. 261 a, on 2 Kings 19 6; (VII) the same 
MS fol. 499a, on 2 Chron. 23 3; (VIH) Vienna Codex No. 35 
on 2 Sam. 4 9; (IX) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, § 9, and (X) the 
printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 559. Some of these Lists 
have at the end of the Rubric •«?T3i am pvav ^3% thus excluding 
the Samson Section from the reckoning altogether and hence 
only count twenty-two instances. 

1 Comp on^ •'2»«*' Dan. 2 3; Ezra 3 63; 4 2, 3; Nch. 7 66; 8 10; 1 Chron. 
IS 18; n 12; 2'chron. 12 6; 2S S; 24 5, 20; 28 9; 29 5. This is apart from 
the Kelhiv Neh. 7 3. 

.Tpnn = § 875. 

Drf? IJSK^ occurs three times with this accent in Judges. That 
is, with Mehupc^ch PasMa at the beginning of a verse. This is 
evident from the fact that it occurs twice more with this accent 
(Judg 9 9- 16 12) and that these two instances are excluded 
because they do not begin a verse. The design of this Massorah 
is to safeguard these three instances against being made con- 
formable to the other two passages where this phrase also begins 
the verse, but where it has different accents. Thus in Judg. 14 14 
it has B^^ nOKji Munach Eevia and in 18 6 DnS -lOKji Darga Tevir. This 
Rubric "is from the printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 607. 
Apart from Judges this phrase occurs five times at the beginning 
of a verse with the same accents (Gen. 29 4; 44 15; Josh. 4 5; 
2 Kings 19 6; Jerem. 36 18) and once with the same accents, 
but not at the beginning of a verse (Exod. 17 2). 



r»nn = § 876. 

IS'^S "'Jibs ■|lpX*'1 and he said in his heaH, occurs three times 
in this combination . .'. . once in the Pentateuch, once in the Prophets 
and onee in the Hagiographa. That is, with the name of the person 
between -wk»i and is^a. Emphasis is laid upon this triplet because 
all the three individuals in this combination are described as 
wicked persons and as harbouring wicked thoughts. This explains 
the remark in the printed Massorah Parva on Esther 6 6 
(ate -ttMn '»^ttn 'j). This Rubric, which doea not occur in the 
printed Massorah, is from Harley 6710-11, VoL I, foL 228a, on 
1 Kings 12 26. 

wnn = § 877. 

nttto TDK**] and Moses said, occurs twice with the accent Zarka. 
That is,''in this combination. This Rubric, which is from the printed 
Massorah on Numb. 11 21, is part of Rubric 846. 

n'l^nfi = § 878. 

nVT^K ntt^D ^)1?K*T and Moses said to Jehovah, occurs Jive 
times thus' combined in the Scriptures. Of this Rubric I collated six 
Lists, five in MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, VoL I, 
foL 366, on Exod. 4 10 which I have printed; (II) the same 
MS., Vol. I, fol. 57a, on Exod. 33 12; (IH) Add. 15,250, foL 356, 
on Exod. 4 10; (IV) Add. 21,160, fol. 966, on Exod. 19 23; (V) Halle 
Ochlah Ve-Ochlah I, § 154, and (VI) the printed Massorah on 
Exod. 4 10. 

ttTnn = § 879. 

Q-7«^J( TOtt "WSK^n and Moses said unto them, occurs three 
times. That Ts, to safeguard it against the three passages where this 
phrase occurs and where nfo and BibK are reversed (Numb. 9 8; 
81 16; 32 20). This protection was deemed all the more necessary 
since the two different orders occur within the same chapter 



(comp. Numb. 32 20, 29). Of this Rubric I collated two Lists: 
(I) Add. 21,160, fol. 91a, on Exod. 16 16 which I have printed 
and (II) the printed Massorah on the same passage. 

D'nn = § 880. 

"i^Sh nipK*!] and he said before, or in the presence of, occurs 
Jive tivies. That is, this future third person singular masculine 
with Vav conversive which is normally followed 'by -bK is in 
these five passages construed with the more formal expression 
'3B^. Of this Rubric, which is one of the oldest constituent parts 
of the Massorah, I collated two Lists: (I) the printed Massorah 
on Exod. 6 30 which I have printed and (II) Orient. 4445, 
fol. 47o, on the same passage. This ancient Codex gives the 
Rubric as follows: unnK pioo issbn Tin ua-i rwa ivna'Di 'n 'ith rn'Oic 
13'Tms oijasB vbv stts -a-io roiann. Eccl. 5 5 is excluded because it is 
-laKln the second person and not -iok»i. 

K'Dnn = § 881. 

niriB ISK^ and Pharaoh said, is three times ioiOi Zakeph- 
Katon. This phrase, which occurs fourteen times and which begins 
a verse in thirteen instances, has no fewer than seven different 
accents.' The Massorah, therefore, safeguards the accents in 
these three passages against being made conformable to those 
in the other passages. 

Of this Rubric I collated three Lists, one in MS. and two 
printed: (I) Add. 21,160, fol. 70a, on Exod. 6 2 which I have 
printed; (II) the printed Massorah on the same passage and 
(III) the printed Massorah Finalis, letter b, § 104. 

« In one instance it is n^-a io»t«} (Exod. 8 24); in one nj^i i?»«? (Gen. 60 6); 
in two instances n^ lOK*! (Gen. 41 44; 47 3); in two n^ tdr*! (Gen. 41 66; 

46 17); in two nS?"» "«>«f! (Gen. 41 16, 39); in three n^TB lOiw (Gen. 41 38, 41; 

47 8) anxi in three with Munach, Zakeph-KaUm which constitute the Rubric 
before us. 

n'onn = § 882. 

^K^tP 1DK*'1 and Samuel said, occurs six times with the accent 
in this book! That is, in Samuel where this phrase occurs twenty- 
eight times and where it has no fewer than nine different accents,* 
it has in these six instances Munach, Zakeph-Kaion. This Rubric I 
have found in the printed Massorah Finalis only, letter k, § 608. 

1 In the other twenty-two instances it is as follows: once 'jwob' noiw 
(1 Sam. 8 16); once 'jkwb' W*i (1 Sam. 10 24); once SwOB' W*! (1 Sam. 12 20); 
once 'th'Ob' -.o«*3 (1 Sam. 13 13) once bjfmif TDK*] (l Sam. 16 11); twice ^OKJl 
h»mvf\l Sai^.*12 6; 1$ 11); three times StoDB^ iDJW (1 Sam. 7 3; 16 22, !>2); 
twelve times 'jwOB' iDK*] (1 Sam. S 10; 8 22; 9 23; 11 14; 12 1; 16 1, 16, 26; 
16 2, 10, 11; 28 16) and the six instances with Mmach, Zakeph KaUm which 
constitute this Rubric. In twenty-two instances out of the twenty-eight, this 
phrase begins the verse. 



ronn = § 883. 

"IDKhl and she said, has Jive times Pathach in the Senptures. 
That is^ this Kal future third person singular feminine with Vav 
conversive which is normally with Segol under the Mem, has 
Pathach in these five instances, which is more or less due to the 
pausal accent. 

Of this Rubric I collated ten Lists, nine m MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Hariey 5710-11, Vol. II, fol. 245a, on Prov. 7 18 
which I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 35a, on 
1 Sam. 1 11; (HI) the same MS., fol. 361a, on Esther 6 7; 
(IV) the same MS., fol. 3616, on Esther 7 3; (V) Add. 15,250, 
fol 3596, on Prov. 7 13; (VI) Add. 15,251, fol. 406a, on Esther 6 7; 
(VII) Add. 15,451, fol. 180a, on 1 Sam. 2 1; (VIII) Add. 21,160, 
fol. 290a, on the same passage; (IX) the same MS., fol. 3116, on 
Esther 6 7 and (X) the printed Massorah on the same passage. 
As in four instances ^hpi has the accent on the ultima and in 
one passage on the penultima (no«m Prov. 7 13) some of the 
Lists head this Rubric '3'r'?a 'xi i?-i'?n "i 'n. 

TDfin = § 884. 

Dnb *1l2Kin!! and she or thou hast said to them, occurs three 
times . .V. . and throughout the Prophets it is likewise so except onee 
where it is followed by arr^K. 

To understand this artificial Massorah and the different 
headings which this Rubric exhibits in the MSS. it is necessary 
to remark: (I) that this phrase occurs altogether seven times 
and not only includes the six instances in vhich naidm is the 

14 b 



8 — K § 885—839. 



— .08 — 



§ 890—894. S — H 



future third person singular feminine with Vav conversive, but 
the single instance in which it is the second person singular 
masculine, viz. Neh. 9 15; (2) that three of the instances occur 
in the Pentateuch and the Hagiographa and (3) that in the 
Prophets where the remaining four occur ' there is also one 
passage where -ibttfii is followed by arf^K instead of the normal 
txib. It will thus be seen that in the first and third divisions of 
the Bible ttiS -laxpn is the invariable rule, %vliilst in the second 
division this rule has one exception. Hence the grouping together 
of the Pentateuch and Hagiographa and hence too the separation 
of the Prophets. This will also explain the different headings of 
this Rubric. 

Of this Rubric I collated seven Lists, six in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 2796, on 2 Chron. 34 23 which 
I have printed; (n) Add. 15,250, fol. 25 i, on Gen. 39 14; (HI) the 
same MS., fol. 435.fc, on 2 Chron. 34 23; (IV) Add. 21,160, fol. 42a, 
on Gen, 39 14; (V) Orient. 2849, fol. 51a, on the same passage 
in the central margin; (VI) Vienna Codex No. 35 on Neh. 9 15 
and (VII) the printed Massorah on Gen. 39 14. For the reason 
also ready given List IV heads this Rubric 'n'-nx3 •: an"? -iiMtm 

' Oomp. on) iSHki Josh. 2 16; Judg. 9 11, 13; 2 Sam. 17 20. 

iTDnn = § 885. 

'HttKi'l occurs twice. That is, with Tzere under the Mem 
because of its pausal accent. It will be seen that in one instance 
it is the second person masculine and in the other the third 
person feminine. The Massorah, however, has regard to the 
identity of the consonants and vowel-points. 

Of this Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, 
I collated five Lists: (I) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 79 a, on 1 Kings 6 20 
which I have printed; (II) the same MS., fol. 3366, on Pro v. 1 21; 

(III) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, fol. 220a, on 1 Kings 6 20; 

(IV) Add. 15,451, fol. 227a, on the same passage and (V) Vienna 
Codex No. 35 on Pro v. 1 21. This List heads it -ap 'a -latw thus 
calling the Tzere, Kametz. 

TDnn = § 886. 
Itt'TXI and I said, is three times phsne in the Scriptures. As this 
Kal future first person singular which occurs upwards of ninety 
times, is plene in these three instances only, the Massorah safe- 
guards this exceptional orthography. Of this Rubric I collated 
six Lists, five in MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 5710 — 11, 
Vol. II, fol. 294a, on Neh. 2 20 which I have printed; (II) the 
same MS., Vol. II, fol. 2936, on Neh. 2 7; (III) Arund. Orient. IG, 
fol. 3796; (IV) Vienna Codex No. 35, both on the same passage; 

(V) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, fol. 83 a, margin and (VI) the 
printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 576. 



rann = § 887. 

"'7 1*1ttK^ they sliall say to me, occttrs twice. This Rubric, 
which does not occur in the printed Massorah, is from Arund. 
Orient. 16, fol. 26a, on Judg. 9 54. 

n'Dnn = § 888. 

TItoK'n and they shall say, is nine times Raphe. That is, with 
Sheva under the Vav to guard it against its being made con- 
formable to the numerous instances in which it is naxii with 
Pathach under the Vav. 

Of this Rubric, which is one of the oldest constituent parts 
of the Massorah, I collated twelve Lists, eleven in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 206, on Isa. 43 9 which 
I have printed; (II) the same MS., Vol. H, fol. 41 6, on Jerem. 
16 19; (III) the same MS., Vol. II, fol. 14 la, on 1 Chron. 16 31; 
(IV) the same MS., Vol. H, fol. 183 a, on Ps. 35 27; (V) St. Peters- 
burg Codex of A. D. 916, on Isa. 14 10; (VI) the same Codex 
on Jerem. 16 19; (VII) the same Codex on Joel 3 17; (VIII) 
Add. 15,451, fol. 1425, on Deut. 32 7; (IX) the same MS., fol. 278a, 
on Jerem. 16 19; (X) the same MS., fol. 347a, on Isa. 14 10; 
(XI) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, § 9 and (XH) the printed 
Massorah on Isa. 14 10. The addition at the end of List III, 
viz. nax'i -nxwi -npa 'lan n^^i plainly indicates the design of this 
Massorah. 

B"Dnn = § 889. 

II^K'l* I'>^ ^'hvee instances the textual reading or Kethiv is i-iaK^l 
and they said, and the official reading or Keri is iat{*i ati^hesaitl. \ 



Of this Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, I . 
collated five Lists: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, fol. 143a, on- 
Josh. 9 7 which I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient. 16, foL 7a, 
on the same passage; (III) the same MS., fol. 4*6, on 1 Sam. 15 16; 
(IV) Add. 15,451, fol. 190a, on the same passage and (V) Vienna 
Codex No. 35 on Josh. 9 7. These three instances form part of 
the Rubric consisting of eleven words which have Vav at the 
end, but which are officially read without it (Vide infra, letter i, 
§ 147, p. 423.) 

X"nn = § 890. 

11ttK*1 and they said, has twice the accent Paza\ This Rubric 
I have found in the printed Massorah only, on Gen. 43 7. 

ritnn = § 89 1. 

^*1pKl has six times the accent Gershaim at the beginning of 
a verse. Of this Rubric I collated seven Lists, five in MSS. and 
two printed: (I) Orient 2349, fol. 34a, on Gen. 11 3 which I 
have printed; (II) Orient 4445, fol. 326, on Gen. 42 21; (III) 
Arund. Orient 16, fol. 209a, on Jonah 1 7; (IV) Add. 15,251, 
fol. 18a, on Gen. 11 3; (V) the same MS., fol. 261a, on Jerem. 42 2; 
(VI) the printed Massorah on l Sam. 11 9 and (VII) the same 
on Jerem. 42 2. List II, which exhibits the oldest form of this 
Rubric, correctly enumerates seven such instances, adding at the 
end that one of them is in the middle of the verse (1 Kings 7 6) 
and that the others begin the verse piae tPKi x-ixn pica psaKs jnsa in. 
List V not only states in the heading that there are five such 
instances only, but records five, omitting Gen. 11 3. But this 
is manifestly due to a later Nakdan who found the List in its 
incomplete stafe and adapted the heading to the contents as is 
evident from List IV which is given in the same MS. and which 
is perfectly correct 

rstfin = § 892. 

Tn^S^T has tJiree times the accent ZarJca at the beginning of the 
verse. Of' this Rubric I collated eight Lists, six in MSS. and two 
printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, foL 293a, on Neh. 1 3 which I 
have printed; (11) the same MS., Vol. I, fol. 43a, on Exod. 14 11; 
(III) Orient 4445, fol, 556, on the same passage; (IV) Arund. 
Orient 16, fol. 379a, on Neh. 1 3; (V) Add. 15,251, fol. 4216, on 
the same passage; (VI) Add. 21,160, fol. 876, on Exod. 14 11; 
(VII) the printed Massorah on Gen. 29 8 and (VIII) the same on 
Neh. 1 3. As there are no other instances in which nax*] has 
this accent, and as all the three instances begin a verse, the 
heading ought more properly to be 'bb 'Km area •: it occurs three 
times with this accent and at the beginning of the verse, since the 
heading as it is might suggest that it has this accent apart from 
the beginning of a verse. But as we have seen, the Vav is 
frequently omitted in these cases. 



ritnfl = § 893. 

' f *> 1 ittK'l and they said unto him, occurs ttvice at the be- 
ginning of the verse. This Rubric, which I have found in the 
printed Massorah only, on 1 Kings 20 31, is as usual incorrect 
since this phrase, which occurs altogether twenty-eight times, 
begins a verse in no less than twenty instances.* It cannot 
refer to the identity of the accents since this phrase has two 
different^ accents in the two passages. In Gen. 18 9 it has Munach, 
Zakeph-Katon v% ^naK'i which occurs four times more at the beginning 
of the verse (Gen. 40 8; 44 7; 2 Kings 19 3; Jerem. 36 15) and 
twice in the middle of the verse (2 Kings 2 3, 5), whilst in 
1 Kings 20 31 it is with Munach Zarka {vbK neK»]) which is unique. 
It is more than probable that this Rubric exhibits the first 
attempt to compile a List of the passages in which rh» naK'i 
occurs, in order to safeguard this lengthier phrase against being 
made conformable to the shorter form iijnaK'i* which, as is 
frequently the case, has never been finished. 

' Comp. I'Vk nOH->i Gen. 18 9; 40 8; 42 10; 44 7; Numb. 20 19; Josh. 9 9; 
Judg. 8 1; 18 25; I Sam. 8 5; U 3; 1 Kings 20 8, 31; 2 Kings 1 6, 8; 19 3; 
Isa. .^7 3; Jerem. 3C 16; 40 U; Jonah 18, 11. 

2 Comp. h naxM Gen. 2C 32; :n 8; 47 18; Numb. 22 16; Judg, 1 24; 11 2; 
12 6, 6; 14 13, 18; 15 12, 13; 18 3, 5, 19; 1 Sam. 29 4; 2 Sam. 21 4; 1 Kings 1 2; 
2 Kings 2 23; Rutli. 2 4; Estber 6 13; 2 Chron. 26 18, 

T'3tnn = § 894. 
n^^K ^IJpX^I and they said unto her, occurs ttoiee. The design 
of this Massorah is to safeguard this lengthier phrase against 
being made conformable to the shorter form a^ nak*i which occurs 



K — H § 895a— 6— 901. 



— 109 



§ 902—906. IC ~ K 



three times (Gen. 24 60; Josh. 2 14; Judg. 16 6) especially as 
the two phrases are used promiscuously in close proximity. 

Of this Rubric I collated three Lists, two in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Add. 15,250, fol. 166, on Gen. 24 58 which I have 
printed; (II) Add. 15,451, fol. 1466, on Josh. 2 17 and (III) the 
printed Massorah on Gen. 24 58. 

n'Xflfl = § 895a~6. 
BTpK lllpK*]] and they said unto them, occurs three times. The 
oonflicting statement between the two Rubrics, viz. § 895 a, which 
emphatically declares that this phrase occurs three times only 
and simply records three instances, and § 8956, which as 
emphatically states that it occurs seven times and duly cata- 
logues seven passages, is probably due to the fact that the 
oompilers of the first recension artificially regarded the whole 
Pentateuch, in which it occurs five times, as representing one 
instance. The heading ought, therefore, more correctly to be 
■wnmiKte. Rubric 895a is from Orient. 2349, fol. 476, on Gen. 
S4 14 and Rubric 8956 from the printed Massorah on the same 
passages. 

rxnn - § 896. 

kSK|? nttKn and they said saying, occurs three times thus 
combined. That is, the infinitive following immediately after the 
fatare third person plural with Vav conversive. With intervening 
words TfaK^ . . . naK*! occurs in Numb. 17 27; Judg. 19 22. 

Of this Rubric I collated four Lists, three in MSS. and 
one printed: (I) Orient. 2349, fol. 112a, on Numb. 20 3 which I 
printed; (II) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 696, on 2 Sam. 5 1; (III) 
Add. 15,250, foL 1666, on the same passage and (IV) the printed 
Massorah on Exod. 15 1. In List I, which I have printed, ••o'?aT 
is a clerical error for ^Kiorn which I have given in brackets. 

r'xnn = § 897. 

DPiT75 TT^K^I and all the people said, occurs four times. 
That is, in contradistinction to this phrase without -^3 all, which 
occurs three times. {Vide infra, § 902.) Of this Rubric I collated 
two Lists: (I) Add. 15,250, fol. 411a, on 1 Chron. 16 36 which 
I have printed and (II) the printed Massorah on 1 Kings 1 39. 

n'xnn - § 898. 

^"Tiprr^D l^pj^'l and all the congregation said, occurs tvnee. 
The design of this Massovtf is to safeguard Neh. 5 13 against 
being made conformable to the parallel passage in 1 Chron. 16 36. 
Of this Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, I 
collated two Lists: (I) Vienna Godex No 35, on 1 Chron. 13 4 
which I have printed and (II) Harley 5710— 11, Vol.11, fol. 139a, 
on the same passage. 

B"2Cnn = § 899. 

K? TlttK*! and they said not, occurs twice with ilie accent. That 
i^ in these two instances has this phrase, which occurs eleven 
times, the accents Munach, Zakeph-Katon. In the other nine 
passages it has no fewer than eight different accents.^ As the 
adverb of negation has abnormally Dagesh in the Lamed, these 
two instances constitute part of the Rubric recording the 
eighteen words in the Bible with Dagesh in the first letter, 
although they are preceded by words ending in an open syllable.* 
Of this Rubric, which in this form does not occur in the printed 
Massorah, I collated two Lists: (I) Orient. 2348, fol. 476, on 
Gen. 19 2 which I have printed and (II) Orient 2349, fol. 376, 
<m the same passage. The printed Massorah on this passage 
linply notices the abnormal Dagesh in the Lamed. 

« (1) i6riaK»i Gen. 29 8; (2) "kS nai*]l Gen. S8 21; (3) kS noun Numb. 
1112; (4)i«SiT0imi Sam. 18 4; (6) hS nOK'i Jerem. C 16, 1?'; (6) k^ noun 
JwwB. U 6; (T) ''Vh nwi Hag. 2 12 and (8) *S nouM Pa. 94 7. 

» Comp. The Mattorah, letters, § 524, Vol. II, p. 296. 

p'nn = § 900. 

V ^*TPK*1 and they said to me, occurs twice in the Scriptures. 
That is, in this shorter form; in the only other instance where 
the phrase occurs it is '^ noK»i (Ezek. 24 19). This Rubric, which 
does not occur in the printed Massorah, is from Add. 15,250, 
foL 606, on Exod. 32 23. 

K'pflfl = § 901. 

5J/«n "^P^ l^tlpK^ and the kings young man said, occurs 

ttwe times. As in the only other passage in which the phrase occurs 

in this book it is ^ban •nsy no»«»i (Esther 3 3) the Massorah 

nfepiuards the two different expressions against being made 



uniform. This Rubric, which does not occur in the printed 
Massorah, is from Add. 15,251, fol. 4066, on Esther 6 5. As all 
the three instances occur in Esther, the heading ought more 
properly to be 'Bcai 'i = three times and in this hook. The phrase 
which occurs in Esther 3 3 also occurs in 2 Sam. 15 16. 

n'pnn = § 902. 

DPn nipK*1 and the people said, occurs three times. That is, 
to safeguard this phrase against the one in which it has the 
expression -^5 all, before oyn the people. (Vide supra, % 8S7.) Of 
this Rubric, which does not' occur in the printed Massorah, I 
collated three Lists: (I) Arund. Orient 16, foL 266, on Judg. 10 18 
which I have printed; (II) Add. 16,260, foL 1386, and (III) Vienna 
Codex No. 35, both on the same passage. 

3'pnn = § 903. 
TlttK'' they shall say, occurs three times in tike Scriptures. That 
is, with Tzere under the Mem instead of Sheva which it has in 
all the other fifty instances where this Kal future third person 
plural masculine occurs. The Tzei'e is due to the pausal accent 
Athnach,whioh it has in these three passages. Of this Rubric I collated 
four Lists, three in MSS. and one printe]}: (I) Harley 5710—11, 
Vol. II, fol. 34a, on Jerem. 5 2 which I have printed; (II) Arund. 
Orient 16, fol. 320a, on Ps. 145 6; (ni) Add. 15,251, fol. 374a, 
and (IV) the printed Massorah, both on the same passage. 

Tpftfl = § 904. 

nOHttKni and they said, is plene once only in the Pentateuch, 
but it is always' so in the Prophets and Hagiographa except once. That 
is, in the Pentateuch where this future third person plural 
feminine with Vav conversive occurs three times (Gen. 31 14 
Exod. 1 19; 2 19) it is always without the paragogic He 
except in once instance only (Gen. 31 14), whilst on the 
contrary in the Prophets and Hagiographa where it occurs five 
times (1 Sam. 9 12; 18 7; Ruth 1 10, 19; 4 14) it has always 
the paragogic He except in one instance only (1 Sam. 18 7). 

Of this artificial Rubric I collated four Lists, three in MSS. 
and one printed: (I) Orient 2348, foL 556, on Gen. 31 14 which 
I have printed; (H) Orient foL 466; (HI) Add. 21,160, foL 276, 
and (IV) the printed Massorah, all on the same passage. 

.Tpfin = § 905. 
J*1ttKhl and they said, is three times sa written. This is a more 
simple and probably the original recension of the former Rubric. 
As this future third person plural feminine with Vav conversive 
which occurs altogether eight times, is plene in five instances and 
defective in three only, the Massorah safeguards the exceptional 
orthography. The necessity for this protection of the minority 
will be seen by referring to the notes on Exod. 2 19 in my 
edition of the Hebrew Bible. Of this Rubric, which does not 
occur in the printed Massorah, I collated two Lists: (I) Orient. 
2348, fol. 686, on Exod. 2 19 which I have printed and (EL) 
Orient 2349, fol. 586, on *he same passage. 

vpnn = § 906. 

jn^Kin ye shall say, occurs nine times in the Scriptures. This 
Kal future second person plural masculine occurs altogether 
thirty times. As it is without the paragogic Nun in twenty-one 
instances and with it in nine passages only, the Massorah safe- 
guards the minority. 

Of this Rubric, which is one of thw ^rliest constituent parts 
of the Massorah, I collated thirteen Listb, eleven in MSS. and 
two printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, foL 253a, on 2 Kings 
19 10 which I have printed; (II) St Petersburg Codex of A. D. 916 
on Isa. 37 6; (III) the same Codex on Jerem. 21 3; (IV) Arund. 
Orient 16, fol. 4 16, on 1 Sam. 11 9; (V) the same MS., foL 122a, 
on Isa. 8 12; (VI) the same MS., foL 184a, on Isa. 37 6; (VII) 
the same MS., fol. 1596, on Jerem. 21 3; (VIH) Add. 15,461, 
fol. 2806, on the same passage; (IX) the same MS., fol. 3446, on 
Isa. 8 12; (X) Add. 21,160, fol, 30a, on Gen. 32 5; (XI) Hall© 
Ochlah n, § 9; (XH) the printed Massorah on Gen. 32 5 and 
(XIII) the same on 2 Kin©g' 18 22. 

Lists II and III w*ich are literally identical, not only 
state emphatically in the headings that there are ten such 
instances, but record this number. This is, moreover, confirmed 
by the Massorah Parva of this ancient Codex which remarks 
against jnoKti both in Isa. 37 6 and io that it occurs ten times 
("'). The difficulty in deciphering the tenth instance is due to a 
manifest clerical error, in the catchword p'^pacan which, as it 
now stands, can only refer to 1 Kings 6 29 where jnoKh does 



S — K § 907—909. 



— 110 — 



§ 910—915. K K 



not only not occur, but where it is Impossible. It is most 
probably a corruption of ^=a 'oyam, viz. the parallel mw -pa of 
this catchword - 2 Kings 22 18 where we now read nown 
without the paragogic Nun. That the Scribe was careless is 
evident from other mistakes in the catchwords of this Rubric, 
e_ g^ ^^^^ for irrp-nr-jK Jerem. 21 3; irns instead of iwk Isa. 
8 12; i.Tpirr instead of irrptn 2 Kings 19 10. 

With the exception of List X none of the other twelve Lists 
notice that one of the nine instances is defective. This however, 
is plainly set forth in the heading where it is stated that inisKn 
occurs nine times, that it is eight times plene and once defective 
(•tan ■x\ '"jo 'n -a) and where it is added against the ninth catch- 
word, vij. Jerem. 21 3 on -irra. That some of the Codices had 
it here also plene is evident from the St. Petersburg Codex of 
A. D. 916; Add. 15,451, first hand. Add. 21,161 and the editio 
princept of the Bible, Soncino 1488, which read po>«n. 

fpnn = § 907. 

1*^ 0''*lttK they saying to me, occurs three tivies in this form. 
That is, the Kal participle active masculine plural without and 
with prefixes, is in three instances followed by ^b to distinguish it 
from the instance where it is followed by ^^s (Jerem. 17 15) and 
from die one where it is followed by '??> (Neh. 6 19). For the 
combination of -lOK with -b see also Rubrics 870, and 887. 

Of this Rubric I collated four Lists, two in MSS. and two 
printed: (I) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 180a, on Ezek. 21 5 which I 
have printed; (II) Add. 15,251, fol. 270a; (III) the printed 
Massorah, both on the same passage and (IV) the same on 
Ps. 122 1. 

n"pnn = § 908. 

D^^TttKj and they saying, occurs ttcice. That is, this participle 
plural masculine which occurs thirty-four times without the 
prefix Vav, is with this prefix in two instances only. Hence the 
MaBSorah safeguards the exceptional usage. This Rubric, which 
does not occur in the printed Massorah, is from Harley 5710— 11, 
VoL II, fol. 1606, on 2 Chron. 20 21. 

O'pnn = § 909. 

'TSK'' it is said, occurs three times and once it is toith 

the prejixVav. That is, this Niphal future third person masculine 
which occurs altogether eighteen times, has in fifteen instances 
Teere under the Mem'- and in three only is it with Pathach which 
is due to its distinctive accent. The Massorah, therefore, safe- 
guards the exceptional orthography. 

Of this Rubric I collated twelve Lists, nine in MSS. and 
three printed: (I) Harley 5710-1 1, Vol. I, fol. 996, on Numb. 21 14 
which I have printed; (II) the same MS., VoL H, fol 2006, on 
Ps. 87 5; (in) Arund. Orient. 16, foL 30 Get, on the same passage; 
(IV) Add. 15,251, foL 95 a, on Numb. 21 14; (V) the same MS., 
foL 363a, on Ps. 87 5; (VI) Add. 15,451, foL I07a, on Numb. 
21 14; (Vn) Add. 21,160, foL 2246, on the same passage; (VIII) 
Orient 2349, foL 336, on Gen. 10 9; (IX)HalleOchlahVe-Ochlahll, 
§ 9; (X) the printed Massorah on Gen. 10 9; (XI) the same on 
Numb. 21 14 and (XH) the same on Ps. 87 5. All these Lists 
give this Rubric as I have printed it This Rubric, moreover, 
forms part of the alphabetical List of words which respectively 
occur four times, three times without and once with the prefix 
Vav.^ 

It is, therefore, inexplicable that the Massorah on Jerem. 7 32 
in the St Petersburg Codex of A. D. 916. which correctly states 
in the heading that there are fifteen instances of this Niphal 
future third person masculine with Tzere under the Mem (',n_ -lax"), 
though it catalogues fourteen only, includes in this List the 
three instances which are given in all the MSS. as constituting 
the exceptional orthography with Pathfich. ThQ St Petersburg 
Massorah makes up its List by excluding four instances which 
are in our text, with Tzere under the Meni, viz. Isa. 19 18; 61 6; 
Ezek. 13 12 and Zeph. 3 16. Taking, therefore, the omission of 
one of these four instances from the, fifteen passages to be due 
to a clerical error, the other three which are excluded and which 
have Tzere under the Mem in the textus receptus, are here by 
implication taken to have Pathach under the Mem.^ 

1 Comp •^*' Gen. 22 14; 32 29; Numb. 23 23; Isa. 19 18; 32 5; 01 C; 
«8 4, 4; Jerem. 4' 11; 7 32; 16 14; Ezek. 13 12; Hos. 8 1, 1; Zeph. 8 16. 

i Comp. The Mattm-aJi, letter \ § 70, Vol. I, p. 403 &c. 

J The List ol the St. Petersburg Codex I have printed in The Mw>,o^-ah, 

Vol. in p. 2, § 900. 



-DSKa'p ^ 



'"pnn = § 910. 

to speak, occurs ttoice, once it is tantten with Alepk 
and once loithout it. As this Ghaldee Peal infinitive construct with 
the prefix Lamed which occurs twice, is in each instance written 
differently the Massorah safeguards the two several spellings. 
Of this Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, I 
collated two Lists: (I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 3646, on Dan. 2 9 
which I have printed and (II) Harley 5710-11, Vol. U, fol. 289a, 
on Ezra. 6 11. The latter is one of the three instances in which 
the verb iqk is defective of the radical Aleph. (Vide supra, letter k, 
§ 796.) 

K-'pnn = § 911. 

IQH tell, occurs three times. That is, the Ghaldee Peal imperative 
singular masculine occurs three times and is with Pathach under 
the Mem in all the three instances as is attested by the best 
MSS., viz. Orient 2201; Harley 5710—11; Arund. Orient 16, 
Add. 15,251 &c. 

Of this Rubric I collated three Lists, two in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 367a, on Dan. 4 6 which I 
have printed: (II) Add. 15,251, fol. 411a, on the same passage 
and (III) the printed Massorah on Dan. 4 15. The heading in 
List III 'B-DS pxop -i = it occurs three times with Kanietz in this 
book as well as the remark in the printed Massorah Parva 
against Dan. 4 6, 15 that nOK is three times with Kametz ("D3 -j) 
is contrary to the best Codices and is probably due to Jacob 
b. Chayim himself. 

a-'pfin - § 912. 

D'HttS words, occurs ttoice. Of this Rubric I collated two 
Lists: (I) ^ Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah H, § 9, which I have printed 
and (II) the printed Massorah on Prov. 22 21. 

r»pnn = § 913. 

Ttn^lttK thy word, occurs twelve times in this form in the 
Scriptures! That is, without and with prefixes this noun with thft 
suffix second person singular masculine, has Segol under the Tot? in 
these twelve instances which is due to its distinctive or pausal 
accent, in contradistinction to the other eight passages where it 
occurs and where it has the normal Shffva (Ps. 119 50, 67, 76, 
116, 140, 154, 158, 170). The majority is here safeguarded 
because both the MSS. and some of the early editions exhibit 
variations in several of the instances which constitute this 
Rubric, as will be seen from the notes on Ps. 119 11, 103, 133, 
162 in my edition of the Hebrew Bible. 

Of this Rubric I collated five Lists, three in MSS. and two 
printed: (I) Harley 5710— II, 'VoL II, foL 2136, on Ps. 119 82 
which I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient 16, |ol. 3146, on 
Ps. 119 38; (III) Add. 15,451, foL 4296, on the same passage; 
(IV) the printed Massorah on Ps. 119 82 and (V) the same on 
Ps. 138 2. 

T'pnn = § 914. 

*llpk a word, occurs six times in the Scriptures. That is, this 
noun always occurs without prefixes and suffixes in contra- 
distinction to the forms noK and rrm a word, which never occur 
without a prefix or suffix. 

Of this Rubric I collated twelve Lists, eleven in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Harley 5710-11, VoL H, foL 1186, on Habak. 3 9 
which I have printed; (II) the same MS., VoL II, fol. 193a, on 
Ps. 68 12; (III) the same MS., VoL II, foL 197 a, on Ps. 77 9; 
(IV) the same MS., Vol. II, foL 232a, on Job 22 28; (V) Arund. 
Orient 16, fol. 2146, on Habak. 3 9; (VI) the same MS., foL 288a, 
on Ps. 19 3; (VH) the same MS., foL 300 a, on Ps. 68 12; (VIH) 
the same MS., foL 303a, on Ps. 77 9; (IX) the same MS., 
fol. 329a, on Job 22 28; (X) Add. 21,160, foL 288a, on Habak. 
3 9; (XI) the same MS., foL 327a, on Job 22 28 and (XII) the 
printed Massorah on Ps. 77 9. 

As all the six instances are defective and have the accent 
on the penultima the headings in the different MSS. vary: some 
notice one feature, some another and some both features. Thus 
the heading of List VII is -Dm '1, of Lists VI, IX and X ^^0 i 
and of Lists V, VIII and X 'om 'y'?o 'i. 

ropnn = § 915. 

riDKHI and the truth, occurs three times in tU Scriptures. That 
is, to distinguish it from the twenty-two instances where it is 
without the article after the prefix Vav, viz. rmy. 



K — K § 916- 



— Ill — 



§ 920—928. K — K 



Of this Rubric I collated siac Lists, four in MSS. and two 
printed: (I) Harley 6710— U, Vol. I, fol. 124a, on Zech. 8 19 
which I have printed; (U) the same MS., VoL II, fol. lG8b, on 
2 Chron. 81 20; (IH) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 277a, on the same 
passage; (IV) Add. 16,251, foL 8106, on Zech. 8 9; (V) the 
printed Kassorah on the same passage and (VI) the same on 
2 Chron. 81 20. 

fopnn - § 916. 

JK where, lehen, oeeure twice. As in all the other twenty-eight 
instances where this adverb occurs it has the paragogic He 
(?^) the Massorah safeguards this exceptional orthography. Of 
this Rubric I collated two Lists; (I) Arund. Orient 16, foL 824a, 
on Job 8 2 which I have printed and (II) the printed Massorah 
on the same passage. The heading of this Rubric in the printed 
Massorah states (-vb '-ma -a) that it occurs twice in two different 
teH$e$. This is also given against each of the two passages in the 
printed Massorah Parva, but it is not quite correct since the sense 
of this adverb in the two passages in question does not sustain 
this statement The. remark does not occur in the MS. Massorahs, 
nor is this pair included in the alphabetical List of words which 
respectively occur twice in two different senses. (Comp. The 
MoMtordk, letter o,,^ 248, Vol. 11, p. 217 &c.) 



rpfin -= § 917. 

njKJ njK hiiher and thither, any whither, occurs twice. Of this 
Rubric I collated two Lists: (I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 78a, on 
1 Kings 3 86 which I have printed and (II) the printed Massorah 
on the same passage. The printed Massorah (List U) distinctly 
states that this phrase occurs three times (mr-ipa •:) and gives 
J Kings 6 26 as the third instance. This is supported by the 
best MSS. and editions, viz. Orient 2201; Harley 5710—11; 
Amnd Orient 16; Add. 16,451; the second edition of the Bible, 
Naples 1491—93; the third and fourth editions, Brescia 1494, 
Pesaro 1611—17; the Complutensian, the first edition of the 
Rabbinic Bible, Venice 1517 and the editio princeps of Jacob b. 
CJhayim's Rabbinic Bible with the Massorah, Venice 1524—25. 
List n, therefore, must be based upon MSS. which read r^ with 
SameU under the Nun in 2 Kings 5 25. This is also the reading 
of the editio princeps of the Bible, Soncino 1488, and it is for this 
— ~"i that it is excluded from this Rubric. 



nynn - § 918. 

nj^ / pray, is in six instances writUn with He in the Scriptures. 
This interjjBction of entreaty occurs altogether thirteen times. In 
seven instances it is tq^ with Aleph at the end and in six with 
Be. The Massorah, therefore, safeguards the minority. On 
referring to the notes on Isa. 38 8; Jonah 1 14 and Ps. 116 4 
hi my edition of the Hebrew Bible it will be seen that both 
MSa and early editions exhibit variations in the orthography 
of this expression and this Massorah is, therefore, designed to 
fix the spelling. 

Of this Rubric I collated ten Lists, seven in MSS. and 
three printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. I8a, on Isa. 38 3 
which I have printed; (H) the Same MS., Vol. II, fol. Il4a, on 
Jonah 4 2; (IH) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 114 a, on 2 Kings 20 3; 
(IV) the same MS., fol. 134ft, on Isa. 38 3; (V) the same MS.', 
foL 209ft, on Jonah 1 14; (VI) the same MS., foL 8136, on 
Pi. 116 4: (VH) Add. 21,160, fol. 292a, on Jonah 1 14; (VHI) the 
printed Massorah on Isa. 38 3; (IX) the same on Jonah 4 2 and 
(X) the same on Ps. 116 4. 

Apart from fm denoting request in Hebrew, this expression 
written with He is regularly used as an adverb in Hebrew and 
in the sense of entreaty in Chaldee. It is due to this fact that 
the headings of this Rubric as weU as the additions to it vary 
fa the different MSS, Thus List VII heads this Rubric rn -ro 1 
«W3 prte and adds at the end pnman n'O-ut pvh hoi anS Lists IX 
Md X head it nrnpa fwpa 'whn 'n yna % whilst Lists HI and IV 
have at the end -13-1 rm-nn ran tei /tsn "B-n nj^t hoi and List V *m 
ira TO -wn ntntn nat *xn .bvnm rwe. 



B'»pnn - § 919. 

nj^ whUher, has in two instances the accent on the Nun, on 
OtnltMia. That is, in one instance the Nun has Munaeh (Deut 1 28) 
Bid fa the other Mercha (Ps. 139 7). As in the other twenty-six 
*— «, where this adverb occurs, it has the accent on the 
-» the Massorah safeguards the exceptional passages. 



Of this Rubric I collated nine Lists, seven in MSS. and 
two printed: (I) Harley 6710-11, Vol. H, foL 218ft, on Ps 139 7 
which I have printed; (H) the same MS., VoL I, fol. lllft, on 

^.^^^LT' ^"^^ '^"""^- ^"^"*' *^' 'o^- 319a, on Ps. 139 7; 
(IV) Add. 15,251, foL 373a, on Deut 1 28; (V) Add. 15,461, 
foL 119ft, on the same passage; (VI) Vienna Codex No. 35 on 
the same passage; (VII) the same Codex on Ps. 139 7- (VIH) the 
printed Massorah on Deut 1 28 and (IX) the same on Ps. 139 7. 

Not only have the best Codices .tjk in Ps. 139 7, but 
Harley 5710-11; Arund. Orient 16; Add.' i5,261, and the edUio 
pi'mcep. of Jacob b. Chayim's Rabbinic Bible with the Massorah 
have this Rubric on the Nun with the accent Mercha. 

' Comp. WH 6«n. 87 30; Numb. 14 11; Josh. 2 6; Jqdg. 19 17; 2 Sam 2 1- 
n« Exod. 16 28; Numb. 14 11; Josh. 18 3; na; 2 Sam. IJ 13; P., 63 4; Job 18 2; 
."» 2 Kings 6 6; Jerem. 16 2 j Ps. 18 2; Noh. 3 16; njK Jerem. 47 6; Ezek. 81 21 • 
Zech. 2 6; Job 19 2; r»» Habak. 1 2; m» Zech. 5 iO; naA p.. ij 2, 8; njK 
Pa. IS 3; n» Cant « 1, 1. 

3"pnn = § 920. 
13K1 and they shall lament, occurs twice. This Rubric, which 
does not occur in the printed Massorah, is from Arund. Orient 16, 
foL 126a, on Isa. 19 8. The heading ought properly to be 
•Boai -a - twice and in this hock since both the instances occur in 
Isaiah. 

K'3pnn = § 921. 

B^t?^5>f? a^wng men, occurs three times, once with Fathach and 
twice with Kametz. That is, in one instance the prefix Beth has 
Pathach and in the other two instances it is with Kametz. 

Of this Rubric I collated ten Lists, nine in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Harley 5710-11, Vol. I, M. 186<., on 1 Sam. 17 12 
which I have printed; (H) the same MS., Vol. H, fol. 75a, on 
Ezek. 9 6; (III) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 46a, on 1 Sam. 17 6- 
(IV) Add. 15,451, fol. 119ft, on Deut 1 86; (V) Add. 15,25l', 
fol. 105a, on the same passage; (VI) the same MS., foL 160a 
on 1 Sam. 17 12; (VH) the same MS., foL 271ft, on Ezek. 9 6;' 
(VIH) Orient 2349, fol. 128ft, on Deut 1 35; (IX) Vienna Codex 
No. 85 on 1 Sam. 17 12 and (X) the printed Massorah on 
Deut 1 35. List V adds at the end ^kti wwk^ roa 'n» -nia «rw»6 ^ 
that in the case of q^^k with the prefix Lamed the reverse is 
the case, the Buhach under the prefix is the rule and the Kametz 
constitutes a single exception, viz. Gen. 19 8. For these instances 
see below § 926. 

By fixing the number at three, the design of the Massorah 
is to exclude the reading anf^ = typ^ which obtained in some 
ancient Codices, as is evident from the. Septuagint and the 
Vulgate and which is now accepted by some of the best textual 
critics as the correct reading. Comp. Gen. 2^ 1; 1 Kings 1 1. 



3'3pnn = § 922. 

fi*^5^ni *""* '** "***»> begins a verse eight times. The sign 
thereof in Chaldee is The shepherds who went up to send good pursuers 
after the wizards died in faith. As this expression occurs altogether 
sixteen times and begins a verse in eight instances, the Massorah 
records these passages to distinguish them from those which 
occur in the middle of the verse. 

Of this Rubric, which constitutes one of. the oldest parts of 
the Massorah, I collated eleven Lists, ten in M^S. and one printed: 
(I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, fol. 93ft, on Numb. 13 81 which I 
have printed; (II) the same MS., VoL II, fol. i70ft, on 2 Chron. 
34 12; (IH) Orient 4445, fol. 37ft, on Gen. 46 32; (IV) Arund! 
Orient 16, foL 38a, on 1 SanL 5 12; (V) the same MS., fol. 96a, 
on 1 Kings 20 38; (VI) Add. 15,251, foL 198a, on the same 
passage; (VH) Add. 15,451, fol. 101a, on Gen. 46 32; (VIH) the 
same MS., fol. 506ft, on 2^ Chron. 34 12; (IX) Add. 21,160, fol 66a 
on Gen. 46 32; (X) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, § 30, margin 
and (XI) the printed Massorah on Gen. 46 32. The mnemonic 
sign is from the printed Massorah where it occurs twice without 
the List, once on Josh. 2 7 and once in the Massorah Finalis. 
letter k, § 656. 

3'3pnn = § 923. 

D'^KTI and the men, occurs sixteen Hmes in the Scriptures, 
eight times at the beginning of the verse and eight in the middU of 
the verse. In the preceding Rubric we have the record of one 
School of Massorites who safeguarded, the instances in which 
this expression begins a verse, whilst in the Rubric before us 
which emanates from another School of Massoritee, the passages 



K — >^ § 924—928. 



— 112 — 



-984. K — K 



are catalogued in which it occurs in the middle of the verse. 
This was all the more necessary since some of the ancient 
Codices read dh^jki in 2 Kings 25 23, as is attested by the 
Chaldee, the Septuagint and the Syriac in conformity with the 
parallel passage in Jerem. 40 7. ^ - . a 

Of this Rubric, which does not occur m the printed 
Massorah, I collated two Lists: (I) Orient 2349, fol. 109a, on 
Numb. U 36 which I have printed and (II) Orient 2348, fol. 119a, 
on the same passage. 

TDpnn = § 924. 

D^aKiTI and the men, occurs sixteen times in the Scriptures. 
Whilst the" 'preceding two Rubrics respectively recorded the 
eight instances in which this expression begins a verse and the 
eight in which it is in the middle of the verse, this Rubric 
catalogues all the passages of Scripture in which it occurs 
irrespective of its position, and thereby exclude the reading 
d.t^:ki in 2 Kings 25 23. This Rubric, which does not occur m 
the printed Massorah, is from Harley 5710-11, Vol. I, fol. 2586, 
on 2 Kings 25 25. The fact that it is on this passage shows its 
design. 

n'3pnn = § 925. 

D1??3K1 and men, occurs ten times. \pf this Rubric .1 collated 
ten Lists,' eight in MSS. and two printed: (I) Harley 5710-11, 
Vol I, fol. 96a, on Numb. 16 2 which I have printed; (II) Arund. 
Orient 16, fol. 354ft, on Eccl. 9 14; (III) the same MS., fol. 379a, 
on Neh. 1 2; (IV) the same MS., fol. 380a, on Neh. 2 12; 
(V) Add. 15,251, iol. 1436, on Judg. 9 9; (VI) the same MS., 
foL 40la, on Eccl. 9 14; (VII) Add. 21,160, fol. 2146, on Numb. 162; 
(Vm) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah H, § 7, margin; (IX) the printed 
Massorah on Judg. 9 9 and (X) the same on Neh. 2 12. 

List V again affords a striking illustration of the misleading 
headings which later Nakdanim supplied to incipient Massorahs. 
As the Rubric now stands it declares that d^jki occurs four 
times only and records the following four instances Numb. 16 2; 
Judg. 9 9, 13; Ezek. 23 45.i The explanation of this puzzling 
Massorah is not far to seek. It exhibits the first attempt of the 
Massorites to collect the passages wherein this expression 
occurs which was never completed by succeeding Massorites. 
The Nakdan who found this fragment mistook it for the final 
List and as is not unfrequently the case, supplied it with 
the heading in accordance with the instances before him. 
List VI, which is from the same MS., gives this Rubric in its 
complete state. 
,B»rji«i D^nSH notpon ,nM' 'a -tk iovmn "ynir* «3ao o'»3»n pnjn«Bi -n d^b-wi » 

vDpnn = § 926. 

D^tt^iXb to the men, occurs seven times in the Scriptures 

and once Vt'is with the jn-efix Vav. Of this Rubric I collated two 
Lists, one in MS. and one printed: (I) Harley 5710-11, Vol. II, 
fol 506, on Jerem 29 6 which I have printed and (H) the 
printed Massorah on Ruth 1 11. Jacob b. Chayim's Massorah 
heads this Rubric 'n d'TOk'? and gives Gen. 19 8 as the first of 
the eight instances. But this is wrong, since it is here D'K>3K> with 
Kameiz under the Lamed and the printed Massorah Parva itself 
on this passage remarks against it that it is unique with 
Kametz {'b) and hence does not belong to this category. (Comp. 
the next Rubric.) 

fapnn = § 927. 

D''tt^5Kb does not occur again, in all other instances it is D'tfJK^. 
That is, in 'this solitary instance the prefix Lamed has Kametz 
whilst in all the other passages where it occurs this prefix is 
with Pathach. (Vide supra, § 926.) The reverse is the case when 
the plural dt:?jk takes the prefix Beth. Here the normal vowel- 
point is iTam^te "and the unique exception is Pathach. {Vide supi-a, 
% 921.) This Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, 
is from Vienna Codex No. 35 on Gen. 19 8. 

n'Dpnn = § 928. 

*«py^ the men of, occurs four times in the first Register. As the 
normal expression which begins the verse in Ezra 2 3—57 in 
the enumeration of the families who returned from the captivity, 
is '33 the children of which occurs no less than forty-eight times, 
and as it is in four instances only where '?>?K the men of 
abnormally begins the verse, the Mas^rah safeguards this 
exceptional usage. 



Of this Rubric, which does not occur in the printed 
Massorah, I collated two Lists: (I) Harley 5710-^11", VoL II, 
fol. 287a, on Ezra 2 22 which I have printed and (II) Add. 15,260, 
fol. 389 a, on the same passage. The heading of List 11 pn^ 
•"SWK "1 10 "13 t"\ '33 W5r is more precise since the import of this 
Massorah is not simply to indicate that '^« occurs four times 
in this Section, but that it begins a verse, whilst in the other 
foriy-eight instances '33 begins the verse. 

a-apwi - § 929. 

HJS /^5K» From Neh. 7 26 to 34 ^ begins the verse, whilst 
in the "rest of this Section '3a begins the verse. That is, in this second 
Record we have first '33 beginning a verse in seventeen instances 
(Neh. 7 8 — 25) then -^ in eight instances (Neh. 7 26 — 33) and 
then again -3? twenty-one times (Neh. 7 34—60). The Massorah 
therefore, safeguards this remarkable variation. Of this Rubric 
I collated two Lists: (I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 3836, on Neh. 7 8 
which I have printed and (II) the printed Massorah on the 



ypnn = § 930. 

''t??3K begins a verse eight times in this Section. That which is 
recorded in the preceding Rubric in an artificial sign is here 
given in its simple and primitive form, and it is evident that 
the recensions emanate from two different Schools of Massorites 
This Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, is 
from Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 2966, on Neh. 7 29. 

N'^prin = § 931. 

TH ^tyjK the men of David, occurs four times. As in all 
other instance's where the followers of David are mentioned, the 
phrase is either nn n^3 *^ yo^^9 ^^ ^f ^a»»<^^ or Tn 'T3? the 
sei-vants of David,^ the Massorah safeguards these four passages 
against being made conformable to the more frequent com- 
bination. 

Of this Rubric I collated five Lists, three in MSS. and two 
printed: (I) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 5 la, on 1 Sam 28 3 which 
I have printed; (II) the same MS., fol. 52a, on 1 Sam. 24 5; 

(III) Add. 15,250, fol. 1596, on 1 Sam. 23 3; (IV) the printed 
Massorah on the same passage and (V) the printed Massorah 
Finalis, letter n, § 68. In List V the catchword 133J is a mistake 
for TI33J. 

1 Comp. TIT '1?? 1 Sam. SB 10, 40; 2 Sam. 2 17; 8 22; 10 2, 4; 12 17; 
18 7, 9; 1 Chron.'l9 4; tit np. 1 Sam. S« 9, 12 

ybpnn = § 932. 

WtO «"«^ *^« "**" ^f' occurs four times at the beginning of a 
verse in 'tU Scriptures. In the other eighteen instances where this 
noun plural construct begins a verse it is without the prefix 
Vav.^ The Massorah, therefore, safeguards the exceptional passages. 

Of this Rubric I collated eleven Lists, nine in MSS. and 
two printed: (I) Harley 5710-11, VoLI, fol.251a, on 2 Kings 17 30 
which I have printed; (H) the same MS., Vol. II, foL 96a, on 
Ezek. 39 14; (III) Arund. Orient 16, fol. Ill 6, on .2 Kings 17 30; 

(IV) the same MS., fol. 192a, on Ezek. 39 14; (V) Add. 16,250, 
fol lla, on Gen. 13 13; (VI) Add. 15,251, foL 54a, on Exod. 22 30; 
(VII) the same MS., fol. 288a, on Ezek. 39 14; (VIII) Add. 16,451, 
foi. 2596, on 2 Kings 17 30; (IX) Orient 2349, fol. 35a, on 
Gen. 13 13; (X) the printed Massorah on the same passage and 
(XI) the same on 2 Kings 17 30. 

1 Besides Ezra where '??« begins a verse lour times and Nen. where it 
begins a verse eight times (»)/dc «^ra, §§ 928, 930) it occurs in the following 
six instances; Numb. 31 63; Ezek. 22 9; Prov. 28 6; 29 8, 10; Job M 84. 

3't»pfin = § 933. 
"^iJ^tt from the men ^ occurs four Umes in the Scriptures. 
This Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, is 
from Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, fol. 226a, on l Kings 10 15. 

T^pnn = § 934. 
Vtr^KT and his men, occurs twenty-five times. By fixing (his 
number 'the Massorah excludes the textual reading ls»3|n in 
1 Sam. 23 5 and adopts the official reading r#3Ki. It is to be 
noticed that with the exception of one solitary instance this 
expression is restricted to the books of Samuel Of this Massorah, 



K — K § 935—940. 



113 



941—944. K — K 



1 collated two Lists, one Add. 15,451, fol. 392a, on Zech. 7 2 
and (II) the printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 652, which I 
have printed. 

iT'^pflfl = § 935. 

Dn''t5?5K'1 and their men, occurs four times. This Massorah is 
designed to exclude the reading on'tt^JKi in the first clause of 

2 Kings 26 23 which is still preserved in some MSS. and in the 
ancient Versions and which is corroborated by the parallel 
passage in Jerem. 40 7, as will be seen from the notes in my 
edition of the Hebrew Bible. 

Of this Rubric I collated five Lists, foiir in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 1186, on 2 Kings 25 23 which 
I have printed; (II) Add. 15,250, fol. 2146; (III) Add. 15,451, 
fol. 2666; (IV) Vienna Codex No. 35, all on the same passage 
and (V) the printed Massorah on Jerem. 18 21. 

r^pnn = § 936. 

Dn^tJ^^KT'l and to their men, occurs twice. Of this Rubric, 
which does not occur in the printed Massorah, I collated two 
Lists: (I) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 1186, on 2 Kings 25 24 which 
I have printed and (II) Add. 1.5,451, fol. 266 6, on the same 
passage. 

t'^pnn = § 937. 

OirJ^*Tl3K = htdgoywog androgynous. Three words respectively" 
exhibit a ttcofold form, partly masculine and partly feminine, one is 
in ihe Pentateuch, one in the Prophets and one in the Hagiographa. 
That is, njorr Gen. 30 38; nj-i^: 1 Sam. 6 12 and nsnia?;! Dan. 8 22 
the prefix Yod is masculine, and the suffix nj is feminine. These, 
however, are not all the passages where such anomalies occur. The 
Mtnehath Shai on Gen. 30 38 refers also to Jerem. 39 11 and 
Ezek. 37 7 and suggests that the reason why the Massorites 
record these three instances in the Rubric before us is that they 
begin with Yod and end with Nun He. 

Of this Rubric I collated three Lists, one in MS. and two 
printed: (I) Add. 21,160, fol. 266, on Gen. 30 38 which I have 
printed; (II) Paris Odlilah Ve*Ochlah, § 193, and (III) the printed 
Massorah Parva on Got 80 88. For DirrmjK in List I, Lists II 
and III have more correctly DiJ^iTniK with Vao after the liesh, 
viz, DirjlTnjK. 

n"^pnn = § 938. 

nn3X!) she groaned, occurs twice. This quadriliteral occurs 
altogether three times. In the two instances which constitute the 
Rubric before us, it is the Niphal preterite singular feminine 
and is pointed with Segol under the Akph and with Sheva under 
the Nun (nrow). This is attested by the Standard Codices and 
the early editions, viz. Orient. 2201; Harl^y 5710 — 11; Arund. 
Orient 16; Add. 15,250; Add. 15,251; the editio princeps of the 
Bible, Soncino 1488; the second and third editions,Naples 1491—93; 
Brescia 1494; the Complutensian ; the first edition of the Rabbinic 
Bible, Venice 1517, and the editio princeps of Jacob b. Chayim's 
Rabbinic Bible with the Massorah, Venice 1524—25. The same 
authorities attest that in Lament. 1 21 where this quadriliteral 
occurs, and where it is the Niphal participle singular feminine, it is 
pointed with Chateph-Segol under the Aleph and with Kametz under 
the Nun, i. e. nroxj. The pointing, therefore, of the heading in 
the Rubric which I have printed must be altered accordingly^ 
to ngreb with the text in my edition of the Hebrew Bible. 

Of this Rubric, which does not occur in the printed 
Massorah, I collated two Lists: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, 
foL 268a, on Lament. 1 8 which I have printed and (II) Arund. 
Orient 16, foL 3556, on the same passage. 

r^pnn = § 939. 

^3X I, occurs four times with this accent in this book. That is, 
of the ten instances in which this personal pronoun occurs in the 
Psalms with the distinctive accent and hence with Kametz under 
the Aleph, it is in these four passages with Dechi. 

This Rubric, which I have found in Add. 21,161, fol. 1446, 
only, on Ps. 45 2, has this accent Dechi also in Ps. 119 125, and 
the Massorah remarks against it in 'D3 'BS "i. It is, therefore, clear 
that in the terminology of this ancient Codex psra and moDa are 
interchangeable. In the heading of this Rubric the accent should 
be pw Tsa n ^at 

a'pnn = § 940. 
^ oeeurs six times in this hook That is, in Ecclesiastes where 
tlUf personal pronoun occurs altogether twenty-eight times, it is 



in twenty-two instances with Chateph Pathach under the Aleph 
(*3k)i and in six only with Kametz (^jk). Hence the Massorah 
safeguards the minority. 

Of this Rubric I collated two Lists: (I) Marley .5710—11, 
Vol. II, fol. 2636, on Eccl. 2 24 which I have printed and (II) 
the printed Massorah on the same passage. The heading in the 
printed Massorah K-iB-oa pept '1 six times Znkeph Kametz in this hooJc, 
is incorrect In Eccl. 6 17 it is with Eevia -jK not only in all 
the best MSS., but in Jacob b. Chayim's text. 

' Comp. '?« Eccl. 1 12, 16, 16; 2 1, 11, 12, 15, 15, 15, 18, 20; 3 17, 18; 4 1, 
'2, 4, 7, 8; 7 25, 26; 8 2, 15. 

K"apnn = § 941. 

jS wJS* In two verses I, is repeated and in one verse 

it occurs four times, three times without and once with the prefix Vav. 
This Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, is 
from Orient 2349, fol. 476, on Gen. 24 30. As it stands this Rubric 
is misleading, since it implies that there are two verses only in 
which this personal pronoun occurs twice, just as the same 
langirage states in the second part of this Rubric that there 
is one verse in the Bible where it pccurs four times. The 
fact is, that there are no fewer than thirty verses in the Bible 
in which --jk occurs twice.' In spite, therefore, of the same 
language denoting in the second part of this Rubric that this 
pronoun occurs four times in one verse irrespective of its position, 
it denotes in the first part that it occurs twice in close proximHy. 
But even this is not quite correct since in Deut. 32 39, which i^s 
here given as the verse in which it occurs four times, ':k "IK are 
also in close proximity. 

' Besides the two verses which constitute this Rubric '3>* occurs twice in 
the following twenty-four verses: Gen. 18 17; Exod. G 29; 29 40; Vi 16; 
Numb. 15 41; 35 M; 2 Sam. 12 23; Isa. 41 4, 13; Jerem 45 4; Ezek. 2 H; 
6 11; 16 62; 17 24; 21 22; 22 14; :16 36; 44 28; Hos. 5 14; 14 9; Zoch. 1 U.; 
Ps. 116 16; Eccl. 1 16; Neh. 2 12; in five verses it is '^>{ 'JX, Levit. 11 44, 46; 
26 24; Job .T2 17; 33 6; in one verse it is ':x '3X and in three verses »2K '?x. viz. 
Jerem. 17 18; Ezek. 17 22; Mai. 16.' 

a"apnr) = § 942 «—c. 

^JKI '^3K» Wo^'ds which respectively occur tiolce in comhinntion 
with this prop.oun, once they are /miceded hy ':^ without the pi^efix Vav 
and once hy "Jk;; with the prefix Vav. 

These three Lists again disclose the method which the 
Massorites adopted in developing the Massorah. List 91 2a, Avhich 
is from Harley 5710 — 11, Vol. I, fol. 121 a, on Hag. 3 21, records 
eight instances or pairs of this combination. These are all which 
the first compiler had been able to collect,' and as he expected 
his fellow Massorites to continue the search, he left the List open 
and did not supply it with a heading. 

In Orient 4445, fol. 476, on Exod. 6 12 where this Rubric 
is also given, this ancient Codex too, records eight pairs only. 
The compiler of this List, however, has ztv •:>{ (Ezek. 8 1) and 
a«7^ nxi (Ezra 9 4) which are- not in List 942a, and omits bipx •:« 
and "jacK "ski (Isa. 46 4). But he too, regarded the List as incomplete 
and hence did not furnish it with a heading fixing the number 
of these pairs. Though List 9426, which is from Add. 15,451, 
fol. 3 02 a, on Isa. 46 4 catalogues nine pairs its compiler also 
did not look upon it as final. He, therefore, also left it 
without a heading. A later Nakdan, however, as is often the 
case, took these as containing all the instances in the Bible and 
hence not only supplied the List with a heading fixing the 
number at nine in accordance with the pairs in the List, but 
furnished them with catchwords. But this heading in List 942 «, 
which is also given in the printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, 
§ 025, is incorrect, since there are at least twelve such pairs.' 

' Comp. "laiK 'JK Jerem 4 12; laiK i:.*ji i Sam. 19 .S; 1'S^ '??< Ps. Sft 4; 
V)* *3Ki Ps. 88 14; -^3) ':» 1 Kings 20 4; -hj) »JW Josh. 8 5. 

ja-pnn = § 943. 

nnSI ^3K ■ / and thou, is three times tJius combined. Of this 
Rubric Vcollated two Lists: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, fol. 1386, 
on I Sam. 20 23 which I have printed and (II) the printed 
Massorah on the same passage. As nnKi by itself occurs three 
times only, it is also the subject of a separ'ate Massorah. (Vide 
infra, letter k, § 1475.) 

I'apnn = § 944. 

^/tl ^iX T am going, occurs four times. Of this Rubric I 
collated two Lists : (I) Arund. Orient 1 6, fol. 326, on Judg. 19 1 8 



iba 



K — H S 944*— 946. 



§ 947—960. 



which I have printed and (II) the printed Massorah Finalis, 
letter m, § 628. It is remarkable that both Lists include in this 
Rubric the instance where i%n is preceded by 'jjfi with the 
prefix Vav, viz. 2 Sam. 15 20 a. 

TOpnn § 944*. 

T^TT *^'^ JJehovah, occurs twice with the accent. That is, in two 
instances in the Pentateuch where this pronoun begins a verse 
it has the accent Gershaim. Of this Rubric, which is omitted in 
the first Volume of the Massorah, but which is given in Volume 
III, p. 2, § 944', I collated two Lists: (I) Orient 2365, fol. 1426, 
on Numb. 15 41 and (II) the printed Massorah on the same 
passage which I have printed. 

•Tapnn - § 945. 

^TT ''3K / Jehovah, ends the verse in twenty instances. That is, 
in Leviticus alone, in contradistinction to those verses which end 
with the more lengthy formula recorded below in § 949. This 
is evident from the fact that this formula occurs six times in other 
parts of the Pentateuch at the end of a verse and no less than 
thirty-six times in the Prophets.* 

Of this Rubric I coUated two Lists: (I) Orient. 2349, 
fol. 986, on Levit. 26 45 which I have printed and (II) the printed 
Massorah on Levit 18 5. List I gives the catchwords for the 
twelfth instance corn p = Levit 20 26. But here nw '3K is 
in the middle of the verse. This recension of the Rubric 
must, therefore, be based upon Codices in which the formula 
here ended the verse or the catchwords are due to a 
clerical error. List II heads this Rubric Kircs "p'cc "BX '3 
which is. more precise, since it makes it certain that the 
design of this Massorah is simply to catalogue the instances in 
Leviticus. It, moreover, gives uz'rrrb Dn'?K noK Levit. 22 3 instead 
of O'Dpn 10 Levit 20 26 which is in harmony with the textus 
receptus. 

< Comp. nw ':k Exod. 6 2 8; 10 2; 12 IZ; Numb. 3 13, 45; 1 Kings 20 13, 
28; Ezek. 6 7, 10, 14; 7 4, 27; 11 10; 12 16, 20; W 14, 21, 23; 14 8; IC B2; 
80 26j 38; 23 16; 24 27; 25 6, 7, 11; 26 6; 28 28; 29 21; 30 19, 26; 82 16; 35 4, 
9, 16; 36 11, 38; 37 6; 38 28; 39 6. 



ropnn = § 946. 

VTD rrTTT ''?^» ^ Sign, indicating the passages in Leviticus 
where the phrases rrtr "jk T Jehovah, and oa-rt'jK rrirr; '31* / Jehovah 
your God, respectively occur. 

In Leviticus where, as 'we have seen, the shorter formula 
prirr 'Jit occurs twenty times at the end of the verse, the longer 
phrase ayrjh^ nirr 'j^ occurs seventeen times, also at the end of 
a verse. The design of this Massorah, therefore, is to safeguard 
the respective verses in which these several phrases occur, so 
that they may not be interchanj^ed. As one of the phrases occurs 
more frequently in one Section of Leviticus and the other in 
another Section, the Massorah divides the whole book into the 
following three Sections in accordance with the prevalence of 
either formula in the respective Sections: 

(1.) The first Section consists of Levit 1 1—19 10. Here 
the lengthier formula a^'rt'jK nirr 'JK is the prevailing one. It 
occurs seven times, viz. Levit 18 2, 4, 80; 19 2, 8, 4, 10, whilst 
the shorter form mr '^ occurs three times only. Hence the 
Massorah in this Section safeguards the shorter phrase. 

(2.) In the second Section, which extends from Levit 19 11 
to 23 20, the shorter form nirr 'jk is more frequent It occurs no 
fewer than fifteen times, viz! Levit 19 12, 14, 16, 18, 28, 30, Hi, 
37; 21 12; 22 2, 3, 8, 30, 31, 33, whilst the longer phrase 
B^,-,L,j, -rt.T^ ,j^ occurs four times only. The Massorah, therefore, in 
this Section safeguards the longer phrase. 

(3.) In this Section, which extends from Levit 23 21 to the 
end of the book, the longer formula B^rt^K njrr ^ is the rule. It occurs 
no less than six times, viz. Levit 23 22,' 43; 24 22; 25 17, 66; 
26 1 and the shorter form rri-v"^ is the exception. It occurs 
twice only and, therefore, in this Section the Massorah safeguards 
the shorter phrase. 

Of this Rubric I collated seven Lists, six in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Add. 15,251, fol. 756, on Levit 18 5 which I have 
printed; (H) Oriept 4446, foL 1046, on the same passage; (III) 
Add. 21,160, fol. 1696, on Levit 20 7; (IV) Orient 2849, fol. 93 a, 
on Levit 18 6; (V) Vienna Codex No. 35 on Ezek. 20 19; (VI) 
Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah I, § 162, and (VII) the printed Massorah 
on Levit. 18 6. 



vapnn = § 947. 

^*f?K mrP ^I^ / «»» Jehovah the God of,, occurs twice. This 
Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, is from 
Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah I, § 152. 

n'opnn - § 948. 

D3^*1^K TtST^ ^3K / am Jehovah your God, begins a verse Jive 
tiims. This Rubric is from the printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, 
§ 143 and as is frequently the case it is incorrect, since there 
are four instances only in which this phrase begins a verse. In 
reprinting it the fourth line, viz. bKptrm n^ .Tppo has inadver- 
tently dropped out of the text, whilst rmra*n is manifestly a 
clerical error for rr'TTom and can only mean and (he next verse. 
But in verse 20 this phrase is at the end of the verse and not 
at the beginning. The compiler who erroneously added this 
expression also altered the •'\=four in the heading into •r^'-Jive. 

ropnn = § 949. 

D^^ i^K nlH^ ^JK / am Jehovah your God, occurs twenty-four 
times at the end of a verse. The design of this Massorah is to 
safeguard these instances against being made conformable to 
those verses which end with the shorter formula and which are 
recorded in § 945. 

Of this Rubric I collated six Lists, five in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Orient 2349, fol. 139 6, on Deut 29 5 which I have 
printed; (II) Orient 4445, fol. 1056, on Levit 19 2; (III) Add. 
15,251, fol. 75 o, on Levit 18 4; (IV) Add. 21,160, fol. 167 a, oil 
Levit 18 30; (V) Vienna Codex No. 35, on Levit 19 34 and 

(VI) the printed Massorah Finalis, letter k, § 166. 

List II, which exhibits the oldest form of this Rubric, is 
the only correct one and shows how the Massorah was corrupted 
by copyists in the course of time. List I, which I have printed, 
though it states in the heading that there are twenty-four such 
instances omits two, viz. Levit 24 22; Numb. 15 41 and gives 
one instance twice, viz. Levit 26 1. List III heads this Rubric 
'DB 'ioa'3 and omits three instances, viz. Exod. 16 12; Deut 29 5; 
Ezek. 20 20. List IV which also states in the heading that there 
are twenty-two such instances only, omits four instances, viz. 
Exod. 16 12; Levit 19 4 10; Deut 29 5. 

These omissions are evidently due to a confusion, on the 
part of later Nakdanim, of the two recensions of this Rubric 
which obtained in the different Massoretic Schools. The first 
recension is the one which is exhibited in Lists I and IL The 
second recension is given in List VI. It excludes the seven 
instances in which this phrase is preceded by the particle "s for 
at the end of the verse, viz. Exod. 16 12; Levit 20 7; 24 22; 
25 17; 26 1; Deut 29 5; Ezek. 20 10. Hence it not only heads 
this Rubric B"o i"" 03"n'?« rrpr ■•:k, but duly records seventeen 
instances only. On comparing the omissions in Lists III and IV 
with this recension, it will be seen that they wrongly omitted 
instances from the first recension which are rightly excluded 
from the second recension. Having thus confused the two 
recensions, the copyists also altered the headings. The Rubric in 
Arund. Orient 16, fol. 170 a, on Ezek. 30 20 and in Add. 15,251, 
fol, 2776, on the same passage, which states that this phrase 
occurs ten times only (■' DS'n^K mrr 'jk) refers to u¥^* nirr ^^ ^, 
(Comp. The Massorah, letter 5, § 141, Vol. IL p. 31.) 

rpnn = § 950. 

On^l^*^^ irn^ ■'^X / am Jehomh their God, occurs eight times. 
Of this' Rubric, which" is one of the oldest constituent parts of 
the Massorah, I collated ten Lifcts, nine in MSS. and one printed: 
(I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, 546, on Exod. 29 46 which I have 
printed; (II) the same MS., Vol. II, fol. 926, on Ezek. 34 80; 
(III) Orient 4445, fol. 114a, on Levit. 26 44; (IV) St Petersburg 
Codex of A.D. 916; jon Ezek. 39 22-, (V) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 1856, 
on Ezek. 28 26; (VI) the same MS., fol. 189a, on Ezek. 34 30; 

(VII) the same MS., fol. 1926, on Ezek. 39 22; (VIII) Add. 15,451, 
fol. 3326, on the same passage; (IX) Add. 21,160, fol. 1156, 
on Exod. 29 46 and (X) the printed Massorah on the same 
passage. 

Lists II, VI and VII head this Rubric -n urrrhn ra-r '3K '?, but 
this is incorrect, since though in seven out of the eight instances 
this phrase is preceded by 'i, it is without it in Exod. 29 4«6. 
The oldest Lists, therefore, rightly omit this particle from the 
headings. 



I< — K § 961—966. 



— iir> 



956*— 960. H — S 



«":pnn = § 951. 

''rj*T3^ TltV ""JKI / Jehovah have spoken, occurs twice. That 
i«, at the beginning of a verse and in contradistinction to the 
lengthier formula which is the subject of the Massorah recorded 
in the next Rubric. Of this Rubric I collated four Lists, three 
in MSS. and one printed: (I) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 182cf, on 
Ezek. 24 14 which I have printed; (II) Orient. 2349, fol. 109 «, 
on Numb. 14 35; (III) Vienna Codex No. 35, on Ezek. 24 14 and 
(IV) the printed Massorah on the same passage. As this phrase 
ends the verse in, no fewer than seven instances (Ezek. 5 15, 17; 
17 21 ; 21 22, 37; ^12; 34 24) and as it is in these two passages 
only where it begins a verse, the Massorah safeguards the ex- 
ceptional position of this formula. Lists II and IV, therefore, 
rightly add in the heading en '2 without wjtiich this Rubric is 
unintelligible. 

3":pnn = § 952. 

^ri^'trpi ^ri*!3^ nin^ ^^K / Jehomh have spoken and have done, 
occurs four times. That is, to distinguish it froni the shorter phrase 
which ends the verse in seven instances and which is noticed in 
the preceding Rubric. It is, however, to be remarked that in one 
of the four instances which constitute this Rubric, this phrase 
does not stand at the end of the verse (Ezek. 37 14). Of this 
Rubric I collated six Lists, five in MSS. and one printed: (I) 
Orient. 1474, fol. 89a, on Ezek. 17 24 which I have printed; (II) 
Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 177 &, on the same passage; (III) the same 
MS., fol. 181 «, on Ezek. 22 14; (IV) the same MS., fol. 1906, on 
Ezek. 36 36; (V) Add. 21,160, fol. 277a, on the same passage and 
(VI) the printed Massorah on Ezek. 17 24. With the exception 
of List I, all the other Lists head this Rubric simply 'rror\ 
Tn'to:^! without •:><, but the heading in the List which I have 
printed is preferable, since this lengthier formula is manifestly 
contrasted with the shorter one recorded in the preceding 
Rubric. 

:":pnn = § 953. 

DD^nipp nirP ''iNl / am Jehovah which sanctify you, occurs 
fmir thne's. Of this^ Rubric I collated five Lists, four in MSS. and 
one printed: (I) Orient. 2349, fol. 94a, on Levit. 20 8 which I 
have printed; (II) Orient. 4445, fol. 108 a, on Levit. 22 32; (III) 
Vienna Codex No. 35 on Levit. 20 8; (IV) Halle Ochlah Ve- 
Ochlah I, § 152, margin and (V) the printed Massorah on 
Exod. .31 13. 

T':pnn - § 954. 

O^^pP '*^^'T ''f'l^ -^ ^"* Jehovah which sanctify them, occurs 
four times. Of this Rubric I collated nine Lists, seven in MSS. 
•iind one two printed: (I) Harley 5710 — 11, Vol. I, fol. 78a, on 
Levit 22 16 which I have printed; (II) the same MS., Vol. II, 
fol. 82a, on Ezek. 20 n; (III) Orient. 4445,' fol. 107a, on Levit. 
22 9; (IV) Add. 15,261, fol. 77a, on Levit. 22 9; (V) the same 
MS., fol. 277o, on Ezek. 20 12; (VI) Add. 21,160, fol. 171a, on 
Levit 21 23; (VII) Orient. 2349, fol. 95^, on Levit. 22 IG; 
(VIII) the printed Massorah on the same passage and (IX) the 
same on Ezek. 20 12. The addition "5 'on '"jn the second instance is 
wifJiovi, '3 Levit 22 19 is due to the fact that in all the other 
three passages this phrase is preceded by this particle. 



*t^'\ ^JK / and my people, occurs three times in this f mm . . . . 
once in the Pentateuch, once in the Prophets and once in the Hagiographa. 
Of this Rubric I collated two Lists: (I) Add. 15,250, fol. 1396, 
which I have printed and (II) the printed Massorah on Exod. 
9 27. The latter rightly heads it -wba 'j which denotes with or 
without the prefix Vav, since in Exod. 9 27 it is -:«> The phrase 
with the prefix also constitutes one link in the long chain of 
pairs, both words of which are with Vav conjunctive and which 
are unique in this form.' 

> Comp. The Mattorah, letter 1, § 89, Vol. I, p. 41.5 &c. 



rypnn = § 956*. 

''^Xl occurs four times with this accent at the beginning of the verse. 
That is, in the Psalter where it is generally with Dechi at the be- 
ginning of the verse' this pronoun has in these four instances i?ema. 
Hence the Massorah safeguards in these passages the exceptional 
accents. That this is the import of this Massorah and that the 
qualifying expression K-iros in this book which restricts it to the 
Psalter must be supplied, is not only evident from the instances 
recorded in the Rubric, but from the fact that it occurs no less 
than ten times with this accent at the beginning of a verse 
in other pai>ts of the Bible.^ This Rubric, which does not occur 
in the printed Massorah, is from Orient. 2375, fol. 2a, on Ps. 5 8. 

1 have printed it in Vol. Ill of the Massorah, letter k, § 956. 
As one of the instances is •:« without the prefix Vav (Ps. 17 15) 
the heading ought properly to be ":« nm 'cbs Ttss •: 'jKi. 

' Comp. '3«i Ps. 3 6; 26 11; 30 7; 31 7; 69 SO; 71 14; 73 23; 75 10. 
2 Comp. ?lxi Gen. 6 17; Exod. 14 17; Levit. 20 3; Numb. 18 6; Josh. 8 5; 

2 Sam. 18 13; Jerem. 23 3; 40 10; Ezek. 4 5; Jonah 2 10. 

"r:Dr)n = § 957. 

__ ''^'] <^^^I, begins a verse fofrty three times. This Rubric I have found 
in the printed Massorah Finalis only, letter k, § 626. It is simply a 
fragment, attempting to extend the record to the whole Bible which 
the preceding Rubric restricted to the Pentateuch. A later Nakdan 
who mistook this List for final supplied it with the heading 
fixing the number of instances at forty-three in accordance 
with the passages which the original compiler was able to 
bring together. There are no fewer than sixty-nine instances in 
the Bible where this pronoun begins a verse so that more than 
one third of the passages, which the first Massorite left to his 
colleagues to supply, are here omitted.* Originally each book 
was examined separately for this phenomenon, as is evident 
from the separate List on the Pentateuch. The first compiler of 
the List before us, therefore, brought together the instances of 
these books -only which he found with these registers in a inore 
or less complete state. This explains the fact that no fewer than 
four entire books are not represented in this Rubric, viz. Joshua, 
Isaiah, Jeremiah and Jonah. The catchwords "TiDna ^jki are a 
clerical error for -[ncn S"^: -jk: = Ps. 5 8. I have reproduced it as 
it is in Jacob b. Chayim's Massorah 

• Comp. '3X1 Gen. 9 9; Exod. 14 17; Josh. 8 .->; t Sam. 4 16; 2 Sam. 13 13; 
Isa. 49 4; 59 21; Jerem. 1 18; 5 4; 11 19; 17 IG; 23 3; 26 14; 40 10; Ezek. 4 6; 
Hos. 5 12; Jonah 2 5, 10; 4 11; Ps. 30 7; 40 18; 70 6; Ruth. 4 4; Neh. G 10; 
2 Chron. G 2. 

n":pnn = § 958. 

jN ' yKj* Seven verses in ichich this pronoun occurs twice, the 
first time with and the second without the prefix Vav. Of this Rubric 
I collated two Lists: (I) Orient 2340, fol. 476, on Gen. 34 30 which 
I have printed and (II) the printed Massorah on Jerem. 23 24. The 
printed Massorah (List II) has not the^iddition of the verse in which 
this pronoun occurs three times with the prefix Vav nor of the verse 
in which it occurs four times, three times without and once with 
the prefix Vav. As Ezek. 34 24 is the only one of the seven 
instances in which -rKi begins the verse, it also forms part of 
the Rubric recording the verses which begin with a word with 
Vav and in which the same word is repeated in the middle of 
the verse without the Vav.^ 

' Comp. The Massorah, letter i, § 97, Vol. I, p. 415. 



t3"jpnn = § 959. 

n5K ''JKI and I whither, is twice thus combined in the Scriptures. 
Of this Rubric I collated two Lists: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, 
fol. 25a, on Gen. 37 30 which I have printed and (II) the 
printed Massorah on the same passage. 



r:pnn = 956. 

'^}l^ and I, begins a verse eleven times in the Pentateuch. Of this 
Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, I collated 
two Lists: (I) Orient. 2349, fol. 101 a, on Numb. 3 12, which 
I have printed and (II) Orient. 2348, fol. 3a, on the same 
passage. 



D^'1bK^ ♦ ♦ ♦ n;nK ^jif) and l shall . . . God. Throughmd the 
Scriptures D',l'?Kb .Tnx is preceded by -jki except in one instance .... 
whilst throughout Jeremiah it is preceded by ••ajKi except in one 
instance. 

To understand this artificial Massorah, it is necessary to 
remark: (1) that as n",i'?K^ DDb .Tn>t ';ki does not occur the variation 
here recorded must refer to a*ri'?i<S .... rrriK ":ki and ci^kS .... .thk "aiKi 
without D3^ and anb; (2) that o-ribx^ .... n-ns -rxi occurs six 
times (Jerem. 32 38; Ezek. 11 20, 14 11 ; 34 24; 37 33; Zech. 8 k) 



K - K § sei- 



ne 



§ 967. K - K 



and (3) that bni*?k^ , . . . rrn^ pi^ occurs four times (Jerem. 11 4; 
24 7, 30 22; Ezek. 36' 28). Apart from Jeremiah, therefore, 
nrat "^in is the rule and ■piK) the solitary exception, whilst in 
Jeremiah pJKi is the rule and ••ski the solitary exception. Hence 
the Massorah safeguards in each case the exceptional use of the 
pronoun in this phrase. It is to be remarked that .thk the 
future first person singular when used by God is alternately 
preceded by •oim and n^i.^ 

Of this Rubric, which does not occur in the printed 
Massorah, I collated two Lists: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, 
fol. 94 a, on Ezek. 36 28 which I have printed and (II) Halle 
Ochlah Ve-Ochlah I, § 152. 

» Comp. njHK o5ki Exod. 4 12, 15; Deut. 31 23; "'riK '3Ki Zech. 2 9; 
1 Ghron. 28 6. 

X'Dpnn = § 961. 
^7 Tinj ''3X1 and I have given to thee, occurs twice. In the 
other three instances where "prij is combined with this pronoun 
at the beginning of a verse it is ■'JK-dji and not 'jki (Ezek. 20 25 ; 
Amos 4 6; Mai. 2 9). This Rubric I have found in the printed 
Massorah only, on Ezefe 4 5. It is to be remarked that ■'nnj •'m 
by itself occurs twice only. 

a'Dpnn = § 962. 

triK ""iKI and J will give, occurs twice. That is, to distinguish 
it from the other two instances where this phrase occurs and 
where it is without the prefix Vav (2 Sam. 21 6; l Kings Jil 7). 
Of this Rubric I collated two Lists: (I) Harley 5710— 11, Vol.1, 
fol. 7U6, on Levit 20 3 which I have printed and (II) the printed 
Massorah on the same passage. 

yupnn = § 962*. 

"•riPtttr ''3K1 and I have heard, occurs twice. "Ftsaf is five 
times combined with this pronoun, in three instances it is without 
the prefix Vav (Exod. 6 5;. Ezek. 35 13; 2 Chron. 34 27) and 
in two with it. The Massorah, therefore, safeguards the minority. 
This Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, 

1 have printed in Vol. Ill, p. 2, § 962', from Orient. 2451, 
foL 49 a, on Gen. 41 15. 

yopnn = § 963. 

'^^'P because I, occurs twice. This Rubric, which does not 
occur'in the printed Massorah, is from Harley 5710— 11, Vol. II, 
fol. 2636, on Eccl. 2 18. 

n-D|5nn § 964. 

nl*JK3 in the ships, occurs four times. Of this Rubric I 
collated ten Lists, eight in MSS. and two printed: (I) Harley 
5710—11, Vol. I, fol, 130&, on Deut. 28 68 which I have printed; 

(II) the smne MS., Vol. I, fol. 238a, on 1 Kings 22 50; (III) the 
same MS., Vol. II, fol. 208 6, on Ps. 107 23; (IV) Arund. Orient. IG, 
fol. 976, on 1 Kings 22 50; (V) the same MS., fol. 1376, on 
Isa. 43 14; (VI) the same MS., foL 311 6, on Ps. 107 23; (VII) 
Add. 15,451, fol. 245a, on 1 Kings 22 50; (VIII) the same MS., 
fol. 3606, on Isa. 43 14; (IX) the printed Massorah on Deut. 28 68 
and (X) the same on Isa. 43 14. As this expression also occurs 
once with the prefix Vav (Dan. 11 40) five of the ten Lists, viz. 
Nos, VI — X add at the end nl'SKSi 'ki. 

n'Dpnn = § 965. 

^3X Uad, plummet, occurs four times and in the earns section. 
This Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah, is 
from the Cambridge University Library Add. i65 on Amos 7 7. 

TDpnn = § 966. 

^piK I, has in seven instances the accent on the Nun and 

wherever it is toith Athnach, Soph-Patuk, Zakeph or Zarka it is also 
on the Nun except in one tnttanee. That is, the accent is on the 
penultima or is Milel in the language of the Massorah. 

Of this Rubric I collated sixteen Lists, fifteen in MSS. and 
one printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, foL 260a, on Ruth 3 13 
which I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient. 16, foL 31 a, on Judg. 17 9; 

(III) the same MS., fol. 40 a, on 1 Sam. 9 21; (IV) the same MS., 
fol. 56 a, on 1 Sam. ^13; (V) the same MS., fol. 58a, on 

2 Sam. 3 8; (VI) the same MS., foL 2076, on Amos 7 14; (VH) the 
same MS., fol. 2836, on Ruth 3 13; (VIII) Orient 2201, fol. lOla— 6, 
in the Massoretic Appendix to the Pentateuch; (IX) Add. 15,251, 
fol. 14a, on Gen. 3 10; (X) the same MS., fol. 1556, on 1 Sam. 9 21; 
(XI) the same MS., fol. 395fr, on Ruth 3 13; (XII) Add. 15,451, 
foL 185a, on 1 Sam. 9 21; (XIII) Vienna Codex No. 85 on the 



same passage; (XIV) tho. same Codex on Amos 7 14; (XV) Halle 
Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, § 103, margin and (XVI) the printed 
Massorah on Gen. 3 10. 

The seven passages catalogued in this Rubric exhibit: 
(1) three instances in which the Revia is abnormally on the 
Nun (Exod. 4 10; Judg. 17 9; 1 Sam. 30 13) instead of its 
normal position on the Caph, as it is in the other twelve passages 
where it occurs with this accent ;i (2) three instances in which 
the Tipcha is on the penultima (Gen. 3 10; Amos 7 14; Ruth 3 13) 
instead of the ultima as is the case in all the other forty-three 
times where this quadriliteral occurs with Tipcha;^ and (3) one 
solitary instance where it has Pashta on the Ntm (1 Sam. 9 21) 
instead of the Yod only, which is the case in the other thirty- 
seven passages.3 Thus far the import of this Rubric is simple. 
Not only do the other fifteen Lists record the same seven 
instances, but the Standard Codices exhibit the abnormal position 
of these accents in the text. 

It is the second part of this Rubric which causes the 
difficulty. Here we are told that wherever "sJk. has one of four 
pausal or distinctive accents it is always Miel, that is, the accent 
is likewise on the Nun except in one solitary instance. This is 
perfectly correct with regard to three out of the four accents, 
viz. Athach,*^ Soph-Pasuk^ and Zakeph,'^ but it is not so in the 
case of Zarka. With Zarka •'siK occurs four times (Gen. 50 5; 
Exod. 34 10; 2 Sam. 3 8; Job 16 4), and excepting one questionable 
instance, this accent is always on the -ultima in all the Standard 
Codices and in the early editions. If is, therefore, more than 
probable that the expression Kpnn is due to a later Scribe who 
imported it here from another recension of this Massorah. I must 
add here that. "-ajK n\f^ Judg. 6 3 in the Rubric which I have 
printed is my mistake for -aJK "'t'? Judg. 17 9. 

A second recension of this Massorah is exhibited in the 
other fifteen Lists which I have collated. In the heading of 
these Lists it is stated that there are eight instances in which 
this pronoun has the accent on the penultima {bvhn 'n -odk) .and 
2 Sam. 3 h is given as the eighth instance where it is taken to 
have two Zarkas, one on the Yod and one on the Ntm ("sjk). But 
though this is the more general form of the Rubric, the 
best MSS. (Orient. 2201; Harley 5710—11; Arund. Orient. 16; 
Orient 4227; Add. 15,250; Add. 15,251 «S:c.) and all the editions 
exhibit one Zarka only on the ultimata, exactly as it is in the 
other three passages where -giK has this accent, and I have found 
the two Zarkas in one MS. only (Add. 15,451). 

The second part of this Rubric is differently stated in 
these fifteen Lists. Thus Lists II, VI, IX, X have it -idi 'potk bs\ 
riaa'ian'iDB; Lists IV, VII, XI, XII, XIII, XVI -ot 'lOVsnKi e)pi tai 
K"aa "i3-i; List VIII has it K"aa 'lan 'db 'idi 'roriK npn Kp-ir by\; List XV 
simply '13T "rai without stating what the accents are, whilst 
Lists III, V and XIV have not this second part at all. It will 
thus be seen that there is only one other MS. which has the 
vicious expression Kpnr in the second part of this Rubric. 

I Comp. 'ilK Gen. 24 27; 46 4; Exod. 7 27; Deut 29 13; Josh. 14 7; 
Judg. 6 3; 6 37; 1 Sam. 1 28; 12 23; 2 Sam. 2 6; Isa. 8 18; Jerem. 34 18. 

4 Comp. '35« Gen. 16 8; 21 24; 2S 4; 24 3, 37, 42; 30 3, 30; 38 26; 47 SO; 
48 21; 50 24; Exod. 3 12; 4 11; 32 18; 34 11; Numb. 11 12, 21; Deut. 4 2; 
12 11, 14, 28; 18 19; 32 40; Judg. 7 18; 11 37; 1 Sam. 16 14; 20 36; 2 Sam. 14 18; 
24 12; 1 Kings 19 4; Isa. 6 5; 43 11; Jerem. 1 17; 3 14; 14 12; 26 6; 28 7; 
32 42; 33 9; Jonah 3 2; Job 9 29; Ruth 4 4. 

3 Comp. '3iK Gen. 7 4; 15 1; 27 19; 31 6, 38; 32 12; 43 9; Exod. 3 6; 
20 2; Numb. 11 14; 22 32; Deut. 4 2; 6 6; 13 1; 31 2; Josh. 13'6; 1 Sam. 1 8; 
4 16; 10 8; 18 18; 2 Sam. 13 28; 1 Kings 2 16, 20; Isa. 46 12, IS; 5416; 6613; 
Jerem. 25 29; 27 6; 33 9; Hos. 2 10, 16; IIJO; Amos 6 8; 9 9; Mai. 3 23; Ruth. 3 9. 

* Comp. 'Siw Gen. 15 14; 24 24; 25 22, 30; Jerem. 1 7; Amos 7 14; 
Jonah 1 9; Zech/lS 6; Ps. 109 22; Ruth 3 12. 

5 Comp. '?i» Gen. 4 9; 24 34; 30 1; Exod. 4 10; 2 Sam. 1 8, IS; 2 20; 
11 6; 20 17; Jerem. 1 6; Ps. 50 7. 

6 Comp. 'si? Gen. 26 24; 29 33; 30 2; Exod. 3 11; Judg. 19 18; 1 Sam. 1 16; 
17 43; Isa. C 5; Amos 7 14. 

fDpfin - § 967. 
''PJK ^piS I, occurs three times thus combined in the Scriptures, 
That is, in this reduplicate form. Of this Rubric I collated seven 
Lists, six in MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 5710— 11, Vol. II, 
fol. 206, on Isa. 43 11 which I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient 16, 
fol. 1376, on the same passage; (III) the same MS., fol. 141a, on 
Isa. 51 12; (IV) Add. 15,251, fol. 2346, on the same passage; 
(V) Add. 15,451, fol. 3606, on Isa. 43 11; (VI) Vienna Codex 
No. 35 on Isa. 61 12 and (VII) the printed Massorah on Isa. 43 11. 
As all the three instances occur in Isaiah, the heading ought 
properly to be 'B-oai '3 it occurs three times and in the tame book, 
though none of the Lists have it so. 



8 — i< § 968—972. 



— 117 — 



§ 973-976. K 



iTDpnn = § 968. 

X'^SO ^3JK / am bringing, occurs four tivieg in this hook, i. e. 
in Jeremiah. The design of this Massorah is twofold: (1) It is 
to safeguard this exceptional phrase against being made con- 
formable to K-'Sa •'Jjn which is the normal combination used both 
in this book, where it occurs nine times, and in the other parts 
of the Bible,' and (2) it is to guard the Scribes against inter- 
changing the pronouns, since in the other six passages where 
rao is preceded by the pronoun it is ■'jh and not 'ojk.* 

Of this Rubric, which does not occur in the printed 
Massorah, I collated two Lists, both in the ancient St. Petersburg 
Codex of A. D. 916: (I) On Jerem. 4 6 which I have printed 
and (II) on Jerem. 6 19. As these four instances are restricted 
to Jeremiah, the heading ought more correctly to be k-isscsi "t. 

» Comp. >«'?» "pjn Exod. 10 4; 1 Kings 14 10; 21 21; 22 16; Jerem. 5 16; 
11 11; 19 3, 15; 31 8; 35 17; 39 IG; 45 6; 49 5; Ezek. 26 7; 28 7; 29 8; 
Zech. 3 8; 2 Chron. 34 24. 

2 Comp. »'?» -}» Levit. 18 3; 20 22; Numb. 15 18; 2 Kings 10 24; 22 20; ' 
Jerem. 42 17; Ezek. 37 5; 2 Ciiron. 34 2^. 

rDpnn = § 969. 

TlJ?*!'' ''piK / know, occurs three times in this combination. 
'pyT is ten times preceded by the pronoun first person. In seven 
instances it is combined with 'jk ' and in three only by "six. The 
Massorah, therefore, safeguards the exceptional phrase. 

Of this Rubric I collated seven Lists, five in MSS. and two 
printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, fol. 1326, on Deut. 31 27 
which I have printed; (II) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 1656; (III) 
Add. 15,250, fol. 2546; (IV) Add. 15,251, fol. 2536; (V) Vienna 
Codex No. 35, all on Jerem. 29 11; (VI) the printed Massorah 
on Gen. 20 6 and (VII) the same on Jerem. 29 11. Lists I and IV 
head this Rubric '3 "nrT "Sjk -a which is incorrect, since in Gen. 20 6 
••nyT "Six is not preceded by "3, but by 05- 

' Comp. 'nynj 'ix 1 Sam. 17 28; 2 Kings 2 3, 6; Jerem. 48 30; Hos. 5 3; 
Ps. 135 5; 2 Chron. 2 7. 

j?"pnn = § 970. 

mn'' ""piK / Jehovah, occurs twelve times in this combination. 
In the Numerous instances in which the Tetragrammaton is 
preceded by the pronoun first person it is •'jjii and it is in these 
twelve passages only that it is combined with isjs. Hence the 
Massorah safeguards this exceptional combination. 

Of this Rubric I coUijIed nine Lists, eight in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Orient 2349, fol. 69a, on Exod. 20 2 which I have 
printed; (II) Orient. 2348, fol. 79a, on the same passage; (III) 
Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 3046, on Ps. 81 ll; (IV) Add. 15,251, 
fol. 3626, on the same passage; (V) Add. 21,160, fol. 97a, on 
Exod. 20 2; (VI) the same MS., fol. 2686, on Deut. 5 6; (VII) 
Vienna Codex No. 35, on Exod. 20 2; (Vm) Halle Ochlah Ve- 
Ochlah I, § 152, margin and (IX) the printed Massorah on 
Exod. 20 2. 

It is to be remarked: (l) that all the nine Lists include 
the three instances in which the pronoun in this combination 
has the prefix Vav (Isa. 51 15; Hos. 12 10; 13 4) and (2) the 
instance in 2 Sam. 7 18 where the phrase ia m^ 'rt^ 'pin because 
in the combination of riln;' ''3'ik Adonai has the vowel-points of 
ruT and mrr the vowel-points of n*rb». {Vide supi-a, §§ 107, 116.) 
The addition at the end of Jacob b. Chayim's (List IX), viz. 
■pbK ''"' 'D3K1 proa "\ is incorrect since rrtrr piKi with the prefix Vav 
occurs three times only. It is due to a clerical error as it is 
not given in any of the other eight Lists. 

K-rpnn = § 971. 

3tth'^ ^SiK I dioell, occurs five times. Of this Rubric I collated 
seven Lists, four in MSS. and three printed : (I) Arund. Orient. 1 6, 
fol. 61 a, on 2 Sam. 7 2 which I have printed ; (II) the same MS., 
fol. 121o, on Isa. 6 5; (III) the same MS., fol. 249 a, on 1 Chron. 
17 1; (IV) Add. 15,250, fol. 168a, on 2 Sam. 7 2; (V) the printed 
Massorah on Gen. 24 3 ; (VI) the same on 2 Sam. 7 2 and (VII) 
the same on 1 Chron. 17 1. 

yppnn = § 972. 

np ^pJK I die, occurs four times thus combined. Of this Rubric 
I collated six Lists, five in MSS. and one printed: (I) Harley 
6710—11, VoL I, fol 114a, on Deut 4 22 which I have printed; 
(U) Add. 21,160, fol. 636, on Gen. 50 24; (HI) the same MS., 



fol. 2616, on Deut. 4 22; (IV) Orient. 2349, fol. 576, on Gen. 50 24; 
(V) Vienna Codex No. 35, on Deut. 4 22 and (VI) the printed 
Massorah on Gen. 48 21. 

rppnn = § 973. 

''^ty^ ''5«'^ /^aye given, occurs three times, 'nris is eight times 
in combination with the pronoun ; in five instances it is preceded 
by "jK without and with the prefix Vav^ and in three only is it 
preceded by *2iK. The Massorah, therefore, safeguards the 
minority. 

Of this Rubric I collated seven Lists, five in MSS. and two 
printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 49a, on Jerem. 27 6 
which I have printed: (II) the same MS., Vol. II, fol. 104a, on 
Hos. 3 10; (III) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 200a, on the same 
passage; (IV) Orient. 2349, fol. 36a, on Gen. 16 5; (V) Vienna 
Codex No. 35 on Hos. 2 10; (VI) the printed Massorah on Gen. 
16 5 and (VII) the same on Jerem. 27 6. That the number of 
these instances required fixing and safeguarding is evident from 
the Massorah on Gen. 16 5 in Add. 15,250, fol. 11 6, where it is 
emphatically stated that this combination occurs four times 
("-ipa "7 TTC ''35K). Though the passages are not given, it is more 
than probable that tlie Massorites of this beautifully written 
Standard Codex must have compiled the Rubric from MSS. 
which exhibited this combination in their text four times. 

< Comp. Wj '?« Ezek. 20 25; Amos 4 6; Mai. 2 9; 'nnj '3tn Gen. 48 22; 
Ezek. 4 5. 

rrpnn = § 974. 

jrij ''pJK 1 am giving or / give, I set, occurs seven times. This 
participle active singular masculine occurs altogether eighteen 
times in combination with the pronoun first person. In eleven 
instances it is preceded by "jx* and in seven by -d5k. Hence the 
Massorah safeguards the minority. 

Of this Rubric I collated four Lists, three in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Orieht 2349, fol. 130a, on Deut. 11 26 which I have 
printed; (II) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 9a, on Josh. 11 6; (III) 
Add. 21,160, fol. 2606, on Deut. 4 8 and (IV) the printed 
Massorah on 1 Sam. 24 4. 

» Comp. fnS '3!f Gen. 9 12; Levit. 14 34; 23 10; 25 2; Numb. 13 2; 16 2; 
Deut. 32 49, 62; 1 Sam. 23 4; Ezek. 2 8; 3 3. 

n-rprin = § 975. 

"^DP ''pi^ I ant tcith thee, occurs three times . . ; . andin all 
othei- passages it is i[ar ""aJK. That is, in these three instances the 
preposition oy with the suffix second person singular masculine 
the Mem has Kametz and the Caph Sheva, i. e. Tiay, whereas in all 
other instances where this combination occurs it is ^oy. 

Of this Rubric, which does not occur in the printed 
Massorah, I collated two Lists: (I) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 17a, 
on Josh. 23 14 which I have printed and (II) Harley 5710—11, 
Vol. II, fol. ,185a, on Ps. 39 13. The addition at the end of the 
Rubric that in all other instances where this combination occurs 
it is !»? is inexplicable, since iij^'p ''35k does not occur in the 
textus receptus.^ List II, therefore, is without this addition. It is 
also to be noticed that List I is on Josh. 23 14 where this 
phrase does not occur at all. 

t It is remarkable tliat Heidenheim also found a MS. Massorah witli this 
addition wliicli is given in Frensdorff's Matsoretitche* Wmterhuch, p. 269, note 4. 



vrpnn = § 976. 

TVDHi ^PiS I am doing, or / will do, occurs three times, nttrr 
occurs fifteen times in combination with the pronoun first 
person; in twelve instances it is preceded by "j^^ and in three 
only by -siK. The Massorah, therefore, safeguards the exceptional 
usage. 

Of this Rubric I collated four Lists, three in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Arund. Orient. 16, fol. 366, on 1 Sam. 3 11 which 
I have printed; (II) Add. 15,250, fol. 147a; (III) Add. 15,451, 
fol. 1816, and (IV) the printed Massorah, all on the same passage. 
Lists IV heads it 'wbs n and gives nwr mm rsSK Isa. 44 24 as the 
fourth instance, which is manifestly designed to safeguard this 
solitary passage, since in the other two instances where this 
phrase occurs it is nwr mm "jk (Isa. 45 7; Jerem. 9 23). 

» Comp. n^y y» Gen, 18 17; Exod. 34 10; Isa. 6 6; OC 22; Jerem. 89 32; 
I Ezek. 33 14; 36 22, .??; Mai. 3 17, 21; Nch. 3 16; 6 3. 



K ~" i^ § 977-982. 



— 118 



§ 983—989. K — K 



rvpnn = § 977. 

""SiXri have D, occurs twice in the Scriptures. That is, the 
pronoun Vsk with the prefix n interrogative to distinguish it 
from the only other instance where the pronoun first person 
wittr the interrogative He occurs and where it is 'skti (Isa. 66 9). 

Of this Rubric I collated seven Lists, six in MSS. and one 
printed: (I) Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 231a, on Job 21 4 
which I have printed; (U) Orient 4446, fol. 1296, on Numb. 11 12; 
(III) Arund. Orient 16, foL 2286, on Job 21 4; (IV) Add. 16,250, 
fol. 80o, on Numb. 11 12; (V) Add. 21,160, fol. 2056; (VI) 
Orient 2349, fol. 107a, and (VII) the printed Massorah, all on 
Numb, il 12. 

rrj^pnn = § 978. 

''piKI find I, begins a verse nine times. As this pronoun 
which, apart from the Minor Prophets, begins a verse twenty- 
six times and, moreover, as it is in seventeen instances without 
the prefix Vav^ and with it in nine instances only, the Massorah 
safeguards the minority. 

And throughout the Minor Ptophets it is likewise so. That is, 
in this portion of the Scriptures where this pronoun begins a 
verse five times it is without exception* with the prefix Vav. 
(Comp. Hos. 11 3; 12 10; 13 4; Amos. 2 9, 10.) 

Of this Rubric I collated sixteen Lists, fourteen in MSS. 
and two printed: (I) Harley 671O-II, Vol. I, fol. 1466, on 
Judg. 11 .27 which I have printed; (II) the same MS., Vol. II, 
fol. 179a, on Ps. 22 7; (III) St Petersburg. Codex A. D. 916, on 
Jerem. 3 19; (IV) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 596, on 2 Sam. 3 39; 
(V) the same MS., fol. I41/i, on Isa. 61 15; (VI) the same MS., 
fol. 147a, on Isa. 66 18; (VII) the same MS., fol. 149a, on 
Jerem. 3 19; (VIII) the same MS., fol. 2886, on Ps. 22 7; 
(IX) Add. 16,451, fol. 142o, on Deut 31 18; (X) the same MS., 
fol. 206a, on 2 Sam. 3 89; (XI) the same MS., fol. 269.o, on 
Jerem. 2 21; (XII) the same MS., fol. 402a, on Ps. 22 7; (XIII) 
Cambridge University Library Add. 465, on J^rem. 2 21 which 
alone has the mnemonic sign; (XIV) Halle Ochlah Ve-Ochlah II, 
§ 104; (XV) the printed Massorah on Isa. 61 15, and (XVI) the 
same on Ps. 22 7. 

The addition at the end of List II pnnian rrbi -O'm r^'^p ntwi 
piDB 'Ki rrnp "jas explains the import of this Massorah. List HI 
which exhibits the oldest form of this Massorah omits Jerem. 2 21 
which is manifestly due to a clerical error, since the heading 
distinctly states that there are nine such instances. Lists V, VI 
and XIII omit at the end "en -iW nn "jsi which makes this 
Massorah in conflict with, the text, inasmuch as, .including the 
Minor Prophets, -^iKi begins a verse no fewer than fourteen times. 

• Comp. '3iK Gen. Jl 13; 43 0; 46 4; Exod. 20 2; Deut. 5 6, 6; 2 Sam. 20 19; 
1 Kngs 2 2; Isa.' 48 11, 12, 26; 46 12, 13; 61 12; Jerem. 27 6; Ps. 81 11; 
Job 9 29. 

SD-rpflfl -= § 979. 
itliT ^?3K1 and 1 Jehtroah, occurs four times. {Vide supra, 
§ 970.)' 

D'pnn = § 980. 

P]3J<rin he was angry, occurs three times. This Rubric I have 
found in the printed Massorah Finalis only, letter k, § 645. The 
heading ought properly to be nB-oai % since all the three 
instances are restricted to Deuteronomy. 



K'Dpnn = § 981. 

^'^1B3P f^niB3K Ms face, is with Dagesh in Pe; his branches, is 
without t</ These two Chaldee homonyms which respectively 
consist of three syllables with exactly the same vowel-points, 
severally occur twice in Daniel As the former is with Dagesh 
in the Pe and the latter is without it the Massorah safeguards this 
orthographical phenomenon. Accordingly the. current editions of 
the Bible and the Lexicons which have it ^rriwy are against the 
Massorah. This Rubric is from Add. 465, Cambridge University 
Library on Dan. 4 11. 

3"Dpnn = § 982. 

OTK incurable, desperate, occurs four times. Of this Rubric, 
which does not occur in the printed Massorah, I collated two 
Lilts, both in the St Petersburg Codex of A. D. 916: (I) on 
Jerem. 17 16 which I have printed and (11) on Jerem. 30 12. 
Though this participle passive singular masculine occurs five 
times, both Lists state in the heading that it occurs four times 



only. The remarkable feature of these two Lists is that in 
the one which I have printed Job 34 6 is omitted, whilst List II 
includes this passage {1tr\ = Job 34 6) and omits -niKm. Jerem. 
17 16. But these Lists, however, add at liie end that it also 
occurs once with the prefix Vav, In List I this addition is 
'310 'o a'?n sps 'tn and in List 11 im nsKi 'm;= Jerem. 17 9. The two 
Lists, therefore, cannot emanate from the same Massorites. 

j'Dpnn - § 983. 

KU^ man, is twice mi^sk in the Kethiv. That is, in the 
Kethiv or textual reading the form is »«fi»f for which the Keri 
or official reading is in both instances jt|b*|. Of this Rubric, 
which does not occur in the printed Massorah, I collated two 
Lists: (I) Harley &710— 11, Vol. II, fol. 2796, on Dan. 4 13 which 
I have printed and (II) Arund; Orient 16, fol. 367 a, on the same 
passage. The points of the Kethiv in the heading of the Rubric 
should be KttMSK in accordance with the notes in my edition of 
the Bible, and not K^iSJj. 

TB^nn = § 984. 

riiKI and thou, begins a verse in two instances They 

constitute one of the fourteen groups of two words each which respect- 
ively have Vav at the beginning of the verse. 

As this pronoun second person begins a verse altogether 
eight times and as it is without the prefix Vav in six instances ^ 
and in two only with it, the Massorah safeguards the exceptional 
occurrence. For the fourteen groups of which this pair constitutes 
one, see below letter % § 63, p. 399. 

This Rubric I have found in the printed Massorah only, 
on Dan. 5 22. 

» Comp. WH Dan. 2 29, 31, 37; 3 10; 4 19; 6 18. In these instances the 
Massorah as usual recognises the official Keri only. 

n"Dpnn = § 985 

P]''pKn the ingathering, occurs twice, once it is defective and 
once plene. As the two instances occur in the same book and are 
differently spelled in each case, the Massorah safeguards the 
divergent orthography of the two passages. Of this Rubri<5, I 
collated four Lists, two in MSS. and two printed: (I) Harley 
5710-11, Vol. I, fol. 49a, on Exod. 23 16 which I have printed; 
(II) Add. 15,250, fol. 46a, on the same passage; (III) the printed 
Massorah, on Exod. 34 22 and (IV) the printed Massorah FinaUs, 
letter k, § 670. 

rDPfin = § 986. 

"T'DK a prisoner, occurs twice with Kametz. As this expression 
occurs fiVe times, and as it is in three passages with Pathach 
under the Aleph^ and in these two instances only with Kametz, 
the Massorah safeguards the minority. This Rubric, which does 
not occur in the printed Massorah, is from Add. 465 University 
Library Cambridge on Ps. 102 21. 

»-!(Jomp. I'BK a prlimer Isa. 10 4; 24 22; 42 7. 

?"Dpnn = § 987. 

D'n^pK prisoners, occurs three times in this form. That is, 
Jbwice without and once with the prefix He. By fixing the number 
at three, the Massorah militates against the textual reading or 
Kethiv on^wri in Judg. 16 21 and 25. Of this Rubric, which does 
not occur in the printed Massorah, I collated three Liste: 

(I) Orient 2349, fol. 505, on Gen. 39 22 which I have printed; 

(II) Arund. Orient 16, fol. 322 a, on Job 3 18 and (III) Vienna 
Codex No. 36 on Ps. 68 7. The heading in List III is much 
simpler, viz. on^DKn 'ki '2 wyp^. 

n'cpnn = § 988. 

D'H'OK they are bound, occurs three times in the Scriptures, 
This Rubric,' which does not occur in the printed Massorah and 
which I have found in Harley 5710—11 only, Vol. I, foL 266, 
on Gen. 39 20, is incorrect, since this participle plural occurs 
six times. Comp. also Ps. 146 7; Job 36 8; Neh. 4 12. The heading 
was most probably added by a later Nakdan to an incipient List 

O'Bpnn = § 989. 

^^K occurs twice in two different tente*. That is, in Isaiah it 
denotes a prtwmef whilst in Exodus it is a proper name, Assir 



K — R § 990—996. 



— 119 



§ 996-1001. R — H 



one of the sons of Korah. As both these expressions respectively 
occur several times ^ it is evident that the design of this Massorah 
is not to record the number of instances, but to emphasize the 
fact that this word is used in two different senses, and the two 
passages" adduced are simply designed to illustrate this statement 
This Rubric, which does not occur in the printed Massorah^ is 
from "Vienna Codex No. 36 on Exod. 6 24. 

• Comp. ■"?« A*nr also 1 Chron. 6 7, 22; once "»«» defective 1 Ghron. S 17; 
ind -rtif a pritoner Isa. 10 4; 24 22. 

v'pnn = § 990. 

^0^ '*19^* ^*«''«'«»* <*" triliteral is a proper name it u 
ffffi toith Kametz under the Sameeh and when it is the preterite third 
perion eingular masculine, denoting to gather &c. it is nnt urith 
Pathach under the Sameeh. This Rubric, which does not occur in 
the printed Massorah, is from Harley 5710—11, Vol. II, fol. 1085, 
on 1 Chron. 6 24. 

rXpDfl = § 991. 

7P PpK* The verb tjOM in all its furms is normally construed 
toith the preposition -^|t except in three instances where it is combined 
with -bj. This Rubric, which does not occur in the printed 
Massorah, is from Harley 5710—11, Vol. I, fol, 255 i, on 2 Kings 22 20. 
It will be seen that Jerem. 47 6 which is in the received text 
"^'poRTi is given in this Rubric as the second instance where 
it is -^j »ibk; whilst Amos 3 9 which is -bv iBC|n in the textus 
reeeptus is here omitted. In the printed Massorah on Amos 3 9 
where this abnormal construction is mentioned, Jacob b. Chayim 
refers to the Massorah Finalis for the Rubric and in the 
Massorah Finalis he